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7/13/10

4:29 PM

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U.S. Department of Justice

U.S. Department of Justice

The National Strategy for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction

A REPORT TO CONGRESS AUGUST 2010

I.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................. 1

II. A GRAVE THREAT TO A PRECIOUS RESOURCE: AN ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT CHILD EXPLOITATION THREATS .................................................... 8 A.

CHILD PORNOGRAPHY— IMAGES OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE ......................... 8 1. 2. 3. 4.

B.

CHILD PORNOGRAPHY OFFENSES PRESENT A REAL THREAT TO CHILDREN. ........................... 9 CHILD PORNOGRAPHERS ARE INCREASING THEIR EFFORTS TO AVOID BEING IDENTIFIED. ... 23 ORGANIZED CRIMINAL GROUPS ARE INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHILD PORNOGRAPHY. ....................................................................................................... 25 LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES ARE FOCUSING ON FACTORS THAT MAY HELP PREDICT CHILD PORNOGRAPHERS WHO POSE A GREATER RISK TO CHILDREN. ............................................. 27 ONLINE ENTICEMENT .................................................................................................. 29

1. 2. C.

ONLINE ENTICEMENT COMPLAINTS ARE INCREASING, DRAWING MORE LAW ENFORCEMENT RESOURCES INTO COMPLEX AND TIME-CONSUMING INVESTIGATIONS. ............................... 30 ONLINE PREDATORS DEMONSTRATE GREAT PATIENCE IN MANIPULATING CHILDREN INTO VULNERABLE SITUATIONS. ................................................................................................. 30 THE DOMESTIC PROSTITUTION OF CHILDREN .................................................. 31

1. 2. 3.

4.

D.

PIMPS PREY ON VULNERABLE CHILDREN, MANIPULATING THEM AND THEN TRAPPING THEM IN CHILD PROSTITUTION. .................................................................................................... 31 THERE IS STEADY DEMAND AND PROFIT IN THE PROSTITUTION OF CHILDREN. .................... 32 CHILD VICTIMS OF PROSTITUTION—THE VICTIMS OF COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION—ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE ARRESTED THAN ARE THE CHILD SEX TRAFFICKERS OR CLIENT SEX OFFENDERS. ......................................................................... 34 CHILD VICTIMS OF PROSTITUTION SUFFER EXTREME FORMS OF EXPLOITATION AND OFTEN ARE UNABLE, EVEN IF RESCUED, TO PERMANENTLY ESCAPE THE INFLUENCE OF TRAFFICKERS. .................................................................................................................... 35 CHILD SEX TOURISM..................................................................................................... 36

1. 2. 3. E.

U.S. CITIZENS ACCOUNT FOR A LARGE PORTION OF INTERNATIONAL CHILD SEX TOURISTS AND THEIR NUMBERS ARE GROWING. ................................................................................. 36 CHILD SEX TOURISTS OFTEN ENGAGE IN MANY FORMS OF CHILD EXPLOITATION, CAUSING EXTREME AND LASTING DAMAGE TO VICTIMS. ................................................................... 37 INVESTIGATING AND PROSECUTING AMERICAN CHILD SEX TOURISTS IS VERY DIFFICULT; HOWEVER, A CHANGE IN CHILD EXPLOITATION LAWS HAS AIDED PROSECUTORS................ 37 CHILD EXPLOITATION IN INDIAN COUNTRY ....................................................... 38

III. THE NATION’S APPROACH TO COMBATTING CHILD EXPLOITATION........ 41 A.

A REVIEW OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE’S OFFICES INVOLVED IN THE FIGHT TO PREVENT, INVESTIGATE, AND PROSECUTE CHILD EXPLOITATION CRIMES .............................................................................................. 41 1. 2. 3.

OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY ATTORNEY GENERAL ................................................................... 42 THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION........................................................................ 42 UNITED STATES MARSHALS SERVICE ................................................................................ 46 i

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. B.

UNITED STATES ATTORNEY’S OFFICES .............................................................................. 47 CRIMINAL DIVISION’S CHILD EXPLOITATION AND OBSCENITY SECTION (CEOS) ............. 47 OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS (OJP) ................................................................................ 50 BUREAU OF PRISONS .......................................................................................................... 54 OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) ...................................... 56 OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (OIA) ...................................................................... 56 OFFICE OF LEGAL POLICY (OLP) ....................................................................................... 56 INTERPOL WASHINGTON .................................................................................................... 57

A REVIEW OF THE INTERNET CRIMES AGAINST CHILDREN TASK FORCE PROGRAM ......................................................................................................................... 58 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

C.

BACKGROUND ON THE ICAC PROGRAM ............................................................................ 58 NUMBER AND LOCATION OF ICAC TASK FORCES ............................................................. 60 NUMBER OF TRAINED PERSONNEL AT EACH ICAC TASK FORCE ...................................... 63 FEDERAL GRANTS AWARDED TO EACH TASK FORCE ........................................................ 64 ASSESSMENT OF FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL COOPERATION ......................................... 67 INVESTIGATIVE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY ICAC TASK FORCES. ................... 74 COMPUTER FORENSIC EXAMINATIONS BY ICAC TASK FORCES. ........................................ 76 NUMBER AND TYPE OF ICAC TASK FORCE AFFILIATE AGENCIES....................................... 78 ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO SUPPORT ICAC GRANTEES. .. 78 ASSESSMENT OF LEVERAGING STATE AND LOCAL FUNDS. ................................................. 81

OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES’ EFFORTS ................................................................. 81 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

D.

DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY’S EFFORTS.......................................................... 81 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S EFFORTS............................................................................... 86 U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE EFFORTS ..................................................................... 87 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EFFORTS .............................................. 89 MILITARY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ORGANIZATIONS (MCIO) EFFORTS ........................ 91 PUBLIC-PRIVATE COORDINATION EFFORTS TO PREVENT AND INTERDICT CHILD EXPLOITATION ................................................................................................. 93

1. 2. E.

THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING & EXPLOITED CHILDREN (NCMEC) ..................... 93 OTHER EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE COORDINATION ................................................... 95 A REVIEW OF THE DEPARTMENT’S COOPERATION AND COORDINATION EFFORTS ............................................................................................................................ 97

1. 2. 3. 4. F.

OVERARCHING EFFORTS TO COORDINATE CHILD EXPLOITATION, PREVENTION, AND INTERDICTION .................................................................................................................... 98 FBI’S LAW ENFORCEMENT COORDINATION EFFORTS........................................................ 99 EFFORTS TO COORDINATE WITH THE JUDICIAL BRANCH ................................................. 100 INTERNATIONAL COORDINATION EFFORTS TO PREVENT AND INTERDICT CHILD EXPLOITATION ................................................................................................................. 100 REVIEW OF INTERNET SAFETY PROGRAMS ...................................................... 110

1. 2. 3.

METHODOLOGY OF REVIEW ............................................................................................. 111 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FUNDED PROGRAMS ........................................................ 112 FTC and U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FUNDED PROGRAMS................................... 116 ii

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FUNDED PROGRAMS ................................................. 117 FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION FUNDED PROGRAM: E-RATE ........................ 117 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FUNDED PROGRAM: TECHNOLOGY 4-H ............... 117 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FUNDED PROGRAM: 4GIRLS HEALTH: HOW TO BE SAFETY SAVVY ............................................................................. 118 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY .................................................................. 118 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FUNDED PROGRAM: SAFEKIDS ..................................... 118 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) FUNDED PROGRAM: NASAEXPLORES CYBERSAFETY ...................................................................................... 119 INTERAGENCY/FEDERAL–STATE COLLABORATION FUNDED PROGRAM .......................... 119 “I Keep Safe”—Faux Pas, the Techno Cat ..................................................................... 119 CONGRESSIONALLY MANDATED - FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH ................................ 120 National Academy of Sciences Study: Youth, Pornography, and the Internet .............. 120 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE-FUNDED RESEARCH ........................................................ 120 Crimes against Children Research Center Juvenile Online Victimization Study ........... 120

G. RESULTS OF THE 2008 PROJECT SAFE CHILDHOOD CONFERENCE ........... 129 H. CHILD EXPLOITATION COMPUTER FORENSICS ............................................... 130 1. 2. 3. 4.

STATE AND LOCAL AGENCIES .......................................................................................... 130 FBI COMPUTER ANALYSIS RESPONSE TEAM AND REGIONAL COMPUTER FORENSIC LABORATORY PROGRAMS ................................................................................................ 131 U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE DIGITAL EVIDENCE UNIT .......................................... 133 ICE FORENSICS ................................................................................................................ 134

IV. FIGHTING THE THREAT GOING FORWARD ........................................................ 137 A.

THE NATIONAL STRATEGY’S BROAD GOALS .................................................... 137

B.

GOALS TO ADDRESS DANGERS IDENTIFIED BY THE THREAT ASSESSMENT ...... 138

1. 2. 3. 4. C.

CHILD PORNOGRAPHY AND ONLINE EXPLOITATION ........................................................ 138 THE DOMESTIC PROSTITUTION OF CHILDREN .................................................................. 139 CHILD SEX TOURISM ....................................................................................................... 140 INDIAN COUNTRY ............................................................................................................ 140 PROGRAMMATIC GOALS........................................................................................... 141

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D.

SUPPORTING AND INCREASING OUTREACH AND EDUCATION. ........................................... 141 CREATING AND DISSEMINATING A NATIONAL DATABASE TO AID IN INVESTIGATIONS. ..... 141 INCREASING PROSECUTIONS AND PROSECUTION TRAINING. ............................................. 142 CONTINUING COOPERATION AND INCREASING COLLABORATION...................................... 142 SUPPORTING AND REVIEWING OF RELEVANT RESEARCH. ................................................. 142 DEPARTMENTAL COMPONENT GOALS ................................................................ 143

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

U.S. ATTORNEY’S OFFICES .............................................................................................. 143 CEOS .............................................................................................................................. 143 OJP .................................................................................................................................. 143 FBI .................................................................................................................................. 144 UNITED STATES MARSHALS SERVICE .............................................................................. 144 INTERPOL WASHINGTON .................................................................................................. 144 iii

V.

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................. 144

APPENDIX A:

THREAT ASSESSMENT: LAW ENFORCEMENT OPERATIONS

APPENDIX B:

THREAT ASSESSMENT: FEDERAL PROSECUTIONS

APPENDIX C:

THREAT ASSESSMENT: ACADEMIC RESEARCH

APPENDIX D:

THREAT ASSESSMENT: GOVERNMENTAL, NGO, AND OTHER AGENCY REPORTS AND DATA

APPENDIX E:

DEPARTMENT-FUNDED RESEARCH

APPENDIX F:

SYNTHESIS OF MAJOR STUDIES

iv

THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR CHILD EXPLOITATION PREVENTION AND INTERDICTION A REPORT TO CONGRESS JULY 2010

“There can be no keener revelation of a society’s soul than the way in which it treats its children.”1 “Given the current statistics surrounding child pornography, we are living in a country that is losing its soul.”2

I.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The sexual abuse and exploitation of children rob the victims of their childhood, irrevocably interfering with their emotional and psychological development. Ensuring that all children come of age without being disturbed by sexual trauma or exploitation is more than a criminal justice issue, it is a societal issue. Despite efforts to date, the threat of child sexual exploitation remains very real, whether it takes place in the home, on the street, over the Internet, or in a foreign land. Because the sexual abuse and exploitation of children strikes at the very foundation of our society, it will take our entire society to combat this affront to the public welfare. Therefore, this National Strategy lays out a comprehensive response to protect the right of children to be free from sexual abuse and to protect society from the cost imposed by this crime. In the broadest terms, the goal of this National Strategy is to prevent child sexual exploitation from occurring in the first place, in order to protect every child’s opportunity and right to have a childhood that is free from sexual abuse, trauma, and exploitation so that they can become the adults they were meant to be. This Strategy will accomplish that goal by efficiently leveraging assets across the federal government in a coordinated manner. All entities with a stake in the fight against child exploitation—from federal agencies and investigators and prosecutors, to social service providers, educators, medical professionals, academics, non-governmental organizations, and members of industry, as well as parents, caregivers, and the threatened children themselves—are called upon to do their part to prevent these crimes, care for the victims, and rehabilitate the offenders. Background In 2008, Congress passed and President Bush signed the Providing Resources, Officers, and Technology to Eradicate Cyber Threats to Our Children Act of 2008 (the “PROTECT Our Children Act” or the “Act”). This Act requires the Department of Justice (the “Department”) to formulate and implement a National Strategy to combat child exploitation. The Act also requires the Department to submit a report on the National Strategy (the “National Strategy” or “Report”) to Congress every other year. The Act mandates that the National Strategy contain a significant 1 2

Nelson Mandela The Honorable John Adams, Northern District of Ohio, U.S. v. Cunningham, 1:09-CR-00154-JRA.

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amount of information, including: (1) an assessment of the magnitude of child exploitation;3 (2) a review of the Department and other state and federal agencies’ efforts to coordinate and combat child exploitation;4 and (3) a proposed set of goals and priorities for reducing child exploitation.5 In this inaugural National Strategy report, the Department describes its first-ever threat assessment of the danger that faces the nation’s children, its current efforts to combat child exploitation, and posits some goals and plans to fight the threats that are facing our Nation’s children. The Threat Assessment This Report attempts to marshal a massive amount of information about the nature of the child exploitation problem and the significant efforts being undertaken by federal, state, and local agencies to address this epidemic. To evaluate the extent and forms of child exploitation, between approximately February 2009 and February 2010, the National Drug Intelligence Center (“NDIC”) prepared a threat assessment (the “Threat Assessment” or “Assessment”) that is summarized in this Report. In conducting the Threat Assessment, NDIC interviewed over a hundred prosecutors, investigators, and other experts in the field, conducted interviews to collect information, reviewed thousands of pages of documents from investigations, cases, relevant research, and analyzed data from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. In addition to conducting the Threat Assessment, the Department and the Library of Congress have gathered and reviewed an extensive amount of studies and research relevant to the field of child exploitation to help inform the Department and its partners of the most recent information available from academia on this subject.6 The Threat Assessment research indicates that the threat to our nation’s children of becoming a victim of child exploitation is a very serious one. For example, investigators and prosecutors report dramatic increases in the number, and violent character, of the sexually abusive images of children being trafficked through the Internet. They also report the disturbing trend of younger children depicted in these images, even including toddlers and infants. Further, offenders have become proficient at enticing children to engage in risky behavior, like agreeing to meet for sexual activity, or even to display themselves engaging in sexual activity through images or webcams. In addition, the offenders have been able to master Internet technologies to better mask their identities. To address the threat to our nation’s children, the National Strategy focuses on the following types of child sexual exploitation: (1) child pornography, often called images of child sexual abuse; (2) online enticement of children for sexual purposes; (3) commercial sexual exploitation of children, and (4) child sex tourism. Child Pornography: The expansion of the Internet has led to an explosion in the market for child pornography, making it easier to create, access, and distribute these images of abuse. While “child pornography” is the term commonly used by lawmakers, prosecutors, investigators, and 3

See the Act, Section 101(c)(16-17). See the Act, Section 101(c)(5-13, 15, 20). 5 See the Act, Section 101(c)(1-4, 14). 6 See Appendices E and F. 4

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the public to describe this form of sexual exploitation of children, that term largely fails to describe the true horror that is faced by hundreds of thousands of children every year. The child victims are first sexually assaulted in order to produce the vile, and often violent, images. They are then victimized again when these images of their sexual assault are traded over the Internet in massive numbers by like-minded people across the globe. The anonymity afforded by the Internet makes the offenders more difficult to locate, and makes them bolder in their actions. Investigations show that offenders often gather in communities over the Internet where trading of these images is just one component of a larger relationship that is premised on a shared sexual interest in children. This has the effect of eroding the shame that typically would accompany this behavior, and desensitizing those involved to the physical and psychological damage caused to the children involved. This self-reinforcing cycle is fueling ever greater demand in the market for these images. In the world of child pornography, this demand drives supply. The individual collector who methodically gathers one image after another has the effect of validating the production of the image, which leads only to more production. Because the Internet has blurred traditional notions of jurisdiction and sovereignty, this urgent crime problem is truly global in scope, and requires a coordinated national and international response. Online Enticement of Children: Child predators often use the internet to identify, and then coerce, their victims to engage in illegal sex acts. These criminals will lurk in chat rooms or on bulletin board websites that are popular with children and teenagers. They will gain the child’s confidence and trust, and will then direct the conversation to sexual topics. Sometimes they send the child sexually explicit images of themselves, or they may request that the child send them pornographic images of themselves. Often, the defendants plan a face-to-face for the purpose of engaging in sex acts. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Children are being recruited and coerced into the world of prostitution in our own cities. Teen runaways - who are often trying to escape abusive homes – may turn to prostitution as a means of survival. They also frequently fall prey to “pimps” who lure them in with an offer of food, clothes, attention, friendship, love, and a seemingly safe place to sleep. Once the pimps gain this control over the children, they often use acts of violence, intimidation, or psychological manipulation to trap the children in a life of prostitution. Pimps will also cause the children to become addicted to drugs or alcohol (or will increase the severity of a pre-existing addiction) in order to ensure complicity. These children are taught to lie about their age and are given fake ID. They are also trained not to trust law enforcement and to lie to protect their pimps. As a result, these victims are often not recognized as victims, and may be arrested and jailed. The dangers faced by these children– from the pimps, from their associates, and from customers—are severe. These children become hardened by the treacherous street environment in which they must learn to survive. As such, they do not always outwardly present as sympathetic victims. These child victims need specialized services that are not widely available given that they often present with illnesses, drug additions, physical and sexual trauma, lack of viable family and community ties, and total dependence – physical and psychological – on their abusers, the pimps.

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Child Sex Tourism: “Child sex tourism” refers to Americans or U.S. resident aliens traveling abroad for the purpose of sexually abusing foreign children (usually in economically disadvantaged countries). Americans, capitalizing on their relative wealth and the lack of effective law enforcement in the destination countries, easily purchase access to young children to engage in illicit sex acts, sometimes for as little as $5. Like child pornography and other Internet-facilitated crimes against children, the Internet has revolutionized the child sex tourism industry. As a result, a new, emboldened crop of offenders are finding the navigation of travel in developing countries much easier than in the past. Additionally, the Internet allows like-minded offenders to gather and exchange information on how and where to find child victims in these foreign locations, making the offenders better informed about where sex tourism is prevalent and where law enforcement is lax. Numerous countries in Southeast Asia are so well-known for child sex tourism that there are entire neighborhoods which are considered brothels, and there are open-air markets where children can be purchased for sex. In short, the threat of sexual exploitation faced by children today is very real. Brief Overview of the Nation’s Efforts to Combat Child Exploitation While the threat has increased, so, too, have the resources dedicated to addressing this issue. This Report provides an overview of the significant efforts of the Department and numerous other federal, state, and local agencies that are working to prevent and interdict child exploitation. The efforts are multi-faceted and many of these groups work cooperatively to address this ever-expanding problem. The Department has a number of components, offices, and agencies that devote personnel, resources, and time to the issue of preventing, investigating, and prosecuting child exploitation, as well as to providing services to victims and families. These components include, but are not limited to: the Office of the Deputy Attorney General (ODAG), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Marshals Service, Interpol Washington, the U.S. Attorney’s Offices, the Criminal Division’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS), and the Office of Justice Programs (OJP). The ODAG helps to direct all of the Department’s efforts to combat child exploitation. The Department has appointed a National Coordinator for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction, who is an official within the Office of the Deputy Attorney General. The FBI leads the Department’s investigative efforts and as a part of that mandate created the Innocent Images National Initiative which focuses on technology-facilitated child exploitation. Between 1996 and 2007, there was a 2062% increase in child exploitation investigations throughout the FBI. In 2004, the FBI launched the Innocent Images International Task Force, which has brought dozens of investigators from all over the world to train with the FBI and foster international cooperation in the global fight against child exploitation. The Marshals Service is tasked under the Adam Walsh Act with the primary responsibility for locating and apprehending sex offenders who have failed to register on a sex offender registry. As part of the Adam Walsh Act, the Marshals Service has three principle responsibilities: 4

assisting state, local, tribal and territorial authorities in the location and apprehension of noncompliant and fugitive sex offenders; investigating violations of the Adam Walsh Act for federal prosecution; and assisting in the identification and location of sex offenders relocated as a result of a major disaster. Dozens of Deputy U.S. Marshals lead task forces of federal, state, and local partners to track down and apprehend these offenders. In addition, the Marshals Service has formed a Sex Offender Investigations Branch. In Fiscal Year 2009, this Branch arrested more than 10,000 fugitives, wanted for failing to register and/or actual sex offenses, and conducted thousands of compliance checks. INTERPOL Washington is the official U.S. representative to the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL). As the national point of contact for INTERPOL in the United States, INTERPOL Washington routinely exchanges criminal investigative data with international counterparts on behalf of the more than 18,000 federal, state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies in the United States. In addition to providing support to NCMEC, ICE and the FBI, INTERPOL Washington tracks sex offenders who travel overseas, and coordinates a number of international alerts relating to child exploitation. The 94 United States Attorney’s Offices prosecute federal child exploitation cases throughout the country and coordinate Project Safe Childhood within their districts, the Department’s 2006 national initiative to marshal federal, state, and local resources to prevent and interdict child exploitation. Since 2006, the number of cases and defendants prosecuted by United States Attorney’s Offices has increased by 40%, with 2,315 indictments against 2,427 defendants filed in Fiscal Year 2009. CEOS, situated within the Department’s Criminal Division, consists of approximately twenty attorneys and a six-person High Technology Investigative Unit (“HTIU”). CEOS leads the Criminal Division’s campaign against the sexual exploitation of children by investigating and prosecuting the most challenging child sexual exploitation cases, and then by drawing from those experiences to shape domestic and international policy, launch nationwide investigations against the worst offenders, and provide guidance and training to other prosecutors and agents, both within and outside the federal government. CEOS is able to leverage a small amount of resources into extraordinary results. For example, in the last three years CEOS has spearheaded 18 national operations that have resulted in the investigation of over 2,000 individuals.   Since 2001, the number of cases and investigations handled by CEOS Trial Attorneys has increased by 1,100%. The OJP oversees the disbursement of millions of dollars in grants to federal, state, and local agencies to aid in the fight against child exploitation. OJP’s efforts help provide communication and coordination to dozens of groups, including the Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Force Program which is a fundamental component to our Nation’s fight against child exploitation. Since 1998, the Department, through the Office of Justice Programs, has funded the ICACs which are a collection of 61 separate tasks forces throughout the country, with at least one in each state, that work to coordinate federal, state, local and tribal investigative and prosecution agencies to coordinate efforts to interdict child exploitation. Since 1998, ICAC task forces have arrested nearly 17,000 offenders.

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Moreover, there are numerous other Federal agencies that are partners in the fight against child exploitation. This includes the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Department of Homeland Security through Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the United States Secret Service, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Defense, the Department of State, the Department of Labor, and the Department of Commerce. Nongovernmental organizations work alongside federal, state, local, and tribal partners to combat child exploitation as well. These include the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Child Help, Darkness to Light, Girls Educational and Mentoring Services, Inc., Enough is Enough, i-Safe, Kristi House, Inc., Nevada Child Seekers, Paul and Lisa Program, Inc., Web Wise Kids, San Diego Police Foundation, Self-Reliance Foundation, Washtenaw Area Council for Children, INOBTR, TechMissionYouth Program, PROTECT, ECPAT-USA, and many others. One of the chief mandates of the Act was that the Department expand its efforts to coordinate and cooperate with federal, state, local and international organizations and agencies to combat this scourge. While the Department has long coordinated with all levels of government within the United States and with law enforcement internationally to fight child exploitation, additional high-level working meetings have begun between the Department and other federal government agencies, as well as state, local, and international partners. The Department already belongs to several inter-agency working groups related to child exploitation, like the Federal Inter-Agency Task Force on Missing and Exploited Children. Additionally, the Department provides funding for the Amber Alert program, many child advocacy centers, and many state and local agencies through grants and funding administered by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Justice, the Office for Victims of Crime, and others. The Continuing Fight Against Child Exploitation As outlined in this Report, the Department is diligently working to combat child exploitation. For example, the Department has increased the number of agents and prosecutors dedicated to child exploitation cases. The FBI has increased the digital forensic capacity at Regional Computer Forensics Labs, which will lead to more expeditious reviews of the critical evidence in these cases. The Department has funded, and will continue to fund, the ICAC Task Force Program. CEOS advises and provides training to the nation’s prosecutors, and also conducts high-tech and complex investigations. The U.S. Marshals pursue and have successfully captured thousands of individuals who abscond from their responsibility to register as sex offenders and those who offend and become fugitives. However, as the Threat Assessment evidences, more work must be done to combat the expanding number of predators and, more importantly, to prevent them from harming a child in the first instance. At its core, the goal of this National Strategy is to reduce the incidence of the sexual exploitation of children. This goal is the guiding principle for all the Department’s current and future efforts. The Department’s approach for achieving this goal is multifaceted and includes: (1) an overarching statement of broad goals that will be used to direct the National Strategy; (2) more specific goals to address the dangers identified by the Threat Assessment; (3) programmatic 6

goals that can provide some measurable information and results to help guide the Strategy going forward; and (4) individualized goals by relevant Department components that are designed to support both the broad goals of the Strategy and the programmatic goals of the Department. The following broad goals will direct the effort of the National Strategy going forward. 1. The Department will continue to partner closely with state, local, tribal, and nongovernmental entities, as well as other federal agencies and the private sector to implement the National Strategy in a coordinated fashion. 2. The Department will increase its commitment to a leadership role in finding a global solution to the transnational problem of the sexual exploitation of children. 3. The Department will continue to partner with Industry to develop objectives to reduce the exchange of child pornography. 4. The Department will explore opportunities to increase the education and awareness of federal, state, local and tribal judges of the difficult issues involved in child sexual exploitation. 5. The Department will work toward improving the quality, effectiveness, and timeliness of computer forensic investigations and analysis. 6. The Department will increase its commitment to effective and sophisticated training for prosecutors and investigators. 7. The Department will build on the success of the Project Safe Childhood initiative. Beyond these broad goals, this National Strategy seeks to best marshal all of the Department’s resources in a more coordinated, integrated, and strategic way. As outlined in this Report, the Department, in partnership and cooperation with other federal, state, local, tribal, and international partners is aggressively pursuing those who would steal the innocence from the soul of our children. Thousands of federal, state, and local investigators and prosecutors, without fanfare or even adequate public recognition of the difficulty of their work, fight this battle fiercely every day. Dedicated professionals in non-governmental organizations, child protective services, and child advocacy centers devote massive time and energy to protecting children, again largely without society fully recognizing the importance of their work. This National Strategy outlines how we will, and must, act together as a nation to protect our children and provides a unique opportunity for us to act together as a nation to protect, as Nelson Mandela said, our society’s soul by vigorously pursuing those who violate our children.

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II.

A GRAVE THREAT TO A PRECIOUS RESOURCE: AN ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT CHILD EXPLOITATION THREATS

In 2008, the enactment of the PROTECT Our Children Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-401, hereafter, “the Act”) required that the Department of Justice (the “Department”) conduct a threat assessment of the risks posed to children by child exploitation. The National Child Exploitation Threat Assessment 2010 (the “Threat Assessment” or “Assessment”) is the first national assessment by the Federal government of the risks posed by child exploitation.7 To complete the Assessment, the National Drug Intelligence Center (“NDIC”) invested more than a year of its time and interviewed more than one hundred child exploitation prosecutors, investigators, and experts in the field, and reviewed thousands of pages of documents from investigations, criminal cases, research studies, and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children to compile this Assessment. The Department determined that, in order to report to Congress on the threat that child exploitation presents, any assessment should focus on five key areas: (1) child pornography, often called images of child sexual abuse; (2) online enticement of children for sexual purposes; (3) commercial sexual exploitation of children, (4) child sex tourism; and (5) child exploitation in Indian Country. These five areas form the bulk of federal child exploitation investigations by federal, state, local, and tribal investigators. This Report provides a summary of the findings of the Assessment relating to these five areas.8 The results of the Threat Assessment reveal that there has been a dramatic increase in cases of sexual exploitation of children, including the possession, distribution, and manufacture of child pornography; the online enticement of children for sexual acts; commercial sexual exploitation of children; child sex tourism; and child sexual molestation, since the 1990s. For example, in 2006 U.S. Attorneys handled 82.8 percent more child pornography cases than they had in 1994. State and local law enforcement agencies involved in Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces reported a 230 percent increase in the number of documented complaints of online enticement of children from 2004 to 2008. In the same time period ICAC Task Forces noted a more than thousand percent increase in complaints of child prostitution. A. Child Pornography— Images of Child Sexual Abuse Child pornography refers to the possession, trade, advertising, and production of images that depict the sexual abuse of children. The term child pornography is used throughout this Assessment because it is the legal and accepted term for images of child sexual abuse; however, many experts in the field believe that use of that term contributes to a fundamental misunderstanding of the crime—one that focuses on the possession or trading of a picture and leaves the impression that what is depicted in the photograph is pornography. Child pornography is unrelated to adult pornography; it clearly involves the criminal depiction and memorializing of the sexual assault of children and the criminal sharing, collecting, and marketing of the images. 7

Findings presented within this Assessment are supported by available data, information, and anecdotes from national law enforcement operations, federal child exploitation prosecutions, and academic research, as well as from governmental and nongovernmental agencies (NGOs) found in the appendices. 8 Attached to this Report are several appendices that provide additional details relating to the findings of the Threat Assessment. See Appendices A-D.

8

State and federal investigators and prosecutors universally report seeing dramatic increases in the number of child pornography images traded on the Internet, the number of child pornography offenders, and the number of children victimized by child pornography. They also report an increase in the sadistic and violent conduct depicted in child pornography images and that they are encountering more young victims than before—particularly infants and toddlers. In addition, law enforcement officers and prosecutors interviewed for this Assessment universally report connections between child pornography offenses and sexual contact offenses against children. The Internet and advances in digital technology have provided fertile ground for offenders to obtain child pornography, share child pornography, produce child pornography, advertise child pornography, and sell child pornography. The Internet also has allowed offenders to form online communities with global membership not only to facilitate the trading and collection of these images, but also to facilitate contact (with each other and children) and to create support networks among offenders. Rather than simply downloading or uploading images of child pornography to and from the Internet, offenders also use current technologies to talk about their sexual interest in children, to trade comments about the abuse depicted in particular images— even as images are shared real-time—to validate each other’s behavior, to share experiences, and share images of themselves abusing children as they do so. This Section provides an overview of the Threat Assessment findings as they relate to child pornography which include the following: (1) research that indicates child pornography poses a danger to both the victims and other children; (2) indicators that suggest a significant increase in the proliferation of child pornography; (3) evidence that child pornographers are becoming more sophisticated in the production and distribution of materials; and (4) information that organized crime syndicates are involved in the child pornography trade. In addition, this Section outlines some of the steps that law enforcement agencies are taking to identify the most dangerous child pornographers. 1. Child pornography offenses present a real threat to children. The children whose abuse is captured in child pornography images suffer not just from the sexual abuse graphically memorialized in the images, but also from a separate victimization, knowing that the images of that abuse are accessible, usually on the Internet, and are traded by other offenders who receive sexual gratification from the children’s distress. According to academic researchers, medical professionals, and child pornography victims themselves, knowing that all copies of child pornography images can never be retrieved compounds the victimization. The shame suffered by the children is intensified by the fact that the sexual abuse was captured in images easily available for others to see and revictimizes the children by using those images for sexual gratification. Unlike children who suffer from abuse without the production of images of that abuse, these children struggle to find closure and may be more prone to feelings of helplessness and lack of control, given that the images cannot be retrieved and are available for others to see in perpetuity. They experience anxiety as a result of the perpetual fear of humiliation that they will be recognized from the images. This harm is best described by the mother of a victim.

9

A Mother’s Story of Child Pornography Victimization [M]y daughter was abused repeatedly to produce images for the purpose of being traded [and] shared over the [I]nternet. Without a market to receive and trade those images, without the encouragement of those who wanted to acquire the images, I truly believe this abuse would not have occurred. All those who trade these images and thereby create the demand for lurid and violent depictions of children are participants in the exploitation of my daughter. Each traded picture that placed a value on inventiveness, novelty, or cruelty played a role in egging on the abuser to even more vile acts. The pictures of my daughter were ‘made for trade’— her abuser adapted to serve his market— whatever his audience was looking to acquire, that’s what happened to her ... Producer, distributor, and consumer-—everyone who participates in this evil exchange helps create a market, casting a vote for the next abuse. Regardless of whether they directly abused children themselves, reveled in the images of suffering, or persuaded others to abuse children on their behalf (to provide images of the abuse) each participant has a responsibility for the effects... [A] shadow... comes over her face if a stranger gives her an expected compliment. The pictures are still out there... Now that she’s growing older and realizing the extent of the [I]nternet, she’s also beginning to grasp the darker side of the story— how many people see those same pictures as something to enjoy rather than abhor. We have no way of knowing how many pedophiles used the pictures of her being tortured and degraded as an opportunity for personal gratification ... I can find no words to express the fury I feel at those who participate in this evil, or my scorn for any attempt to minimize responsibility by feeble claims that the crime was ‘victimless.’ My daughter is a real person. She was horribly victimized to provide this source of ‘entertainment.” She is exploited anew each and every time an image of her suffering is copied, traded, or sold. While the crime is clearly conscienceless, it is hardly ‘victimless.’ I asked my daughter what she most wanted to ask of the judge. Her request: “Please, don’t let them pretend no one’s getting hurt.”

10

a. Available indicators suggest child pornography is increasing. i. Indicators relating to the volume of child pornography. Experts interviewed for this Assessment, most of whom have Between 2005 and 2009, the National Center for longtime experience in this area of Missing & Exploited Children’s Child Victim law enforcement, concluded that the Identification Program has seen a 432% increase in market—in term of numbers of child pornography movies and files submitted for offenders, images, and victims—has identification of the children depicted. been trending significantly upward. Approximately two-thirds of the child exploitation experts interviewed by NDIC for this Assessment reported that child pornography either is growing exponentially or there has been an overwhelming increase in the volume of child pornography images available.9 For example, Cybertipline reports, sent by electronic service providers and the public to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (“NCMEC”), increased by 69% between 2005 and 2009. Additionally, NCMEC’s Child Victim Identification Program has seen a 432% increase in child pornography movies and files submitted for identification of the children depicted during that same time period. However, precisely quantifying the volume of the child pornography market is impossible; the number of offenders accessing the images and videos and the quantity of images and videos being traded is unknown. Although documenting the precise quantity of child pornography is difficult, it is evident that technological advances have contributed significantly to the overall increase in the child pornography threat. Offenders can easily produce child sex abuse images using digital technologies and distribute the images over the Internet. From 2005 through 2009, U.S. Attorneys prosecuted 8,352 child pornography cases, and in most instances, the offenders used digital technologies and the Internet to produce, view, store, advertise, or distribute child pornography. Prior to the mid-1990s, Internet access and the availability of digital home recording devices (still, video, and web cameras) were very limited, thereby confining the production and distribution of child pornography material to relatively few individuals. Today, the ease with which a person can move from viewing child pornography to producing and distributing child pornography is illustrated in numerous cases.10 In addition, advances in computer memory storage, the speed of downloading and uploading, and advances in file sharing technologies make it very easy to quickly transfer or receive large volumes of child sex abuse images. Numerous technologies are used by offenders—including P2P networks, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), newsgroups, bulletin boards, photo sharing sites, and social networking sites, among others. Experts posit, and common sense suggests, that the easy accessibility to this material online draws new offenders to the crime. As home digital recording and computer technology have improved and child pornography production and sharing have increased, so too have the illicit images and videos typically stored 9

See Appendix D. See Appendix A, Operation Hamlet, and Appendix B, U.S. v. Witt.

10

11

by offenders. Increased home computer storage capacity has enabled many child pornography offenders to store huge collections of images (some containing 1 million) and numerous video files (often 1 hour in length).11 For example, more than 15,000 stored videos were found on various media and the offender’s computer in Philadelphia in 2007. Holding vast libraries of child pornography material enables offenders to share more illicit images and videos of greater variety than was possible in past years. ii. Research relating to the number of computers or computer users engaging in Peer-to-Peer file sharing of child pornography. The Act specifically directs the Department to evaluate data relating to the overall magnitude of child pornography trafficking including the number of computers with which offenders view child pornography or engage in peer-to-peer file sharing.12 At this time, there is no method for identifying every individual that views or facilitates the production or sharing of child pornography. Similarly, at this time, it is not possible to provide a definitive number of computers or computer users engaged in peer-to-peer file sharing of child pornography because there is no surveillance mechanism to accomplish this task. However, law enforcement agencies are taking steps to address this issue by employing a variety of investigative techniques that can identify the number of unique Internet Protocol (IP) addresses linked to computers sharing known files containing child pornographic material on particular networks. In addition, the law enforcement agencies have begun to identify and catalog child pornography images. By identifying IP addresses and cataloging unique images, the law enforcement agencies can help gauge the volume of child pornography that is being distributed online. Two programs currently used by law enforcement agencies to identify IP addresses and catalog images include: Operation Fairplay, supported by the Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigations and the Palm Beach County (FL) State’s Attorney Office and Operation RoundUp, developed by the University of Massachusetts under a grant from the National Institute of Justice. Since Operation Fairplay’s inception in 2006 and Operation Roundup’s inception in late 2009, the two programs have identified over 20 million different IP addresses offering child pornography files (pictures, videos) on a Peer-to-Peer file-sharing network. Further, the programs have identified thousand of unique images. For example, Operation Fairplay has a “watch list” of 170,000 child pornography files.13 Operation RoundUp currently has a watch list of 120,000 child pornography files. In both of these tools, the files on the “watch list” are those the developers (law enforcement officers) deem to represent some of the “worst” (movies and photographs of the most violent assaults, with the youngest victims) of the child pornography images they have seen.14

11

See Appendix B, U.S. v. Merz. See the Act at Section 101(c)(16)(a-c). 13 These files are documented images of known child pornography 14 Operation Fairplay includes data for FY 2008 and data for the period January through June 2009. The number of unique IP addresses logged by law enforcement for Operation RoundUp includes data for a shorter period, because it is a new application only recently released for use by law enforcement. 12

12

These two applications (Fairplay, RoundUp) are currently the only sources of data in the United States known to the Department on the volume of child pornography traded over peer to peer networks. They do not, however, represent the total volume of child pornography traded over the Internet for these reasons: •

The number and names of child pornography files change every minute. It is therefore impossible to determine an accurate, absolute count of all child pornography files on the Internet. Both Fairplay and RoundUp limit their hits to a discrete number of known files (for technological and investigative efficiency reasons).



Some computers and computer users are exchanging files currently unknown to law enforcement or not on the watch list for Fairplay and RoundUp; those files, computers, and computer users cannot be counted.



The tools we have to monitor the trading of child pornography on the Internet work on some of the most widely used computer file sharing clients.15 There is file trading traffic, some of it presumably child pornography, on other peer-to-peer file sharing applications that are not accounted for by these tools.



Beyond peer-to-peer file sharing tools, child pornography is traded over the internet via e-mail applications, chat rooms, IRC, web site downloads and other applications. These forms of child pornography trading are not included in the counts from Operation Fairplay and RoundUp.



Not all unique IPs identified by Operations Fairplay and RoundUp represent an individual who is intentionally trading in child pornography. There have been cases identified through these operations of users who unintentionally downloaded a single file of child pornography over the Peer-to-Peer file sharing network (e.g., while searching for adult pornography). While these unintentional down loaders are contributing to the global problem of the online availability of child pornography, they are not themselves consumers of child pornography. Further, IP addresses are not static, so a consumer of child pornography may be counted numerous times by these operations as his IP address changes over time.

Over 100 search warrants have been completed from leads generated by Operation RoundUp since its initiation last year.

15

One particular network is also used because its configuration supports the efficient investigation of online transactions and because this network was specifically noted in a GAO report as a major source of pornography trading. U.S. General Accounting Office (2003). Statement of Linda D. Koontz Director, Information Management Issues. “File-Sharing Programs. Child Pornography Is Readily Accessible over Peer-to-Peer Networks.” GAO-03-537T.

13

The Table below shows the number of unique IP addresses logged by Operations Fairplay and RoundUp. Unique IP Addresses Users Engaging in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing of Child Pornography Operation Operation Fairplay Operation RoundUp Fairplay January -June 2009 October 5, 2008Fiscal Year 2008 October 4, 2009 Domestic 1,717,522 1,424,734 9,793,430 International

2,891,159

2,325,035

11,877,014

Total

4,608,681

3,749,769

21,670,444

Source: Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigations, Palm Beach County State's Attorney Office and Massachusetts State Police

The Table below shows the percentage of unique IP addresses and new GUIDs16 in the United States identified by Operation RoundUp over a 3 week period in September-October, 2009. Unique IP Addresses Users and GUIDs Engaging in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing of Child Pornography September-October, 2009 [Operation RoundUp] Date

Total Records

US Records

% US

9/19/09

US New Unique IP US IP

18,965,165

8,781,521

46.30%

1,033,134

9/27/09

20,144,735

9,226,370

45.80%

1,052,217

19,083

121,232

7,057

36.98%

9/30/09

20,862,015

9,493,631

45.51%

1,060,522

8,305

123,916

2,684

32.32%

10/3/09

21,425,113

9,698,666

45.27%

1,067,617

7,095

127,394

3,478

49.02%

10/4/09

21,670,444

9,793,430

45.19%

1,073,065

5,448

128,335

941

17.27%

Source: Massachusetts State Police

16

GUID is a unique computer identifier.

14

US GUID

New US Guid

New Guid/IP

114,175

The Figure below shows the number of files available for peer-to-peer sharing by unique IPs identified by Operation RoundUp between October 5, 2008 and October 4, 2009. Over 630,000 of the unique IP addresses identified had only one identified child pornography file. The greatest number of identified child pornography files available from a single unique IP address was 2,365. Number of Identified Child Pornography Files Available from Unique IP Addresses [Operation RoundUp]

Number of Unique IP Addresses

700000.00 600000.00 500000.00 400000.00 638217.00

300000.00

433936.00

200000.00 100000.00

62737.00

0.00

860.00

1

2 to 9

17.00

3.00

1.00

10 to 99 100 to 299 300 to 499 500 to 799 800 to 999

2.00

Greater than 1000

Number of Unique Files

Source: Massachusetts State Police As this Report noted above, it is not possible to provide an exact number of people trading child pornography across the world. UNICEF and the United Nations have provided some estimates, however, their inclusion here does not indicate that the Department endorses these figures. UNICEF estimates that there are more than four million websites featuring sexually exploited minors. Further, the number of child pornography websites is growing: 480,000 sites were identified in 2004 compared to 261,653 in 2001. More than 200 new images are circulated daily, and UNICEF estimates that the production and distribution of child pornographic images generates in between 3 and 20 billion dollars a year.17 The United Nations released a report in July 2009 asserting that there are approximately 750,000

17

United Nations. (2000). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat M’jid Maalla. A/HRC/12/23. 13 July 2009.

15

sexual predators using the Internet to try to make contact with children for the purpose of sexually exploiting them.18 The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children maintains the CyberTipline, an online reporting system for (internet service providers) ISPs and the public to report online child pornography. The Table below shows the number and type of CyberTipline reports in 2008 and 2009. CyperTipline Reports by Incident Type Type of Incident

FY 2008

Jan-June 2009 44,924

Child Pornography (possession, manufacture, and distribution)

86,705

Child Prostitution

1,206

592

Child Sex Tourism

433

121

Child Sexual Molestation (not by family member)

1,998

848

Misleading Domain Name

2,716

334

10,151

3,492

0

1,601

Online Enticement of Children for Sexual Acts Misleading Words or Digital Images on the Unsolicited Obscene Material Sent to a Child Total Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

18

Ibid.

16

1,417

517

104,626

52,429

For FY 2008, ICAC Task Forces reported 34,829 documented complaints,19 which include child pornography (manufacture, distribution, or possession), traveler, enticement, obscenity directed to minors, and child prostitution, resulting in 12,248 investigations. For the first six months of 2009, Task Forces reported 18,331 documented complaints, resulting in 5,936 investigations. The Table below shows the number and types of documented complaints to ICAC Task Forces. Documented Complaints to ICAC Task Forces (N=59) ICAC Complaints Type

Proactive Reactive Proactive Enticement Reactive Proactive Obscenity Directed to Minors Reactive Proactive Child Prostitution Reactive Proactive Manufacture Reactive Proactive Child Distribution Reactive Pornography Proactive Possession Reactive TOTAL COMPLAINTS Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces Traveler

FY 2008 Number of Complaints

Jan. – June 2009 Number of Complaints

1,197 411 3,257 3,448 1,240 1,382 85 260 224 799 9,935 3,007 3,263 6,321 34,829

476 265 1,240 2,370 479 1,073 76 162 193 585 2,375 2,367 2,688 3,982 18,331

b. The thriving market for child pornography promotes the fresh abuse of children. Most indicators reviewed by NDIC for this Assessment point to a steady and significant increase in the volume of child pornography traded over the Internet, and they similarly suggest the existence of a large and global market. This growing and thriving market for child pornographic images is responsible for fresh child sexual abuse—because the high demand for child pornography drives some individuals to sexually abuse children and some to “commission” the abuse for profit or status. In one case, a predator victimized more than 150 children for profit by before he was arrested by U.S. Postal Inspectors.20 In another case, the defendant was a “photographer” who traveled 19

A complaint is defined as any information requiring review by law enforcement in order to determine further investigative merit. A complaint may come from a variety of sources, including: citizen call ins, CyberTipline reports, referrals from other law enforcement agencies, or undercover activity and may not lead to an actual investigation. 20 See Appendix B, Operation Lost Innocence: U.S. v. Mariscal.

17

throughout several European countries to arrange, witness, and film the sexual abuse of approximately 20 underage girls. The “photographer” then sold the abusive images worldwide through his commercial web site. The initial exposure was estimated to have reached more than 3,000 active traders in approximately 28 countries. He also offered his customers the opportunity to make special requests for videos, purchase the child-sized lingerie used in some of the videos, and, in one case, the opportunity to travel to Europe to photograph the underage girls with him.21 Another investigation revealed that offenders would congregate with like-minded people on the Internet and sometimes encourage each other to act out their fantasies and share proof. In Operation Hamlet, offenders abused their own children and made them available to other members of the group for the same purpose.22 Another case revealed that some child pornography offenders are driven to abuse children because providing new images to their online communities gives them “status.”23 Some communities have restricted memberships, allowing entry only to those who contribute an image not already possessed by the group. In some instances, fathers have abused their own children, not out of any apparent sexual attraction to their children, but because they wanted to reap the benefits of producing and introducing a new child pornographic image into the market and their children were easily accessible targets.24 In one highly publicized investigation, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents interviewed a man who admitted molesting his daughter and videotaping the sometimes violent assaults. The child, who was 9-years-old when interviewed, said her father began assaulting her when she was 5-years-old. She said he would assault her and immediately publish the assaults on the Internet. The man told agents that he began molesting his daughter because he needed "fresh" images to provide others on the Internet before they would trade their own newest or least-circulated images with him. He described his desire for images he had not seen and said that, to get them, he was required to provide images others had not seen in trade.

21

See Appendix A, Operation Joint Hammer. See Appendix A, Operation Hamlet. 23 See Appendix C, Quayle et al. 24 See Appendix C, Quayle (Fathers Victimizing Their Children.) 22

18

Some researchers suggest that viewing child pornography desensitizes the viewer and may reduce inhibitions, increasing the risk that the child pornography offender might engage in a contact offense against a minor. The facts in U.S. v. Curry25 illustrate a situation in which viewing child pornography can cause an offender to desire to commit contact offenses and, in fact, prepare to commit contact offenses. c. Child pornography offenses often are linked to contact offenses. A number of studies indicate a strong correlation between child pornography offenses and contact sex offenses against children. The National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV) study revealed contact offenses in one of every six cases that began as a child pornography investigation with no prior knowledge by law enforcement of possible contact offenses by the target.26 While no study can quantify the risk that any given child pornography offender poses for future contact offenses against In the words of one prosecutor: children, the “Imagine an offender who spends several hours every night on the Internet significant ‘enjoying’ and fantasizing to images of children being sexually abused, and correlation congregating with like-minded people in these trading communities, where they between child validate and normalize each other’s behavior and desires. Assume that he does pornography this several times a week, for several months, maybe even years —which is not offenses and at all unusual. Common sense tells you that his 5-year-old daughter, sleeping in contact offenses the bedroom next door, is at great risk— particularly if the images he collects signals that the involves girls in that age bracket. Can we say for certain that he will act out his risk is present. fantasies on the little girl? No, we can’t. But there’s real cause to fear for her safety.”

In 2009, The Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section. Department’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) helped organize an international symposium through the Group of Eight (G8) titled “Global Symposium for Examining the Relationship Between Online and Offline Offenses and Preventing the Sexual Exploitation of Children”. The symposium was held April 5-8, 2009, at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and brought together researchers and other experts from around the world who have worked with child pornography offenders and victims. The symposium was designed for these experts to share their research and individual findings, and develop consensus on the risks to children and society posed by child pornography offenders and also to identify gaps in research and knowledge. Among the most notable points of consensus developed include a finding that there is sufficient evidence of a relationship between possession of child pornography and the commission of contact offenses against children to make it a cause of acute concern, and that the greater availability of child sexual exploitation materials has stimulated the demand and production of even more extreme, sadistic, and violent images of children and infants. The findings and gaps 25 26

See Appendix B, U.S. v Curry. See Appendix C, U.S. v. Wolak, et al.

19

in research were incorporated into a report written by CEOS, entitled “Report to LEPSG on the ‘Global Symposium for Examining the Relationship Between Online and Offline Offenses and Preventing the Sexual Exploitation of Children’”. On May 30, 2009, the G8 Ministers of Justice and Home Affairs issued a declaration titled “The Risk to Children Posed by Child Pornography Offenders” which specifically recognizes the findings made by the experts at the symposium as noted in the report written by CEOS. Law enforcement officers and prosecutors interviewed for this Assessment overwhelmingly report discovering contact offenders through the course of child pornography investigations. FBI investigations conducted as part of an Innocent Images Operations Unit (IIOU) Initiative27 have determined that mass distributors of child pornography using publicly available file sharing software that allows individuals to establish private “friend” groups were found to have committed contact offenses against minors at a very high rate. In fact, FBI analysis of statistics generated through the IIOU Initiative indicated that the software is used for the mass distribution of child pornography by producers and repeat child sex offenders at a higher observed rate than any other online application. As of January 22, 2010, 102 investigations were initiated from 170 IIOU disseminated leads. The 102 cases resulted in 50 new victims of sexual abuse being identified and saved, with another 16 previously victimized minors identified. In total, 66 victims of contact sexual abuse were discovered from these 102 investigations. As of January 22, 2010, eleven (11) of the subjects investigated were found to have been convicted sex offenders, with eight (8) additional subjects previously charged, but not convicted for various reasons, with sex offenses against a child. Each of these investigations was predicated on the distribution of child pornography with the discovery of contact offenses made at a later stage in the investigation. An analysis of 1,663 federally prosecuted child pornography cases indicates contact offenses were discovered in approximately one-third of cases.28 Our review of child pornography case summaries from 2005 to 2009 confirms that reporting.29 United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) data also support the correlation between child pornography offenders and contact offenders.30 Several national child pornography operations uncovered a number of contact sex offenders.31 Law enforcement experts in the area of child pornography report that interactive online communities for child pornography offenders, which typically include members from around the world, create a greater risk than ever before. Some online communities are limited to the exchange of images, but others allow the exchange of information, chat, and even surveys for the members—creating real communities. Offenders effectively validate and normalize each other’s behavior.32 Law enforcement experts perceive “trading” communities as risky enough; however, when a community allows and promotes communications between offenders regarding their sexual 27

This IIOU Initiative is an FBI online undercover operation targeting subjects who are actively distributing mass quantities of child pornography. 28 See Appendix B, Executive Office of U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA). 29 See Appendix D, EOUSA. 30 See Appendix D, USPIS. 31 See Appendix A, Operations Achilles, Avalanche, Insider, Falcon, Joint Hammer. 32 See Appendix C, Quayle.

20

interests in children and their desires and experiences abusing children, that behavior also becomes normalized, increasing the risk that it drives some to act on those desires. Academic research also supports the conclusion that repeated viewing of the images, exposure to the community of other offenders, and the resulting normalization of the aberrant behavior, along with the community’s encouragement of sexual abuse of children, increases the risk that offenders will sexually abuse children.33 d. The children most vulnerable and at risk are those the offenders can easily access and manipulate. No matter what the motivation to produce child pornographic images—self-gratification, status in and entrée to exclusive online groups, or profit—most often, the offenders turn to children who are most easily available to them. It is no surprise then, that most sexual abuse of children can be attributed to those who have a relationship of trust and authority relative to the child in addition to ready access to the child. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) data indicates that the vast majority of identified child pornography victims (69% of their data set) were abused/exploited by people familiar to the children. In the NCMEC data set these people included parents, other relatives, neighbors, family, friends, babysitters, coaches, and guardians’ partners; only a small fraction of victims (4% of the NCMEC data set) were victimized by individuals with whom the child had no relationship.34 The abuse typically happens in the privacy of a home—away from prying eyes—and the victim is easily manipulated and shamed or scared into submission and silence. While some of these images clearly depict children in great distress, others depict the children as appearing compliant. The abuse is rarely a one-time event, but rather an ongoing victimization that can last and progress for many years. The offender usually takes great care to groom the child so the sexual behavior becomes normalized. Additionally, because the abuser is typically a person the child trusts, it is easier to convince the child to agree to sexual acts. Thus, a 12-yearold child in a sexually abusive image may appear compliant, but that same child, when first abused at age 6, could have presented a completely different image to the viewer. It is important to note that depictions showing a so-called “compliant child” also provide collectors of child pornography support for their delusion that the child is not suffering abuse, a conclusion that lets them rationalize their collection of images and brings them potentially closer to contact abuse themselves. Grooming usually involves normalizing sexualized behavior in the offender-child relationship by introducing increasingly intimate physical contact by the offender toward the victim, very gradually sexualizing the contact, and sometimes using child pornography to break down the child’s barriers. This gradual process and the relationship of trust and authority that the offender usually holds over the child, along with the child’s immaturity and subservience, serves to break down the child’s resistance. These children have a difficult time understanding what is happening to them and why and have very little control over their circumstances. 33

Although some offenders interviewed for research studies have made the claim that viewing child pornography prevents them from engaging in contact offending, see Appendix C, Quayle, no empirical studies have been identified supporting those claims. 34 See Appendix D, NCMEC Child Victim Identification Program.

21

Once child sexual abuse has occurred, offenders often are very successful at ensuring that the children stay silent about the abuse. Children rarely report the victimization. They may remain silent out of a sense of loyalty or obligation to the abuser, shame, guilt, or fear. The child may fear that they will appear complicit in the abuse, or they may be humiliated by the thought of others’ viewing the images. Often, the child will have a significant emotional relationship with the offender prior to the abuse, making it difficult for the child to report the abuse. Also, children often are aware of the consequences to the family of disclosure and are loath to cause turmoil in their families. e. Law enforcement officers are seeing more prepubescent children and infants in child pornography images and more images depicting violent, sadistic acts. Among NDIC interviewees, 82 percent of respondents reported victims (all of whom were minors) in all age brackets, 51 percent reported that most investigations involved prepubescent children, and 67 percent reported that victims are getting younger. Also according to the NDIC interviewees, 63 percent of respondents reported increased violence toward child pornography victims, 42 percent more bondage, 38 percent more sadism and masochism, and 15 percent more bestiality. Although 21 percent reported no change in violence, no respondents reported decreased violence. One agency representative interviewed by NDIC reported occasionally discovering child pornography images that appear to represent autopsies.35 U.S. Sentencing Commission data between 2002 and 2008 shows a 65 percent increase during that period regarding enhancements for sadistic, masochistic, or violent images.36 The NJOV study found that 21 percent of child pornography offenders had images that depicted violence “such as bondage, rape or torture,” adding that most of these images involved children who were “gagged, bound, blindfolded, or otherwise enduring sadistic sex.”37

35

See Appendix D, NDIC. See Appendix D, U.S. Sentencing Commission. 37 See Appendix C, Finkelhor, and Appendix D, IWF. 36

22

2. Child pornographers are increasing their efforts to avoid being identified. Technology has increased the production and distribution of child pornography and is being utilized extensively by pornographers to help avoid being caught. For example, offenders often connect to the Internet using free Wi-Fi, a wireless system at public access points or connect to unsecured wireless routers installed in private residences rather than accessing Internet sites from their personal Internet accounts. Offenders also use anonymizers, software applications that enable them to access the Internet while hiding the source computer’s identifying information. In many instances, offenders hide their actual Internet Protocol (IP) addresses38 by using use proxy servers.39 Even when offenders do not employ these measures, often identifying information through IP addresses is not retained for long periods by Internet Service Providers, which unintentionally Illicit Use of a Legitimate IP Address to Distribute Child Pornography provides In 2004, Las Vegas, Nevada, Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) anonymity to 40 Task Force officers identified an IP address that was used to distribute offenders. child pornography. The IP address was associated with a business in Offenders also Australia. Law enforcement further investigated and discovered that a diminish the Russian criminal organization had, in fact, stolen the IP address and used ability of law a server in Fairfax, Virginia, to operate the site. The stolen IP address and enforcement remote server were used to conceal the identity and location of the actual officials to site operators so they could continue to sell child pornography and evade investigate child law enforcement. pornography by storing images Source: Las Vegas, Nevada, Internet Crimes Against Children Task in encrypted Force. files and by erasing images using evidence eliminating software. Offenders also increasingly access streaming web cam video to view victims in real time without actually producing or storing images or videos that

38

An IP address is a numeric address that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet. Most DSL and cable Internet subscribers have “sticky dynamic” IP addresses which are changeable but do not change often. When an ISP provides dynamic IP address service, the user’s identification is reassigned at login to a new node (computer) in the IP network and is always different. The ISP assigns the user an IP address which is traceable only to the ISP and does not reveal information on the user except through the ISP. 39 A proxy server is a computer system or an application program that acts as a go-between for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. 40 In the United States, there is no federal statute or regulation requiring providers to keep user IP information for any length of time, or at all. Some U.S. providers only keep the information for a few days. In a 2009 survey of 100 U.S. Internet crimes investigators, 61 percent of the investigators reported that they had had investigations detrimentally affected because data was not retained; and 47 percent reported that they had had to end an investigation because data was not retained. (Source: Internet Crime Investigators Survey: Internet Service Provider Interactions, Dr. Frank Kardasz, Sgt./Project Mgr. Phoenix PD / AZ ICAC Task Force.) In Europe, a current EU directive requires member countries to draft laws requiring their providers to keep user IP records for at least 6 months and up to 2 years.” In March 2010, the German Constitutional Court struck down such a law. See http://www.thelocal.de/national/20100302-25603.html

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could later be discovered by law enforcement.41 Predators also rely on “throw-away” free e-mail accounts, “secure” e-mail accounts such as hush mail, and countersurveillance methods.

Identification of a Child Pornography Victim In January 2006, the FBI and NCMEC began conducting exhaustive analysis in an attempt to identify the child victim in a widely circulated child pornography series on the Internet. Images in this series began to surface in 2005 and documented an increasing level of sexual molestation to the minor victim as she aged over at least 4 years. A prominent clue that produced the strongest lead for law enforcement authorities was found in the background of one of the images. It was a decorative plate bearing a birth date and a girl’s name hung on a wall. This information was used to obtain a court order directing the Social Security Administration in coordination with the Internal Revenue Service to provide information on all filers in the tax year 2006 who claimed a dependent child matching the girl’s name from the wall or any variation of it.

Predators are also engaging in specific counter-surveillance activities such as The information received resulted in the dissemination of action leads researching cases in to 29 field offices that directed them to compare the dependent the news and topics children residing in their territory to sanitized images depicting the presented by law girl. On March 18, 2009, the FBI sent an immediate lead to one of the enforcement at law field divisions to follow up on two children residing within their enforcement only territory who had pedigree information consistent with the girl in the conferences. To images. On March 25, 2009, the FBI received confirmation from the further shield their field division that a child residing in its area was the child depicted in identities, offenders the series. On March 30, 2009, the victim was interviewed, and she occasionally will identified the subject and disclosed the activity that had taken place. deviate from the The field division also obtained items of evidentiary value that were common use of visible in the explicit images. From the investigation, an immediate traditional credit lead regarding the subject was disseminated to another field division. cards and rely on In turn, this second field division conducted surveillance on the digital currencies subject’s home. During surveillance, the subject was observed exiting and prepaid credit his residence. Agents were able to obtain written consent to search his cards to conceal home, car, and shed. Jewelry visible in the explicit images was seized transactions. The from the shed during the consent search. The subject was arrested, use of counter confessed, and provided a signed sworn statement to FBI agents. forensic tools such as proxies and onion routers42 by online predators to remain anonymous when accessing the Internet also has increased. When effective methods of countering law enforcement efforts are developed, the information typically is shared among predators—including the suspected law enforcement officers screen name— often enabling even inexperienced offenders to operate undetected. 41

See Appendix A, Operation Achilles and Operation Joint Hammer. Standard routers are networking devices that forward traffic on the Internet onto an effective path for finding a particular server; however, Onion Routers (anonymity networks) direct that Internet activity along complex circuitous routes in a network designed to completely obscure its origins.

42

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Further, producers of child pornography are increasingly taking precautions to hide their identities and the identities of their victims in images and videos. Before production, many offenders hide or cover their faces and the faces of the victims. They also remove items within a setting that would allow law enforcement to identify the location. After production, offenders edit, or “scrub,” images and videos for the same reasons. Unlike images of child pornography produced years earlier in which the offender and victim are prominently visible, in many recent images and videos, the offenders’ goal is to make the setting “sterile”; the total focus is centered on the rape of the child victim, a focus which has mass appeal to the prurient interests of many other offenders. 3. Organized criminal groups are involved in the production and distribution of child pornography. Organized criminal groups are becoming more prevalent in child exploitation investigations. Such groups include commercial enterprises that produce and distribute child pornography material for profit as well as non-commercial enterprises that produce and distribute child pornography images not for material gain, but to fuel the group members’ common sexual interest in minors. a. Many organized commercial enterprises that advertise and distribute child pornography do so for profit. Such enterprises are responsible for extremely large-scale distribution of child exploitation material, and, as a result, have netted significant profits. From a profit perspective, commercial distribution of child exploitation material over the Internet can be safer, less expensive, and more lucrative that many other criminal enterprises. For example, as compared with traditional drug trafficking enterprises, selling child pornography over the Internet: (1) provides greater anonymity, (2) eliminates risks associated with having to physically transport contraband to buyers, and (3) involves an intangible product, an image, which can be sold millions of times over without having to replenish supply. Groups engaged in the online business of advertising and distributing child pornography typically operate largely outside of the United States, but have an international customer base. These groups present significant investigative challenges for U.S. law enforcement. The primary challenges U.S. law enforcement face in investigating the commercial distribution of child pornography over the Internet are: (1) identifying who is involved in the commercial enterprise and (2) obtaining information and assistance from other countries, which is critical to investigating such cases. These groups are able to capitalize on the lack of regulation of Internet activity in many countries, as well as the fact that many countries lack strong legislation banning the sale of child pornography. Because these groups operate over the Internet, they are able to reach a huge market while employing various technological means to hide their tracks, such as the use of proxy servers and payment sites that do not maintain transactional records. The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) reports, during a one year period, identifying 1,536 domains that carry child pornographic content. According to the IWF, 74 percent of those 25

domains are commercial purveyors of child pornography.43 However, many of these domains are short lived, often less than 100 days, with limited activity. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) estimates the number of commercial web sites closer to 250 that actively maintain and display child pornography at a given moment.44 As illustrated by case examples,45 organized commercial enterprises engaged in the advertisement and distribution of child pornography images pose significant threats to society as well as challenges to law enforcement. These groups have the ability to operate virtually and anonymously from anywhere in the world, thus facilitating the ongoing dissemination of child exploitation material. By using the Internet as their means of distribution, these groups are able to engage in mass distribution of child pornography images to a customer base that far exceeds law enforcement resources. In addition, because of the transnational nature of many of these groups, even multiple arrests of individuals who play roles in running the enterprises in one country do not necessarily end the enterprises’ operations. For all of these reasons, organized commercial enterprises present a significant threat to the safety of children in that, with virtual anonymity, they facilitate the continued dissemination of child exploitation images and fuel the demand of those who seek such material. Commercial child pornography is not limited to the Internet model discussed. Frequently, USPIS uncovers U.S.-based offenders using simple mail order catalogs either mailed or e-mailed to customers, to advertise child pornography and then fulfill orders by mail shipments. These offenders, reluctant to use computers, often have been involved in collecting child pornography for years—many before the advent of the Internet—and often are contact offenders.46 b. Some organized criminal groups seek child exploitation material for reasons other than profit. Unlike an organized commercial enterprise, whose sole motivation is to profit from the continued dissemination of child pornography images rather than any particular interest in the content, organized groups of individuals who seek and trade such material for no material gain are, arguably, more dangerous because they are solely motivated by a sexual interest in minors. This sexual interest fuels such groups’ desire not only to build their own collection of images, but also to obtain new images of recent abuse and, in some instances, to share their own acts of molestation with other group members either through discussion or, worse, through transmission of live video showing the abuse. Typically, these groups set specific criteria for who may join. One criteria often used is a demonstration that a prospective member has a genuine interest in engaging in sexual conduct with minors, such as requiring a prospective member to transmit child pornography to the group to gain membership. In addition, such groups often employ 43

See Appendix D, Governmental and NGO Reports and Data. A URL is the address of a resource (as a document or Web site) on the Internet that consists of a communications protocol followed by the name or address of a computer on the network and that often includes additional locating information (as directory and file names)—called also uniform resource locator, universal resource locator. A Web site is a group of World Wide Web pages usually containing hyperlinks to each other and made available online by an individual, company, educational institution, government, or organization. See Appendix D, Governmental and NGO Reports and Data. 45 See Appendix A, Operation Falcon, Operation Avalanche, and Operation Joint Hammer. 46 See Appendix A, Operation Insider. 44

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multiple layers of security in an attempt to evade law enforcement. Because members of such groups frequently are driven to commit contact offenses against children and take extraordinary efforts to go undetected, investigations into such groups’ activities are very challenging and resource intensive.47 As law enforcement investigations illustrate,48 these criminal enterprises typically go to great lengths to evade law enforcement and, ultimately, are identified only when an individual member’s computer is seized for unrelated conduct and law enforcement, posing as the member, observes the group activity on the computer and can infiltrate the group. While investigations into these groups can yield the arrest of multiple child molesters, identification of the members and cooperation with foreign law enforcement, which may be required, can frustrate efforts to identify specific suspects. 4. Law enforcement agencies are focusing on factors that may help predict child pornographers who pose a greater risk to children. Due to limited resources, law enforcement officers often are tasked with determining the ultimate targets of law enforcement operations; namely, who among the vast numbers of potential targets pose the greatest risk to children. While such determinations are difficult, certain characteristics tend to suggest an offender may pose a great risk to children, while other offenders may pose less of a threat. Certain factors or characteristics, or combinations thereof, can signal that a particular child pornography offender poses a higher risk of being or becoming a contact offender. Interviews of law enforcement officers in this field, along with a review of research studies, suggest that the following factors or characteristics, alone or in combination, may signal such a risk:

47 48



The offender has a prior history of sex offenses.



The offender demonstrates a certain commitment to the collection or trade or both of child pornography. o The offender has been involved in the collection or trade of child pornographic images for a relatively long time. o The offender participates in online child pornography communities. o The offender uses more than one technology to collect or trade child pornography. o The offender uses advanced technologies to collect, or trade, or both, child pornography. o The offender uses sophisticated technologies or practices to avoid detection. o The offender shows an interest in images depicting extreme sexual conduct or very young victims. o The offender exhibits extreme care building, maintaining, and categorizing his collection of child pornography.

See Appendix A, Operation Achilles. See Appendix A, Law Enforcement Operations.

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The offender communicates with other offenders in online communities about his sexual interest in children.

The presence of any of these factors should alert law enforcement officers to the possibility that an offender, particularly one with ready access to children, could be a contact offender. Law enforcement, however, cannot summarily dismiss as a priority target an offender who appears only to be possessing images. In many instances, when law enforcement officers execute search warrants for a computer and premises of an offender who appears only to be possessing images, evidence of molestation is uncovered.49 An offender who purchases child pornography from a commercial web site, however, is not necessarily high-risk and may even be an entry-level offender. Paying for child pornography has not been shown to be an indicator of risk, and offenders buy child pornography for a variety of reasons. The fact that an offender resorts to paying for images may or may not signal a relative lack of sophistication. In addition, while some commercial sites have freshly produced sex abuse images, many simply recycle old images that are otherwise available elsewhere on the Internet. By contrast, some private trading groups50 have more extreme and new material and membership in some of these groups is strictly vetted by the offenders operating the groups. Individuals must actively seek these groups to gain access, create usernames and passwords to gain entry, and often dedicate significant amounts of time to a particular group to maintain membership. Similarly, an offender using pure P2P technology may signal less of a risk than an offender using a technology that combines P2P file sharing with the ability to interact with like-minded offenders. This is because pure P2P technology only requires a blind search of the network for images and videos using a search term; it does not require much personal investment or any personal contact to acquire images. Of course, these observations are not universal and those who trade on basic peer-to-peer can pose the same risk to a child as an offender using an encrypted message board to trade images. Similarly, an offender who does not use encryption or other evasive technologies can always pose the same or greater risk to a child than one who does.

49 50

See Appendix A, Operation Joint Hammer. See Appendix A, Operation Achilles.

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B. Online Enticement Online offenders use the Internet to entice and manipulate children into situations in which they become vulnerable to sexual exploitation, particularly child pornography, sexual contact, and abduction. From 2004 through 2008, ICAC task force officers processed 20,562 documented online enticement complaints, including 7,879 documented complaints of suspected travelers51—aggressive and dangerous online child predators who travel to the location of a child for the purpose of establishing physical contact.52 From 2004 through 2008, ICAC task force officers processed 20,562 documented online enticement complaints, including 7,879 documented complaints of suspected travelers1—aggressive and dangerous online child predators who travel to the location of a child for the purpose of establishing physical contact. Online enticement can lead to offenders’ grooming victims to self-produce child pornography, which then becomes part of the child pornography market and forever harms the child. Recent case examples have shown offenders using web cams to entice the minor to perform a sex act in front of the camera that he then records. Often, the offender will blackmail the minor into engaging in these acts through threats to reveal a less explicit recorded image to friends and family. NCMEC data show that approximately 28 percent of identified child victims seen in child pornography produced the images of themselves, whether by inducement or not, and this segment of child pornography has been increasing.53 In addition, another possible consequence of online enticement is abduction. According to National Incidence Studies on Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Throwaway Children, the primary motive in non-family abductions is sexual. Since the inception of the Child Abduction Rapid Deployment (CARD) teams in October 2005, the FBI has developed 10 CARD teams to combat this risk by aiding state and local law enforcement in child abduction investigations. 64 percent of non-family abduction deployments have resulted in the child victim being sexually victimized by their abductor. Moreover, in 36 percent of non-family abductions, the child victim was murdered by their abductor.

51

For Department reporting purposes, a traveler investigation involves the transportation of at least one individual for the purpose of sexual conduct with a minor. 52 Travelers meet specific children for the purpose of engaging in illegal sexual conduct. Children who make contact with such predators are at great risk of kidnapping, rape, torture, or murder. These predators may travel within a state or region, across the country, or even internationally to meet a potential victim. They also may arrange for a victim to travel to meet them. 53 See Appendix D, NCMEC.

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1. Online enticement complaints are increasing, drawing more law enforcement resources into complex and time-consuming investigations. Children are increasingly targeted for sexual exploitation by individuals who monitor Internet forums for potential victims. From 2004 through 2008 there were sharp increases in the number of online enticement incidents reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline54 and the number of documented enticement complaints processed by ICAC investigators.55 However, there is no actual measurement of online enticement. NCMEC acknowledges that increased public awareness has contributed to the increased number of incidents reported to the CyberTipline. Still, recent publicity has highlighted the fact that two prominent social networking sites had to delete the accounts of thousands of registered sex offenders using their sites. Investigating the rising number of online enticement complaints poses a relatively new strain on law enforcement resources because online enticement cases require specialized technical training for investigators, coordination with Internet providers, and, often, the support of computer forensic examiners to recover digital evidence from computers and other electronic storage devices. Depending on the technical ability of the offender and the complexity of the case, child sexual exploitation investigations involving computer forensic evidence may be resolved in a few days or take years. Officers pursuing individual online predator suspects may monitor a suspect’s Internet activity across several online forums, aliases, and communication devices. 2. Online predators demonstrate great patience in manipulating children into vulnerable situations. Online predators gradually manipulate or “groom” children until they voluntarily provide sexual images online or agree to meet Video Game Chat predators for sex. Grooming is the In January 2008, a 27-year-old Missouri man allegedly psychological process predators traveled to California to meet a 15-year-old girl with the always have used to encourage intention of engaging in sex. He initially made contact children to engage in sexual activity, with the girl while playing video games on the Internet but it is now being applied to online and developed the relationship by using social networking 56 enticement. Grooming typically sites, text messaging, and a cell phone he sent to her as a begins with the selection of a child birthday present. He was charged with using interstate who exhibits desired behaviors or commerce to entice or coerce a minor to engage in sexual psychological characteristics such as activity and traveling in interstate commerce to engage in low self-esteem or family problems. illicit sexual activity. The victim frequently is shown Source: ICE, News Release, “Missouri Man Charged with increasing levels of attention, Traveling to California to Engage in Sex with Minor He Met on affection, empathy, and generosity. Xbox LIVE,” February 6, 2009. Online predators often relate to children through mastering music, 54

See Appendix D, Figure 4. See Appendix D, Figure 7. 56 Enticement is the unlawful solicitation of a minor by any means for unlawful sexual conduct, according to the Department, Office of Juvenile Justice Programs. 55

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movies, and games that appeal to the children. Predators often act in a patient and manipulative manner, listening to children's problems and becoming indispensable with advice. They prey on what makes children susceptible to manipulation, intimidation, and victimization—children’s naïveté. Predators promote intra-familial rifts, alienate children from others in their lives, assume the parental role, and then declare their love, creating emotional dependence and infatuation simultaneously. Predators send children sex toys, demonstrate their uses, and indoctrinate children through the familiar medium of toys. At some point, the children provide compromising information about or images of themselves, perhaps using webcams presented to them as gifts. Predators then threaten exposure of the victims to friends and family and may even threaten lives. Ultimately, many predators coerce victims into sexual abuse, and many digitally memorialize their crimes for trading purposes and to ensure silence, essentially producing child pornography that will victimize children beyond the moment of sexual abuse. Throughout the grooming process, predators57 gradually introduce child pornography into their seduction methodology. As instructions for desired behaviors, children are shown suggestive images, nudity is introduced, and then actual sexual abuse is carried out. Gradually the idea of sex between adults and children is normalized. Alarmingly, predators are coaxing graphic images from victims, thereby accelerating the grooming process. Grooming may occur using methods varying from those previously discussed, but in most cases the grooming process incorporates many of the aforementioned steps. C. The Domestic Prostitution of Children The domestic prostitution of children may be increasing as more criminals have discovered the high profitability and relatively low risk of commercial child sexual exploitation. In fact, those who profit from the sexual abuse of children are far less likely to be arrested or prosecuted than are the children they are exploiting. There are insufficient support and recovery programs for the victims. The combination of inadequate resources and the powerful psychological hold the defendants have over the victims makes it very difficult to end the cycle of exploitation as victims often repeatedly return to their abusers either voluntarily or forcibly. 1. Pimps prey on vulnerable children, manipulating them and then trapping them in child prostitution. Pimps, who are commercial sex traffickers,58 manipulate children into a life of prostitution and then use physical and emotional abuse to keep their victims trapped in that way of life. Pimps target children who are vulnerable to exploitation, including those with low self-esteem, who are runaways or throwaways, and who have histories of physical and sexual abuse. Pimps typically recruit a vulnerable child by first showing affection and attention and promising a stable 57

Online predators are defined as sex offenders who use the Internet to seek underage victims. University of New Hampshire Crimes Against Children Research Center. 58 Criminals who commit the crimes discussed in this section can be referred to as “commercial sex traffickers” or as “pimps.” While some believe that the term “pimp” often is used by commercial sex traffickers as a favorable street title for someone who can procure sex for sale and thus should not be used, we use the term as it is commonly known and highlights that these offenders profit by the victimization of children through prostitution.

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relationship. After the child has gained an emotional and psychological attachment to the pimp, he introduces the idea of prostitution to her59 as something she can do to contribute financially to their “street family.” After the child has been manipulated into a relationship with the pimp, the pimp begins training or “seasoning” her by normalizing the life of prostitution and making her completely dependent on him. The child may be given a sexual education or be exposed to pornography to desensitize her to sexual images and terms. To solidify his control, the pimp or someone acting at his direction, will beat, torture, or starve the child60 to force her into obedience. Some pimps use alcohol or drugs to control their victims. To manipulate the child, the pimp also uses emotional tactics such as renaming her to break down her identity and telling her that she has no value except as a prostitute. The pimp also separates the child from biological family and friends as well as anything familiar. Additionally, the pimp keeps all of the profit earned by the child and delivers violent punishment if the child withholds any money. The pimp uses a combination of praise and abuse that causes the child to constantly work for his affection. The child becomes completely dependent on the pimp for food, clothing, shelter, and attention. The pimp’s control often is so complete that victims are incapable of leaving. 2. There is steady demand and profit in the prostitution of children. Since 2003, the FBI, NCMEC, and CEOS have partnered on the Innocence Lost National Initiative, which targets the victimization of children through prostitution here in the United States. This effort has resulted in recovering 918 children and 554 state and federal convictions of those who prostitute our children. Moreover, from 2004 through 2008, ICAC Task Forces saw a 914 percent increase in the number of child victims of prostitution61 complaints processed by their members (see Appendix D, OJJDP); a 31 percent increase in ICAC Task Forces (45 to 59) during that period accounts for some of the increase. It is not known to what extent that increase is explained by increased awareness as opposed to increased frequency of the crime. ICAC Task Forces are responsible primarily for investigating Internet-based crimes against children; therefore, the increase in ICAC complaints could reflect an increase in the use of the Internet to facilitate the prostitution of children that had already been occurring. During that same period, the number of child victims of prostitution incidents reported to the NCMEC Cyber Tipline increased as well. (See Appendix D, NCMEC.) Some criminals have turned away from illicit activities such as drug dealing and robbery toward child sex trafficking, from which they can generate potentially several thousand dollars per day, as a single child can generate as much as $1,000 on a weekend night.62 Simply, it is cheaper for 59

The pronoun “her or she” is often used in this report in discussing prostitution but it represents both male and female victims’ involvement in this horrendous crime. 60 Torture tactics that pimps use include locking children in trunks or closets, burning, and maiming. 61 According to a study conducted by Richard J. Estes and Neil Alan Weiner, Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S, Canada and Mexico, University of Pennsylvania (2001), available at http://caster.ssw.upenn.edu/~restes/CSEC.htm, the average age of entry into prostitution is 12 to 14 years for girls and 11 to 13 years for boys. 62 Pimps often require girls to meet nightly earning quotas, based on where and when the child is forced to work. For example, average quotas in New York City range from $300 to $500 on a week night and $500 to $1,000 on a weekend night.

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a criminal to prostitute a child (which involves supplying the child with her primary needs of food, clothes, and shelter) than to commit other crimes such as drug dealing (which require a large capital investment up front to acquire the contraband). In fact, the profitability of child prostitutes to the pimp has increased as Internet advertising and web-enabled cell phones have aided pimps in reaching a larger client base; they can schedule more sexual encounters per child. Many pimps increase their profits by working in loose affiliation with each other, sharing information about “hot spots” where there is higher demand; the traffickers transport the children to those locations. Pimps increase their profits by transporting prostituted children to host cities for major sporting events and conventions and to cities with consistent tourist populations, such as Las Vegas. For example, Internet advertisements for child victims of prostitution rose sharply in February 2009 in advance of the Super Bowl. The various locales where children are transported for prostitution collectively are known as circuits. Traveling through an established circuit of cities allows pimps to provide children to a fresh set of clients for a short period before continuing to the next city. The transitory nature of the crime also adds to the law enforcement challenge. Because pimps and their child victims are constantly on the move, it can be difficult for local law enforcement to begin building a case. It can also be difficult for law enforcement to make the necessary connections: for example, that the same victim has come into contact with law enforcement in cities on opposite sides of the country. Determining the number of child prostitution-related prosecutions simply based on case statistics is difficult because at both the federal and state levels, certain criminal provisions could be applied both to cases involving a prostituted child and to cases involving the noncommercial sexual exploitation of a child. For example, at the state level, a customer could be charged with the statutory rape of a child rather than soliciting sex from a child. Under federal law, transporting a child for any illegal sexual activity, which could be prostitution but also could be molestation, is a crime. While it is possible to determine the number of prosecutions under a given statute, that data does not indicate which of the cases involved commercial sex acts; therefore, the statistical data based on prosecutions is unavoidably imprecise. Officials report that prosecutions are very resource-intensive, requiring a large investment in investigative, prosecutorial, and victim-service resources. Nevertheless, law enforcement pressure on pimps is increasing. For example, since its inception in 2003, the Innocence Lost National Initiative (ILNI)63 has located and recovered 918 children, resulting in 369 indictments and 554 convictions of traffickers in the federal and state criminal justice systems, disruption of 92 criminal enterprises disrupted, and dismantling of 44 criminal enterprises. When prosecuted federally, pimps face serious charges such as violation of the Mann Act64, the Racketeer

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The ILNI is a nationwide initiative among the NCMEC, FBI, DEPARTMENT /Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS), and their state and local partners to focus on child victims of domestic commercial sexual exploitation in the United States. As part of the initiative, the FBI created task forces in areas where domestic commercial sexual exploitation is prevalent and the NCMEC, FBI, and Department through CEOS developed specialized training courses focused on domestic commercial sexual exploitation prosecution and victim assistance. 64 The Mann Act prohibits, among other offenses, knowingly transporting an individual across state lines for the purposes of prostitution or criminal sexual activity. The act has been amended several times to provide increased protection for sexually exploited minors and enhanced penalties for child sex traffickers.

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Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO)65, or the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA), and may receive lengthy sentences.66 For example, four life sentences and several sentences ranging from 30 to 45 years have been awarded to pimps convicted through ILNI investigations. The shortage of adequate resources for victims has an impact on the number of prosecutions. While obtaining a conviction against a pimp if the victim does not testify is possible, it is certainly much more difficult. The lack of adequate resources is a problem in its own right as it means the victims are not provided the treatment they need to begin the recovery process. In addition, if victims are not stabilized, they are much less likely to be able to participate effectively in the criminal justice process. If they cannot testify and the defendant is acquitted or is not prosecuted in the first instance, the defendant will be able to continue his exploitation of that child or of other children. Services are needed to ensure the victim can be involved in the prosecution, and the prosecution is needed to eliminate the defendant’s ability to keep hurting the child, so she can further her recovery. 3. Child victims of prostitution—the victims of commercial sexual exploitation—are more likely to be arrested than are the child sex traffickers or client sex offenders. Clients of child victims of prostitution are, in fact, child sex offenders; however, this form of child sexual exploitation often goes unpunished. In fact, the exploited child victim of prostitution is much more likely to be arrested for prostitution offenses than is the offender. For example, a 2005 study for Congress showed that in Boston, 11 female prostitutes (adult and child) were arrested for each male client arrest; in Chicago, the ratio was 9 to 1; and, in New York City, the ratio was 6 to 1. Part of the disproportionate arrest ratios are attributed to misinformation provided to officers by the children; that is, the children will represent themselves to be adults, and may provide false identification. Pimps typically provide child victims of prostitution with false identification that indicates an adult age and the pimps instruct the children to lie about their ages if arrested. Similar to client offenders, pimps usually evade arrest and prosecution, primarily by avoiding detection altogether. When they are arrested, they often serve a minimum amount of time in prison or have their cases reduced to misdemeanors. Pimps typically operate within insular groups, supported by a network of independent but cooperative pimps. The transitory nature of their crime reduces the likelihood that a local law enforcement agency will be able to build enough investigative intelligence to make the case. Pimps share information regarding law enforcement operations, and if a pimp is arrested, other pimps often provide support by maintaining the arrestee’s operations. Moreover, a child victim of prostitution, if arrested or 65

The RICO statute provides for enhanced penalties for individuals engaged in organized criminal behavior. Offenders found guilty of racketeering under the RICO statute are subject to extended sentences and fines and must forfeit all interest and property derived from the racketeering activity. 66 The TVPA is the first federal law specifically enacted to protect victims of human trafficking and to prosecute the individuals who traffic them. The act defines one of the severe forms of trafficking in persons as “sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age.” Subsequent reauthorizations also provide for enhanced services for victims of sex trafficking.

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rescued from prostitution, rarely reports the identity of her trafficker or testifies against an arrested trafficker, because she often has become dependent on the trafficker or is fearful of retaliation. Although convicting a defendant without the victim’s cooperation is possible, cases are much stronger if the victim testifies. Traffickers know this and count on victims to refuse to testify, to recant, or to minimize the degree of criminal conduct. 4. Child victims of prostitution suffer extreme forms of exploitation and often are unable, even if rescued, to permanently escape the influence of traffickers. According to leading treatment and recovery providers, between 60 and 90 percent of child victims of prostitution in their programs were victims of child sexual abuse prior to being victimized through prostitution.67 In fact, the Standing Against Global Exploitation organization (SAGE) reported that most of the children it supports were raped prior to adolescence. The trauma of early sexual abuse creates confusion in the minds of children and renders them vulnerable to exploitation by child sex traffickers. The prostitution of children takes place in a variety of different venues such as street prostitution, adult night clubs, sex parties, or motel rooms where traffickers will direct individual client offenders. Children victimized by prostitution require specialized recovery programs68 including shelter, nutrition, and appropriate medical treatment, as well as psychological evaluation; counseling, alcohol and drug treatment programs, education programs, and life skills training. Also, because traffickers often try to reclaim girls who have been rescued, the trafficker’s presence could expose other children to being recruited for prostitution. In fact, traffickers often recruit children outside of recovery centers or send children into centers to recruit; in some cases, traffickers simply enter the facilities and remove the children. Traffickers often are successful in reclaiming child victims of prostitution, particularly those in short-term programs (less than 18 months), juvenile detention facilities, or jail. The stigma victims feel when placed in such facilities with other children who have no history of prostitution often causes them to return to the familiarity of the trafficker and prostitution. There is a dearth of these specialized recovery programs, and the ones that do exist are often only for children who are under the age of 18. If they were prostituted as children but are now adults, they cannot be admitted into those programs. Often, the services provided to these victims are provided through the state, such as Child Protective Services, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), or Medicaid.

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The providers include nongovernmental agencies such as Girls Education & Mentoring Services, Polaris Project, and SAGE. 68 There are only approximately 50 beds available in the United States in facilities designed specifically for victims of child prostitution. These facilities operate largely on private donations. The TVPA of 2000 allocated funding to establish residential treatment facilities in the United States for juvenile sex trafficking victims; however, this funding was reserved for foreign-born victims. The 2005 TVPA reauthorization included funding for U.S. citizens, but the funding has not yet been appropriated.68 Prior to 2009, grants administered by the Department ’s Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) related to trafficking in persons were reserved for alien victims trafficked into or within the United States, not domestic victims. However, DOJ has funded three demonstration projects dedicated to serving domestic victims.68

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D. Child Sex Tourism Child sex tourists69 prey on the most vulnerable children in the most impoverished areas of the world. Many of these predators are Americans, but the identification and prosecution of offenders is very difficult. Despite the great challenges, U.S. law enforcement officials continue to pursue, often successfully, the growing number of American sex tourists, attempting to stem the tremendous damage that these offenders are inflicting. 1. U.S. citizens account for a large portion of international child sex tourists and their numbers are growing. American sex tourists commonly travel to Southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand) and, increasingly, to Mexico, Central and South America (Brazil, Costa Rica, and Honduras), and, to a lesser extent, Eastern European nations (Lithuania, and Russia.) Some reporting indicates that as many as 80 percent of the child sex tourists in Latin America and 25 percent of those in Southeast Asia are U.S. citizens.70 Sex tourists travel to certain countries primarily because gaining access to children frequently is aided by parents or organized crime groups and because many predators believe their anonymity, transient status, and, oftentimes, the limited attention to such crimes by local law enforcement officials makes their discovery unlikely. Within these countries, predators typically travel to very impoverished areas where they are more likely to be able to pay for access to children. In fact, some child sex tourists volunteer with foreign aid organizations or charities, particularly orphanages, to gain access to children in impoverished areas. Although there is no estimate for the number of Americans who travel overseas for the purpose of sexually assaulting children, their ranks appear to be increasing. Since 2004, the number of child sex tourism incidents reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline has increased

Finding Local Children in a Foreign Country Predators often obtain information about brothels that offer children for sex or other available children from local taxi drivers, hotel concierges, restaurant wait staff, or newspaper advertisements. Sex tourists also solicit children independently in foreign destinations at beaches or on the street, particularly if the sex tourist is seeking boys. Some predators also contact foreign children through the Internet and arrange to meet them on the trip. Child sex tourists also gain information about local children through Internet chat rooms, message boards, and online forums. These Internet forums provide locations of child brothels, prices, accounts of child sexual abuse by other sex tourists, and sites for trading child pornography. 

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American child sex tourists typically are Caucasian males aged 40 or older. Such predators may be either situational or preferential child sex tourists. A situational child sex tourist abuses children by way of experimentation or through the anonymity and impunity afforded by being a tourist. He or she does not have an exclusive sexual inclination for children. Often, the situational offender is an indiscriminate sex tourist who is presented with the opportunity to interact sexually with a person under 18 and takes it. A preferential child sex tourist displays an active sexual preference for children. He or she may still have the capacity to experience sexual attraction for adults but will actively seek out minors for sexual contact. The preferential child sex tourist will generally search for pubescent or adolescent children. 70 Some organizations estimate that U.S. citizens account for 25 percent of child sex tourists worldwide, and as high as 80 percent in Latin America. See www.worldvision.org/content.nsf/learn/globalissues-stp-faqs (last visited Apr. 15, 2010).

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significantly overall.71 However, the number of reported incidents declined sharply in 2008 (392) and again in 2009 (247), most likely reflecting an improved ability of child sex tourists to operate online in a less detectable fashion. Previously, law enforcement agencies were quite successful in identifying predators that planned travel through sex tour providers, but now most predators avoid such companies and instead make their own travel arrangements and wait until they arrive in the country to begin coordinating their illicit activity. 2. Child sex tourists often engage in many forms of child exploitation, causing extreme and lasting damage to victims. Sex tourists are increasingly creating child pornography by recording their acts of child sexual abuse to bring home as souvenirs. After returning home, child sex tourists may share or sell their images and videos with other child predators. Images of the child’s abuse are permanently memorialized and impossible to remove from circulation once they enter the Internet stream. Some sex tourists also write graphic online accounts of their experiences and share information on how to find and abuse children in foreign locations. These accounts may entice other predators to engage in sex tourism. The children abused by sex tourists suffer not only sexual abuse but also physical abuse and lasting health problems. Sex tourists often are violent in abusing children in foreign countries because they believe their victims will not report the offenses. Children sold in brothels often suffer from illnesses, exhaustion, malnourishment, infections, physical injuries, and sexually transmitted diseases. Living conditions are poor and medical treatment is rarely available to them. Children who fail to earn enough income generally are subject to severe punishment such as beatings and starvation. 3. Investigating and prosecuting American child sex tourists is very difficult; however, a change in child exploitation laws has aided prosecutors. Child sex tourists usually travel alone to foreign countries and operate in secret. Identifying victims and finding locations where abuse occurred is difficult, and evidence of the crime often is not preserved. Compounding the difficulties are differences in investigation and conflicts of law. Some investigative techniques such as wiretaps, covert recordings, and closed circuit television surveillance are prohibited in certain countries, and procedures for obtaining evidence must follow U.S. standards to be admissible in a U.S. prosecution. Moreover, the time and expense of sending investigators abroad and bringing witnesses to the United States for trial is significant and, for state or local agencies, the cost often is prohibitive. Prosecutors also face extradition challenges and considerable administrative obstacles when securing witnesses. Additionally, it is difficult for foreign victims to come to the United States and live in an unfamiliar environment for several weeks, often without family members, while they await testifying. Also, victims may be ostracized by their family and within their communities when they return home. Document translation also is time consuming and costly. Despite the obstacles, many American child sex tourists are arrested and, in fact, prosecution has become easier. Since the enactment of the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the 71

See Appendix D, NCMEC, Figure 7.

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Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act of 2003, prosecutors are no longer required to prove that the offender traveled to a foreign country with the intent of having sex with a minor. Prosecutors only need to show that the offender in fact traveled to a foreign country and engaged in sexual conduct with a minor. E. Child Exploitation in Indian Country Child sexual abuse crime rates in Indian Country72 are high according to anecdotal Assistant U.S. Attorney (AUSA) information, and child sexual assault cases comprise the overwhelming majority of child exploitation cases on tribal lands. Several AUSAs who prosecute crimes on Indian Country report prosecuting more sex crimes than physical assaults involving American Indian child victims. Most cases do not involve the use of computers or the Internet. Prosecutors report their belief that the rate of child sexual abuse is higher in Indian Country than in the general U.S. population, but there is a dearth of reliable data regarding physical and sexual abuse—among children and adults—in Indian Country. Because no formal system currently is in place that provides for coordination in the collection and reporting of crime and justice data by the various federal, state, local, and tribal agencies responsible for law enforcement in Indian Country, the rates of specific violent crime categories are not available. Data that do exist—the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) reports that 34.1 percent of American Indian women are raped in their lifetimes as compared to 18.2 percent of all U.S. women—show that the rate of sexual abuse is higher among American Indian women than all U.S. women. Further, according to available data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), American Indians experience per capita rates of violence that are more than twice those of the U.S. resident population. Rates of violence in every age group and for both males and females are higher among American Indians than among all other races. Law enforcement officers and prosecutors often encounter unique obstacles when investigating and prosecuting child sexual abuse cases in Indian Country including the following: •

The remoteness of some reservations, compounded by extremely poor traveling conditions in inclement weather, may contribute to multiday delays for FBI personnel travelling to crime scenes to begin investigations and interviewing witnesses. Some victims and witnesses must travel more than 500 miles to attend federal court proceedings. Further, some areas lack roads, legal street addresses, and telephones.



Many reservations have fairly small populations—sometimes numbering 100 or fewer residents. Victims and families, in general, are reluctant to report crimes when assailants are family members or people with status in their communities. In extremely small communities, victims and families may be far less likely to report crimes committed by someone with a close relationship to the victim or, in Indian Country, by an elder, spiritual leader, or tribal council member.

72

Indian Country is the legal term used to describe reservations and other lands set aside for Indian use, such as Indian allotments and lands held in trust for Indians or Indian tribes, according to 18 U.S.C. § 1151.

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Some American Indians who speak traditional languages may experience difficulty communicating in English with federal law enforcement and in federal court.



Some American Indians who are unfamiliar with Anglo customs may be uncomfortable interacting with law enforcement, prosecutorial, and court personnel during investigations and trials. In some cases, victims and witnesses may have a tendency to distrust outsiders.

Child sexual abuse potentially has many short-and long-term impacts on American Indian victims and these potential problems frequently are exacerbated in Indian Country, where remote reservations result in isolation of the victims and their families and insufficient social services to assist victims with the effects of the abuse. Frequently reported short-term impacts include anger, hostility, low self-esteem, conduct disorders, delinquency, inappropriate sexual behavior, teen pregnancy, truancy, poor performance in school, substance abuse, and running away. Potential long-term impacts include sexual disturbance, depression, suicide, alcoholism, drug abuse, chronic unemployment, violence, and sexual abuse of others. The Department has authority to prosecute child exploitation crimes in Indian Country predicated on two main federal statutes that govern federal criminal jurisdiction in Indian Country—18 U.S.C. § 1152 and § 1153. Section 1153, known as the Major Crimes Act, gives the federal government jurisdiction to prosecute certain enumerated serious offenses, such as murder, manslaughter, rape, aggravated assault, and child sexual abuse, when they are committed by Indians in Indian Country. Section 1152, known as the General Crimes Act, gives the Federal Government exclusive jurisdiction to prosecute all crimes committed by non-Indians against Indian victims. Section 1152 also grants the federal government jurisdiction to prosecute minor crimes by Indians against non-Indians, although that jurisdiction is shared with tribes, and provides that the federal government may not prosecute an Indian who has been punished by the local tribe for a minor offense. To protect tribal self-government, section 1152 also specifically excludes minor crimes between Indians, which fall under exclusive tribal jurisdiction. The federal government also has jurisdiction to prosecute federal crimes of general application, such as drug and financial crimes, when they occur in Indian Country. On a limited number of reservations, the federal criminal responsibilities under Sections 1152 and 1153 have been ceded to the states.73 The Department’s response to violent crime in Indian Country is informed by the circumstances of a tribe and the criminal justice issues confronting a particular reservation. The Department is focused on the prosecution of cases, but also recognizes that prevention, training, and other grassroots intervention efforts are vital for an effective solution to crime in Indian Country. These other efforts are important in Indian Country where financial resources may be limited and an adequate support system is not in place. 73

Federal jurisdiction was ceded under Public Law (Pub. L.) 83-280 (commonly referred to as Public Law 280), 18 U.S.C. § 1162, which required six states to assume jurisdiction over Indian Country crimes and divested the federal government of jurisdiction to prosecute under the Major and Indian Country Crimes Acts in those areas. Public Law 280 also allowed other states the option to assume jurisdiction. Congress also has passed a variety of reservationspecific statutes providing for a similar framework of state jurisdiction over crimes in those locations. The federal government retains jurisdiction to prosecute generally applicable offenses in Public Law 280 areas.

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A task force model often is employed that allows the federal government to supplement tribal resources when possible. In these cases, the Department looks to the tribes’ criminal justice systems as partners. Tribal law enforcement frequently is the first responder, collecting evidence and interviewing witnesses who will be critical to the success of federal prosecution. Moreover, a case may be prosecuted simultaneously in tribal and federal court; personnel in both systems engage in ongoing dialogue so that justice in both systems can be achieved. Sometimes this cooperation results in the tribe deferring to a U.S. Attorney’s Office, while other times the U.S. Attorney’s Office will defer to the tribe. In still other cases, it may be determined that the state, in fact, is where jurisdiction properly rests.

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III.

THE NATION’S APPROACH TO COMBATTING CHILD EXPLOITATION

For many years, the Department and many federal, state, and local agencies, and nongovernment organizations have fought against the sexual exploitation of our nation’s children on many fronts. The Act requires the Department to report to Congress on a variety of these efforts, including: (A) a review of the Department’s work to prevent, investigate, and prosecute child exploitation crimes;74 (B) a review of the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force Program;75 (C) a review of other Federal programs efforts relating to child exploitation and education;76 (D) a review of other efforts by private sector and nonprofit entities that promote child safety;77 (E) a description of the Department’s actions to help coordinate the various efforts that are underway, including efforts to coordinate internationally;78 (F) a review of federal programs focused on Internet safety;79 (G) a report on the Project Safe Childhood Conference;80 and (H) an assessment of the technological assistance available to state and local law enforcement agencies and review of the backlog of the forensic analysis at Regional Computer Forensic Labs.81 This section of the Report provides information on all of the areas identified above by providing a brief review of the myriad groups and coordination efforts underway. The combined efforts of these groups represent the work of thousands of individuals and hundreds of thousands of hours of work, resulting in countless crimes not being committed, victims being rescued, and crimes being prosecuted. Due to the significance of all of these efforts, it would be impossible to detail all of the work performed by each group. Instead, this Report attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the number of agencies, organizations, and task forces that exist to address this issue and to provide Congress information about the extent to which the Department is assisting in coordinating and collaborating with these groups. A. A Review of the Department of Justice’s Offices Involved in the Fight to Prevent, Investigate, and Prosecute Child Exploitation Crimes The Department has a number of components, offices, and agencies that devote personnel, resources, and time to the issue of preventing, investigating, and prosecuting child exploitation. These components include: the Office of the Deputy Attorney General (ODAG), FBI, the U.S. Marshals Service, the U.S. Attorneys Offices, the Criminal Division’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) and the Office of International Affairs (OIA), the Office of Justice Programs (OJP), and the Office of Legal Policy (OLP). For example, the FBI is one of the premier law enforcement agencies in the world. It has fought the exploitation of children through major initiatives like the Innocent Images National Initiative (IINI), the Innocence Lost National Initiative (ILNI), and the Child Abduction Rapid Deployment (CARD) teams. The Marshals Service takes a lead role in locating and investigating unregistered sex offenders. 74

See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(5). See the Act, Sec. 101 (c)(8). 76 See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(12). 77 See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(18). 78 See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(6-7). 79 See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(12). 80 See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(19). 81 See the Act, Sec. 101(c)(9-10). 75

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The United States Attorney’s offices lead Project Safe Childhood, a program designed to marshal federal, state and local investigative and prosecution resources to combat the technologyfacilitated sexual exploitation of children. CEOS is an office within the Criminal Division of the Department that is staffed by highly trained specialists who lead nationwide investigations, provide advice and training to the nation’s prosecutors, and develop legislative and policy initiatives. OIA is another section within the Criminal Division, which is responsible for coordination with federal, state, and foreign authorities to obtain the international extradition of fugitives and the exchange of evidence and other legal assistance in support of investigations and prosecutions, including those for child exploitation crimes, in the United States and abroad. OJP provides funding and coordination for dozens of state and local programs for research projects, community outreach, and Internet safety training, and investigative agencies, including the 61 ICAC task forces. The Office of Legal Policy has aided in gathering information for this Report, and in reviewing legislation in the area of child exploitation. The Office of the Deputy Attorney General houses the newly appointed National Coordinator for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction. 1. Office of the Deputy Attorney General The Act required the Department to appoint a “high official” to coordinate the formulation and implementation of the National Strategy, and to liaise with federal, state, local, and international groups to foster further cooperation in this area. The Department has appointed the National Coordinator for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction, who is housed in the Office of the Deputy Attorney General. The National Coordinator has worked as a state and federal prosecutor specializing in crimes against children since 1996, and brings a wealth of substantive experience to the position. 2. The Federal Bureau of Investigation The FBI is a leader in investigating child exploitation through several important initiatives. Agents working in Innocent Images focus on technology-facilitated crimes against children. This initiative has also been launched internationally, with investigators from many countries invited to train with agents from Innocent Images to foster cooperation and coordination. The FBI also leads 34 local task forces as part of the Innocence Lost initiative, which focuses on the forced domestic prostitution of our children, and has lead to the conviction of more than 500 pimps and madams. In 2006, the FBI formed Child Abduction Rapid Deployment (CARD) teams to aid state and local law enforcement in child abduction investigations. These teams have deployed in more than 55 cases since their creation. a. Innocent Images National Initiative The Innocent Images National Initiative (IINI) is a national FBI initiative that addresses crimes related to child pornography and the sexual exploitation of children through the use of online computers and related media. IINI investigations involve the use of highly sophisticated methods to identify subjects trying to evade law enforcement detection by the use of multiple layers of encryption and proxy servers in other countries. As such, IINI investigators and 42

analysts have specific training requirements which include IINI online undercover and advance cyber crime courses. Agents are enrolled in a Cyber Career Path to specialize in these cyber crimes. The Innocent Images National Initiative Unit (IINIU) is an intelligence-driven, proactive, multiagency investigative initiative to combat the proliferation of child pornography/child sexual exploitation facilitated by online predators. The mission of IINIU is to reduce the vulnerability of children to acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, which are facilitated through the use of computers and digital media; to support FBI field offices in their efforts to identify and rescue child victims; to support others in their efforts to investigate and prosecute sexual predators who use the Internet and other online services to sexually exploit children for personal or financial gain; and to strengthen the capabilities of federal, state, local, and international law enforcement through training programs and investigative assistance. IINIU is responsible for all IINI program management and policy development, the training of all IINI investigators, research and development of emerging technologies, outreach initiatives and facilitates the forensic analysis of computer-related media. The Innocent Images International Task Force, an initiative and training program focused on coordination and cooperation with our allies, is described more fully in Section F(1)(d)(10)(i) below. The FBI recently opened a new facility which is dedicated exclusively to the forensic analysis of digital evidence in the most significant child exploitation cases nationwide and conducts research in support of the investigative and forensic operations for IINI. The facility is located in Linthicum, MD and is a cooperative effort between the Cyber Division Innocent Images National Initiative and the Operational Technology Division’s Computer Analysis Response Team (CART). The facility was formed to address the growing need for dedicated resources in the area of computer forensic analysis for child exploitation investigations. The dedication of the facility to a specific mission allows for examiners to specialize in this discipline and provide detailed content analysis to investigators. The facility is capable of providing large scale forensic support and analysis to enterprise investigations containing multiple terabytes of data. The facility supports forensic examination services on a wide variety of operating system platforms as well as other forms of digital media, including digital cameras and cell phones. The facility includes a research component that is actively engaged in developing tools and resources to better identify and conduct operations against the most egregious offenders. Efforts are continuing to develop an automated system capable of identifying new trends in relation to how offenders use the internet to conduct illegal activities. IINI also takes the lead in Internet safety training on behalf of the FBI. The FBI’s Safe Online Street (S.O.S.) Internet Challenge is a national Internet safety program designed to help students recognize potential dangers associated with the Internet, email, chat rooms and social networking sites. This initiative was launched nationally in the Fall of 2009. The program addresses and defines topics serious in nature such as seduction, child pornography, solicitation, exploitation, obscenity and online predators. Students take web-based quizzes and review specific web sites aimed at promoting online safety. Approximately 60,000 students have participated throughout the United States in the program. More information can be found at: http://www.fbi-sos.org/.

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FBI and CEOS, in conjunction with NCMEC, operate the Endangered Child Alert Program (ECAP). In this program, FBI investigators select images of child pornography in which the perpetrator is at least partially visible. If all investigative efforts to identify the abuser have been exhausted, the FBI agents will then turn to the media and other public means to try to locate the individual. Working with CEOS trial attorneys, agents will obtain a “John Doe” or “Jane Doe” indictment against the offender. Once that is accomplished, the defendant’s image will be displayed on the FBI website. If, after two weeks, the offender still has not been identified, the case will be featured on America’s Most Wanted, the O’Reilly Factor, the Oprah Winfrey Show, and AOL. As of April 2010, this program has led to the recovery of over 31 victims of child sexual abuse and the location of 10 defendants. In a sister initiative, Operation Rescue Me, FBI, CEOS, and NCMEC work to identify child victims in series of child pornography images who have not been rescued. NCMEC provides FBI with the series, and the agents and analysts review the series for clues that will lead to the location of the child victims. As of April 2010, the initiative has identified seven child victims in four series of child pornography images. b. FBI Crimes Against Children Unit In June 2003, the FBI’s Crimes Against Children Unit, in conjunction with the Department’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, launched the Innocence Lost National Initiative. Their combined efforts were aimed at addressing the growing problem of domestic sex trafficking of children in the United States. In the six years since its inception, the Initiative has resulted in the development of 38 dedicated task forces and working groups throughout the U.S. involving federal, state and local law enforcement agencies working in tandem with U.S. Attorney's Offices. These task forces and working groups have recovered 918 children and obtained state and federal convictions against 554 pimps, madams, and their associates who exploit children through forced prostitution. On June 16, 2008, the FBI’s Crimes Against Children Unit deployed the Innocence Lost Database (ILD) to users in all FBI Field Offices, Innocence Lost Task Forces, and local law enforcement agencies. The ILD was developed to assist law enforcement to identify domestic child victims of prostitution; collect and track intelligence regarding suspected pimps; and build intelligence driven enterprise level investigations. The ILD currently maintains over 20,000 entries from agencies such as the Las Vegas Metropolitan PD, Boston PD, Dallas PD, Oakland PD, Los Angeles PD, Toledo PD, FBI, and NCMEC. Over the course of a year, these records now number 25% more than the initial 16,000 records entered into the system. Currently, over 2,100 entries pertain to identified child victims of prostitution. Criminal organizations are fluid and traffic victims interstate, i.e., to profitable locations, making it difficult to address the crime problem by local law enforcement alone. The focus of the FBI is to offer a task force approach employing the enterprise theory of investigation. The ILD offers a centralized, comprehensive electronic file, accessible to law enforcement 24/7. The ILD is an intelligence driven database that houses information on suspected pimps, child victims and adult prostitutes in an effort to connect enterprises and share intelligence. The ILD is hosted on the Law Enforcement On-line (LEO) Network and accessible through the Innocence Lost Special Interest Group.

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Since 2006, the Child Abduction Rapid Deployment Team (CARD) has deployed in 55 cases involving 58 children. In sixty-one percent (61%) of these cases, the abductor had a known relationship to the child. Persons with known relationships to the child could seem like unlikely suspects. However, in 2009, the FBI’s CARD Team has had the most deployments since being established in 2006. This is an indication that child abductions are an increasing problem and poses a threat to families. The motive behind some abductors with a known relationship to a child include; sexual intentions, divorce, ransom, a vicious act of retaliation. Of the cases in which the CARD Team was deployed, there were 32 female child victims, and 26 male child victims. A majority of these reported abductions were committed by family members (35%), or persons with a known relationship to the child (29%), totaling 64 % of reported abductions were committed by persons with a known relationship to the child. Of 54 cases the CARD Team has deployed on only 6% were registered sex offenders. Abductions committed by family members are sometimes initially reported as an abduction and later discovered to be a false allegation. For example, a parent will claim their child was abducted, when in fact they have murdered the child. Of the 55 CARD Team deployments, the motive of the abductor was determined in 27 cases: 58% (15) of the deployments were sexually motivated, 24% (7) of the deployments were motivated by family issues, and 8% (2) of the deployments were motivated by ransom/money. While more than half of the deployments have been sexually motivated it is important to note that does not mean the suspects were registered sex offenders at the time of the abduction. Of the 58% of sexually motivated cases, 34% (9) of the suspects had a known relationship with the child. Although child abduction is a reactive threat, the FBI remains proactive by conducting research on new and continuing trends in child abduction. Moreover, the FBI will strive to maintain updated statistics, in order report trends and best practices that law enforcement can use in an effort to reduce the risk of child abduction. The FBI’s Child Sex Tourism (CST) Initiative was developed to address the numerous child sex offenders in the US who travel abroad to procure children in other countries for sexual purposes. These offenders believe that they can commit a crime against a child with impunity abroad because they feel they are no longer subject to US law, that they are “anonymous” while traveling abroad, that they can claim ignorance of local laws, and that the local population would be reluctant to report such crimes to law enforcement. Some offenders even rationalize that they are “helping” prostituted children by providing them with a source of income, and that sex between adults and children is socially acceptable in the victim child’s culture. The victims of this crime are generally impoverished children who must join the workforce at an early age to help support their families. Numerous countries in Southeast Asia are so well-known for child sex tourism that there are entire neighborhoods which are considered brothels, and there are open-air markets where children can be purchased for sex. Children are sometimes sold to pimps by their own families because of extreme poverty, and sex acts between adults and children can be witnessed in public places such as bars and restaurants. 45

The effects of child sex tourism reach beyond the shattered lives of children overseas. In countries like Cambodia, Thailand, the Philippines, Costa Rica and Mexico, where the largest child sex tourism crime problem exist, the plurality of perpetrators are from the U.S. The prominence of child sexual abuse by U.S. citizens paints a despicable portrait of American tourists among local populations in those countries, and fosters anti-American sentiment in general. The FBI’s CST Initiative employs a proactive investigative strategy to identify and disrupt the activities of child sexual predators before they are able to victimize additional minors. Intelligence sharing with both host country authorities and interested non-governmental organizations has led to the identification of offenders and predicated areas where child sexual exploitation is rampant. The FBI utilizes these partnerships to collect evidence against predicated targets and facilitate the arrest and prosecution of subjects by host country authorities and/or in the U.S. The FBI has implemented a three-step approach to addressing the CST threat. These steps include assessing the scope of the problem, identify training needs, and the implementation of in-country operations. 3. United States Marshals Service The United States Marshals Service has a long history of recovering fugitives. In 2006, the Adam Walsh Act tasked them with primary responsibility for locating and apprehending sex offenders who fail to register as required on state sex offender registries as well as initiating federal investigations into sex offender registration violations and related offenses in noncompliance of the Act. Since July 2006, the USMS has apprehended approximately 40,000 fugitives wanted for sexual assaults, sex offender registration violations and other sex crimes. Additionally, investigators have opened more than 2,200 investigations on convicted sex offenders for violations of the Act and arrested more than 770 individuals who have been federally charged. The Marshals Service conducts sex offender specific special operations in conjunction with their state and local counterparts to increase sex offender registry compliance and to identify, locate, and arrest those that are non-compliant. Since October 2008, the Marshals Service has conducted 161 such operations, partnering with 566 state and local jurisdictions to conduct more than 15,000 compliance checks resulting in the arrest of approximately 1,500 non registered sex offenders. The compliance checks are designed to detect registry non-compliance and have led to the discovery of and subsequent referral to FBI/ICE/ICAC and/or state authorities’ evidence of possession of child pornography and other child exploitation crimes. This multi-pronged departmental approach maintains a consistent level of focus across the broadest spectrum enhancing the overall impact on those who offend. The Marshals Service works with NCMEC in recovering missing and exploited children through its Operation Pickup program. There is a USMS case manager assigned to NCMEC who pursues the Services’ efforts on behalf of abducted children. Operation Pickup has been instrumental in recovering more than 129 children since its inception in 2005. In recent years, the number of

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recoveries has increased. In 2006, 16 children were recovered while in 2009, 77 children were successfully recovered through Operation Pickup. 4. United States Attorney’s Offices Recognizing that our nation faced an epidemic of technology-assisted child exploitation crimes, the Department launched Project Safe Childhood (PSC) in 2006. Through a network of federal, state and local law enforcement agencies and advocacy organizations, PSC coordinates efforts to protect our children by investigating and prosecuting online sexual predators. PSC is implemented through a partnership of U.S. Attorneys; the Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section of the Department’s Criminal Division; Internet Crimes Against Children task forces; federal partners, including the FBI, U.S. Postal Inspection Service, Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Marshals Service; non-governmental organizations such as the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC); and state and local law enforcement officials. Under PSC, the number of federal child exploitation prosecutions has increased significantly, along with the number of federal, state and local investigations and convictions, and more and more victims are being identified. PSC’s education and awareness efforts complement this focus on enforcement. In FY 2009, the 93 U.S. Attorneys’ Offices filed 2,315 indictments against 2,427 defendants, representing a 40 percent increase over FY 2006. A total of 2,877 victims of child pornography crimes have been identified and many rescued, 1,973 of them since the launch of PSC, through enhanced law enforcement coordination and the efforts of NCMEC. 5. Criminal Division’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) The Justice Department’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (“CEOS”), situated within the Department’s Criminal Division, consists of approximately twenty attorneys and a six-person High Technology Investigative Unit (“HTIU”). CEOS leads the Criminal Division’s campaign against the sexual exploitation of children, using its experience in investigating and prosecuting the most challenging child sexual exploitation cases to shape domestic and international policy, launch nationwide investigations against the worst offenders, and provide guidance and training to other prosecutors and agents, both within and outside the federal government. CEOS is able to leverage a small amount of resources into extraordinary results. For example, in the last three years CEOS has spearheaded 18 national operations that have resulted in the investigation of over 2000 individuals. CEOS targets, among other crimes, (1) the production, advertising, distribution, receipt and possession of images depicting the sexual assault of children (child pornography); (2) the online inducement of children for sexually predatory purposes; (3) the travel of offenders, or transportation of children by offenders, across state lines for sexually predatory purposes; (4) the sex trafficking of children, including the prostitution of children on our city streets; and (5) child sex tourism involving offenders who travel to foreign, often impoverished countries to prey sexually on vulnerable children. Since FY 2001, the caseload of CEOS attorneys has increased every year, and has increased cumulatively by over 1100 percent. At the end of FY 2009, CEOS’s Trial Attorneys, who also handle national policy, legislation, training and outreach, collectively had an active caseload of 47

352 investigations and 162 charged cases. CEOS’s HTIU – consisting of a handful of computer forensic specialists – was instrumental in nearly every investigation and case, often discovering key evidence that meant the difference between the conviction or acquittal of a dangerous sex offender, or conviction for a higher or more serious offense. The large number of cases and investigations generated results primarily from resources dedicated to national operations and the significant involvement of CEOS’ High Tech Investigative Unit in undertaking the forensic investigation necessary to identify the targets. This upward trend can be expected to continue based on CEOS’ deep expertise, single-mission focus, along with its position as a headquarters unit—unrestricted by jurisdictional boundaries. CEOS’ nationwide focus also positions it to develop strategic partnerships outside of law enforcement circles in order to expand the effectiveness of the Department’s overall enforcement efforts. CEOS again takes full advantage of this unique ability -- having developed critical partnerships with key Non-Governmental Organizations, foreign governments (through bilateral and multilateral efforts, and through international police organizations such as INTERPOL and EUROPOL) and foreign entities such as the G8, the Council of Europe, and the United Nations Crime Commission. CEOS also engages the private sector in order to find ways for technology companies to fight the trafficking of child pornography over the Internet. CEOS also has helped shape legislation in a number of ways. In some instances, CEOS attorneys drafted legislative proposals in order to make the laws more effective. In other instances, CEOS is also called upon to provide Congress with technical assistance concerning pending legislation. Coordinated through the Department’s Office of Legislative Affairs, CEOS attorneys will analyze and comment on pending legislation, or will meet with staffers for informal briefings to share their expertise and perspective on a specific crime problem. Whenever new legislation is passed, CEOS then provides critical guidance to the field on how to implement the new laws. This guidance takes many forms: formal memoranda, advice provided to prosecutors who call CEOS’ duty line, and sample indictments or briefs responding to defense challenges to the new provision. CEOS also partners with all United States Attorney’s Offices, all federal law enforcement agencies, as well as foreign law enforcement, to operate nationally and trans-nationally targeting offenders that almost invariably are unburdened by geographical boundaries. This affords CEOS a unique view of the global threat and provides a firm basis of knowledge with which to aid in the development of a focused and coordinated response. Many prosecutors and agents find child sexual exploitation cases to be technically and emotionally challenging, if not something to avoid altogether. Thus, CEOS considers it a critical part of its mission to provide extensive guidance and training to AUSAs and agents who are working these cases. This guidance, which takes the various forms described below, covers a wide range of topics such as (1) developing and presenting computer forensic evidence at trial; (2) addressing recurring defense strategies, and handling well-known defense experts; (3) how to effectively use the specialized statutes and Rules of Evidence that apply to child sexual exploitation cases; (4) the novel issue of victim restitution in non-contact child pornography cases; and many other topics. In just over a year, CEOS provided training more than 170 times

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in various domestic and international venues, to more than 1,000 federal, state, and local prosecutors and investigators, including many foreign officials. CEOS also maintains and updates an intranet site, accessible by all United States Attorney’s Offices and Main Justice components, that provides links to the current and previous newsletters, topical indices for the newsletter articles, the case digest, a library of go-by motions, jury instructions, memoranda, and other useful documents. Since September 2007, over 32,000 items have been downloaded from this website. Moreover, agents and AUSAs who need immediate assistance can also call the CEOS duty line, staffed by CEOS Trial Attorneys who can provide particularized, on-the-spot guidance. CEOS has fielded over 1,700 duty calls during the past 15 months. Examples of CEOS’s work include: •

CEOS worked with the FBI and National Center for Missing & Exploited Children to develop a national initiative to combat the domestic prostitution of children (the Innocence Lost Initiative) at a time when no one recognized this as a crime. Today, this is a growing area of enforcement and recognized widely as a vexing crime problem. Innocence Lost currently operates in 34 task forces and working groups.



CEOS played an instrumental role in the design and implementation of Project Safe Childhood, which was conceived to enhance the government’s response to Internetfacilitated child exploitation crimes.



CEOS partnered with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, the FBI, and other federal partners to develop a mechanism to identify offenders, as well as victimized children depicted in the images of sexual abuse through the Endangered Child Alert Program and Operation Rescue Me. CEOS also worked with these partners to ensure that these victims’ rights are upheld.



CEOS recognized the challenges posed to Assistant United States Attorneys (AUSAs) by the technological sophistication of child pornography offenders and the complexities of online crime. CEOS responded by creating the High Technology Investigative Unit (“HTIU”), which now employs six computer forensic specialists. The HTIU was the first ever forensic unit co-located in a federal prosecutorial office. This synergy considerably enhances the Department’s capacity to prosecute cutting-edge, technologically complex child exploitation crimes.



CEOS has been assisting the Department to devise a strategy to address severe forensic shortfalls and challenges to effective information-sharing among law enforcement agencies.



To address a lack of consensus concerning the danger posed by child pornography collectors to children, CEOS proposed, developed and delivered, through the G8 Law Enforcement Projects Sub-Group, an International Symposium of experts to identify the correlation between child pornography offenders and child molesters. 49



CEOS worked closely with NDIC in developing the Threat Assessment contained in this Report.



Federal law enforcement partners from 2 out of the 3 key agencies involved in protecting children from sexual predators have agents co-located with CEOS to ensure maximum coordination. 6. Office of Justice Programs (OJP)

The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) works in partnership with federal, state, local and tribal government officials to support the justice system. The OJPs’ partnerships provide actionable plans to all levels of government to improve the administration of justice. Achieving the mission requires coordination and cooperation among its components, to include, the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the Community Capacity Development Office, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Office for Victims of Crime, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), and the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering and Tracking. a. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) OJP’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) provides national leadership, coordination, and resources to prevent and respond to juvenile delinquency and victimization. OJJDP supports states and communities in their efforts to develop and implement effective and coordinated prevention and intervention programs. OJJDP provides extensive training and technical assistance to state and local law enforcement regarding children’s issues. Additionally, OJJDP provides funding and training support for the Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Forces. As noted above, these task forces play a significant role in addressing exploitation of children on the internet. Other programs supported by OJJDP are listed below. i. AMBER Alert Program Since 1996 the Department has supported states and communities in developing their AMBER Alert response teams to respond to incidences of missing children before those children are victimized or exploited. AMBER Alert is a partnership among State and local governments, the media, and the U.S. Department. There are currently 120 regional and local AMBER Alert plans covering all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Special AMBER Alert initiatives help tribal governments develop capacity to implement AMBER Alert responses in Indian Country and to increase international law enforcement cooperation across the U.S. borders with Mexico and Canada. To date, 492 children have been recovered by Federal, State, and local law enforcement through the AMBER Alert program.

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ii. Preventing Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) Initiative The CSEC Initiative is a grant program administered by the Department, through OJJDP, to provide communities with resources to develop a better understanding of the CSEC problem and the ability to implement local plans involving law enforcement, court officials, and human service personnel, along with state and municipal decision makers in combating sexual exploitation juveniles. The initiative includes demonstration, direct service, and training and technical programs, as well as research and evaluation initiatives. In the past, demonstration and direct service programs have included the New York City Coalition Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, the Fulton County, Georgia based Juvenile Justice Fund and Girls Educational and Mentoring Services (GEMS), based in Harlem, NY. In New York City and in Fulton County, Georgia each effort received funding to design and develop programs that strengthen the effective collaboration between government and nongovernment agencies addressing CSEC issues. As a direct service effort, GEMS provides short and long residential services and counseling to girls ages 12 – 21 who have experienced sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking to exit the commercial sex industry. Training and technical assistance resources were provide to The Salvation Army in order to develop a multi-site training and technical assistance program to assist communities in aligning investigative, prosecutorial, and victim service resources to reduce the impact of commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth. Five target communities were selected, to include: Atlantic City, New Jersey; Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; San Diego, California; and Washington DC. In FY 2009 OJJDP expanded training and technical assistance efforts and CSEC research. The new initiative, titled “Improving Community Response to CSEC” provided $500,000 to three communities in order to strengthen effective collaboration between stakeholder organizations and, ultimately, develop an effective community response to child victims of exploitation. The expanded training and technical assistance effort, which is based on the curriculum designed under the initiative, will provide the training to the three communities funded under the Improving Community Response to CSEC initiative, as well as providing training to the ICAC Task Force Program. iii. Services for Victimized Children Through Child Advocacy Centers The Department, through OJJDP, provides grants to Local Children’s Advocacy Centers (CACs) to aid in coordinating the investigation, treatment, and prosecution of child sexual abuse cases by utilizing multidisciplinary teams of professionals involved in child protective and victim advocacy services, law enforcement and prosecution, and physical and mental health. One of the primary goals of the CAC Program is to ensure that child abuse victims are not further traumatized by the systems designed to protect them. OJJDP provides financial support through grants and cooperative agreements to the following regional, State, and local child advocacy centers:

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Alameda County, CA, Children's Assessment Center CASA of Los Angeles County Children's Advocacy Centers of OK, Inc Children’s Health Care Children's Hospitals of the King's Daughters National Children’s Alliance DC Children's Advocacy Center -Safe Shores, Washington, DC Denver Children's Advocacy Center EAC Child Advocacy Center, Central Islip, NY Eau Claire, WI Child Advocacy Center Friends of CASA Los Angeles County National Children’s Advocacy Center Inc. Philadelphia Children’s Alliance Putnam County CAC SOWEGA CASA Stepping Stones Child Advocacy, La Crosse WI Children’s Advocacy Center For The Pikes Peak Region Inc Young Women's Christian Association of Northcentral PA iv. The Association of Missing and Exploited Children’s Organizations (AMECO)

The Department, through OJJDP, provides annual grants to AMECO which is an association of member organizations in the United States and Canada who provide services to families with missing and exploited children. AMECO's mission as an international association of nonprofit organizations, is to provide a voice on issues related to missing and exploited children and their families and to nurture credible, ethical and effective nonprofit member organizations. AMECO members are national, regional and local non-profit organizations that provide direct services to the families of missing and exploited children and community education programs to enhance community safety. b. Bureau of Justice Assistance The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) supports law enforcement, courts, corrections, victim services, technology, and prevention initiatives that strengthen the nation’s criminal justice system. The BJA currently provides funding to 42 human trafficking task forces across the United States. Since effectively combating trafficking requires a multidisciplinary approach, the human trafficking task forces include members of state and local law enforcement, prosecutors, immigration and customs enforcement officers, and victim assistance coordinators. These task forces are focused on the identification, rescue, and restoration of victims as well as prosecution of the perpetrators of trafficking for forced labor and sexual exploitation. Although these task forces do not focus exclusively on child victims, operations conducted by these human trafficking task forces sometimes result in the identification of child victims.

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c. National Institute of Justice The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the Department and is dedicated to researching crime control and justice issues. NIJ provides objective, independent, evidence-based knowledge and tools to meet the challenges of crime and justice, particularly at the state and local levels. NIJ's principal authorities are derived from the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as amended (see 42 USC § 3721-3723) and Title II of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. NIJ supports a variety of research in the area of child exploitation, which is summarized in Section G, below. d. Office for Victims of Crime The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) oversees diverse programs that benefit victims of crime. The agency supports training programs designed to educate criminal justice and allied professionals regarding the rights and needs of crime victims. Since 2003, the Office for Victims of Crime has provided over $37 million to serve human tracking victims and responding service provides, training over 90,000 practitioners in communities across the United States about the dynamics of human trafficking, to include sex trafficking of minor children. e. Bureau of Justice Statistics The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is the primary source for criminal justice statistics in the United States. In 2007, the BJS released Federal Prosecution of Child Sex Exploitation Offenders, 2006, which presents federal criminal case processing statistics on child pornography, sex abuse, and sex transportation status in the U.S. criminal code for 2006. This includes national data on the number as well as type of offenders referred to and prosecuted by the U.S. Attorneys and describes the sentences they receive. Additionally, the BJS collects federal criminal case processing data as part of the Federal Justice Statistics Programs. This database compiles comprehensive information on individuals processed through the federal justice system. Further, the BJS is conducting a project through Northeastern University and the Urban Institute to create and maintain an online reporting system for human trafficking cases. The primary users are the human trafficking task forces funded by the Department through the Bureau of Justice Assistance. The project has been a success, and at this moment the system – called the Human Trafficking Reporting System (HTRS) – is online and receiving data. Pursuant to the goal of accurately reporting statistics on human trafficking, the following has been achieved: •

A common definition and reporting protocol has been developed based on the TVPA.



Retrospective data from 2007 have been entered into the HTRS by almost all of the task forces and internal reports have been submitted to BJS. On-site technical assistance has been provided to those task forces experiencing difficulties with the system.

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Additional data have been submitted to BJS, bringing the data up to date through the 2nd quarter of 2008.

The data captured by the HTRS will be used to support the Department’s reporting requirements under the 2005 TVPRA. Overall, these data will provide a detailed look at the characteristics of human trafficking cases identified by the Task Forces, including, when available, characteristics of offenders and victims and the circumstances surrounding each case. f. Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART) The SMART Office was authorized by the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 to administer the standards for the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Program set forth in Title I of the Adam Walsh Act. The responsibilities of the SMART Office include providing jurisdictions with guidance regarding the implementation of the Adam Walsh Act. The SMART Office also tracks important legislative and legal developments related to sex offenders. The SMART Office is involved in all issues related to sex offenders and offending including child sexual exploitation and adult victimization. One key role the SMART Office plays is providing technical assistance to territories, Indian tribes, federal, state, and local governments, and to public and private organizations. This includes but is not limited to sex offender registration and violations, research, juvenile sex offenders, child sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual assault prosecutions including state and local, tribal, federal and military cases. The SMART Office also responds to concerns from the public about sex offenders in their communities. The SMART Office has handled more than 1300 technical assistance calls since its implementation in 2007. The SMART Office has supported the development of a number of tools to assist the registration jurisdictions to implement SORNA’s requirements. The Tribe and Territory Sex Offender Registry System (TTSORS) was developed by the Department of Justice and the SMART Office to assist the tribes and territories in implementing Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) registry system requirements. Management and update access to this system is restricted—only tribe and territory agencies responsible for the management and registration of sex offenders have access to TTSORS. A similar program has also been developed for states -the Sex Offender Registry Tool (SORT). Both TTSORS and SORT are offered at no cost to SORNA registration jurisdictions. 7. Bureau of Prisons The Bureau of Prison’s (BOP) Sex Offender Management Program (SOMP) is responsible for the treatment of incarcerated sexual predators. SOMP is a multi-component program that includes treatment (SOTP), assessment, specialized correctional management, and population management. Treatment: The Bureau’s sex offender treatment programs are stratified into two levels: the high-intensity Residential (SOTP-R) and the moderate intensity Non-residential Sex Offender 54

Treatment Programs (SOTP-NR). Currently, Federal Medical Center (FMC) Devens, Massachusetts is the only institution with the SOTP-R. Five SOMP institutions offer the SOTPNR. The Residential Sex Offender Treatment Program (SOTP-R): is a high intensity program designed for high risk sexual offenders (ordinarily, inmates with multiple sex offenses, or a history of contact sexual offenses). The SOTP-R is a unit-based program with a cognitivebehavioral emphasis. The cohousing of SOTP-R participants permits the implementation of a modified therapeutic community. The SOTP-R is offered at FMC Devens. The program is designed to be 12 to 18 months in duration. The Non-residential Sex Offender Treatment Program (SOTP-NR): is a moderate intensity program designed for low to moderate risk sexual offenders. A significant number of inmates who volunteer for SOTP-NR are first-time offenders serving a sentence for an Internet sex crime. The SOTP-NR shares the SOTP-R's treatment philosophy and program materials, but lacks the frequency of treatment groups and the program duration of the SOTP-R. In addition, because SOTP-NR participants reside in the general population, there is no modified therapeutic community. All SOMP institutions offer the SOTP-NR. The typical duration of the SOTP-NR is 9-12 months. Community Treatment Services: Inmates completing the SOTP-NR and the SOTP-R are expected to participate in community treatment services (if they receive community placement). Community treatment services are group or individual sessions provided on an outpatient basis by a contracted treatment provider. Participants will be expected to attend these services while in RRC and on home confinement. Inmates with a requirement to participate in sex offender treatment while on Supervised Release will ordinarily continue with the same treatment vendor upon transition to USPO supervision. SOMP Evaluations: SOMP staff conduct intake screenings on all arriving sex offenders. They also conduct Initial Risk Assessments and Discharge Reports on inmates releasing to the community. Specialized Correctional Management: SOMP institutions may impose Correctional Management Plans (CMP) on sex offenders who engage in risk relevant behavior. Risk relevant behavior refers to conduct related to a sexual offender's history that indicates a risk of future sexual offending upon release (e.g., collecting sexual pictures of children; attempting to contact potential child victims). Population Management: To encourage voluntary participation in treatment and minimize protective custody lockups, at least 40% of the inmates in the general population at SOMP institutions have a history of sexual offense. SOMP institutions may accommodate referrals of inmates who are unable to remain in general population due to their sexual offense. Commitment and Treatment Program (CTP): The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act requires the Bureau to review releasing sex offenders for possible certification as sexually dangerous persons. The Bureau has designated FCI Butner as the facility where certified, 55

postsentence persons and civilly committed sex offenders will be transferred for treatment. To accommodate the CTP mission, the Sex Offender Treatment Program at FCI Butner was transferred to FMC Devens in 2006. 8. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) The Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) has announced $11.4 million in grants to support partnerships between state or local government agencies and their U.S. Attorney’s and U.S. Marshal's offices that focus on reducing child endangerment. The funds were awarded to 26 state and local agencies under the Child Sexual Predator Program and will help officials locate, arrest, and prosecute child sexual predators, as well as enforce state sex offender registration laws. In addition to the grants, COPS will fund the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children to provide approximately $600,000 in technical assistance to grant recipients. The technical assistance will include training on establishing effective anti-child endangerment programs, and on-site guidance for the grant recipients. The COPS Office will also develop a "best practices" publication that documents the experience of the grantees and will benefit other municipalities and states that pursue similar anti-child endangerment partnerships. 9.

Office of International Affairs (OIA)

The Office of International Affairs (OIA) serves as the central authority for the United States under more than 50 bilateral mutual legal assistance treaties (MLATs) and several multilateral conventions relating to international legal assistance and evidence gathering. OIA also functions as a central coordinating office for international extradition matters. In its role as central authority, OIA handles hundreds of cases involving requests for evidence and fugitives wanted on child exploitation charges in the United States and abroad. OIA supports fugitive retrieval efforts by lending its expertise to extradition cases, assisting in the preparation of extradition requests, providing legal advice on extradition matters, and assisting U.S. prosecutors in litigating extradition proceedings for foreign fugitives who are located in the United States and who, often, must be removed from an environment in which they pose a continuing threat to U.S. children. OIA also works directly or with Assistant U.S. Attorneys to execute requests from foreign governments seeking evidence located in the United States to support foreign criminal proceedings. Finally, in administering the MLATs and other conventions, OIA also assists state and federal prosecutors in the United states to obtain evidence located abroad to support all types of crimes, including child pornography, child prostitution, child molestation/rape, child sex tourism, luring of children using the internet, sexual assaults of minors and trafficking in persons (including minors). 10. Office of Legal Policy (OLP) The Office of Legal Policy (OLP) has played an important role in coordinating the Department’s efforts to combat child exploitation, such as by participating in developing the Department’s views on key pieces of legislation, assisting the SMART Office in drafting regulations concerning the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act, and drafting regulations 56

implementing the Adam Walsh Act’s amendment to 18 U.S.C. § 2257 and enactment of 18 U.S.C. § 2257A. In addition, OLP assisted in the development of this Report by coordinating with various Department components to obtain information on enforcement and other activities. 11. Interpol Washington INTERPOL Washington, a component of the Department, is designated by the Attorney General as the official U.S. representative to the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL). As the national point of contact for INTERPOL in the United States, INTERPOL Washington routinely exchanges criminal investigative data with international counterparts on behalf of the more than 18,000 federal, state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies in the United States. INTERPOL Washington is uniquely positioned within the interagency to facilitate secure and immediate international communications and information sharing between domestic and foreign law enforcement agencies which is critical in the global fight against child exploitation. In this role, INTERPOL Washington is capable of instantly providing criminal intelligence and investigative leads from worldwide sources to all U.S. agencies assigned to INTERPOL Washington, which includes the Department, DHS, Department of State (DOS), FBI, ICE, USMS, and all relevant state and local liaison offices. Key child protection programs at INTERPOL Washington include: •

Providing support to the USMS and other federal, state, local and tribal law enforcement agencies charged with locating and apprehending fugitive and non-compliant sex offenders;



Tracking convicted sex offenders who relocate, visit, or are deported to foreign countries;



Tracking convicted sex offenders who relocate or visit the U.S. from foreign countries;



Utilizing the INTERPOL Notice System and I-24/7 Global Communications System, a secure messaging system, to exchange investigative information and requests for assistance, locate and identify victims and witnesses, combat sex tourism, and locate missing and abducted children;



Providing ICE, FBI, and other law enforcement agencies with international investigative assistance, which includes combating the distribution of child sex abuse images via the Internet and identifying known victims; and



Supporting NCMEC in locating missing children, publishing international alerts on missing children, and collaborating with DOS, domestic and foreign law enforcement to return these children.

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B. A Review of the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force Program In the Act, Congress requested that the Department thoroughly review all aspects of the ICAC Task Force Program.82 Specifically, Congress requested information on the number of task forces, the number of trained personnel, the amount of grants that fund the program, the number of arrests by each task force, the number of criminal referrals, the number of prosecutions, the level of coordination of the task forces, an assessment of training conducted, and a review of technical tools available to the task forces. Below, the Department provides this information. This review, and the data contained herein, show the robust efforts underway at the state and local level, funded by the Department, in fighting child exploitation. Since 1998, ICACs have arrested more than 17,000 people suspected of sexually exploiting children. The data in this report come from monthly and quarterly required data submissions from the State and local Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Forces and other ICAC program grantees to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). Data are presented for the FY 2008, and for the first six months of calendar 2009, as these are the most current data available at the time of writing. Other sources, including the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, also contributed data to this report. The PROTECT our Children Act calls for a number of variables to be included in the review of the ICAC program. Some of the variables outlined in the Act were not available for FY 2009, as they were not required ICAC program data submissions prior to the passage of the Act. Beginning in January 2009, OJJDP implemented new data collection requirements for the (then 59) ICAC Task Forces. These data will be available for reporting in 2011.83 1. Background on the ICAC Program The ICAC Task Force Program has been protecting American children since 1998. The ICAC program is a national network of 61 coordinated Task Forces representing over 2,000 federal, state, local and tribal law enforcement and prosecutorial agencies. These agencies are engaged in investigations, forensic examinations, and prosecutions related to Internet crimes against children. Additionally, the Task Forces provide forensic and investigative technical assistance to law enforcement and prosecutorial officials, as well as community education information to parents, educators, prosecutors, law enforcement, and others concerned with child victimization. By helping state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies develop effective and sustainable responses to online child victimization and child pornography, OJJDP and the ICAC program have built capacity at the local level to address ICAC related offenses. Program accomplishments include:

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See the Act, Sec. 101 (c)(8). The data elements to be reported for the first time in 2011 include the number of prosecutions and convictions from the criminal referrals to United States Attorneys and the number of local prosecutions and convictions based on ICAC Task Force task force investigations.

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Since the program’s inception in 1998, the ICAC Task Forces have reviewed over 180,000 complaints of alleged child sexual victimization resulting in the arrest of nearly 17,000 individuals.



In fiscal year 2008, ICAC investigations led to more than 3,108 arrests, over 14,339 forensic examinations, and the identification of over 1,000 real children who were victims of some form of abuse and neglect.



In the first three quarters of FY 2009, the ICAC’s have arrested nearly 3,300 individuals, with almost one-third of those arrests (1,275) resulting in the acceptance of a plea agreement by the defendant in lieu of a trial.



ICAC has always included a robust training component. Since the ICAC program’s beginning in 1998, nearly 100,000 law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and other professionals have been trained throughout the United States and in 17 countries around the world on techniques to investigative and effectively prosecute ICAC related cases. In fiscal year 2008, the ICAC program trained over 26,000 law enforcement personnel, over 2,200 prosecutors, and more than 8,000 other professional working in the ICAC field. In first three quarters of fiscal year 2009, the number of trained law enforcement personnel increased to over 28,000, while 1,832 prosecutors have been trained. 84



The Act statutorily authorized the ICAC Task Force Program for the first time. Pursuant to the authorizing legislation, the ICAC Program seeks to maintain and expand state and regional ICAC Task Forces to address technology-facilitated child exploitation. These Task Forces work collaboratively as a national network of law enforcement and prosecutorial agencies that prevent, interdict, and investigate Internet crimes against children. The program requires existing Task Forces to develop multijurisdictional, multiagency responses to such offenses by providing funding and other support to state and local law enforcement agencies as a means to help them acquire the necessary knowledge, personnel, and equipment. In 2009 the Office of Justice Programs/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention issued the first continuation funding solicitation for the ICAC Task Forces as a program authorized by the PROTECT Act. The 2009 solicitation included language from the Act describing the functions and responsibilities of the ICAC Task Forces and their data reporting responsibilities. As provided for in Section 103 of the Act, ICAC Task Forces are dedicated to the following: • •

Increasing the investigative capabilities of state and local law enforcement officers in the detection, investigation, and apprehension of Internet crimes against children offenses or offenders, including technology-facilitated child exploitation offenses. Conducting proactive and reactive Internet crimes against children investigations.

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Because of the need for continuing education on advanced and emerging topics the count of numbers of persons trained should not be interpreted as an unduplicated total but as units of training delivered.

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• • • • • •

Providing training and technical assistance to ICAC Task Forces and other Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies in the areas of investigations, forensics, prosecution, community outreach, and capacity-building, using recognized experts to assist in the development and delivery of training programs. Increasing the number of Internet crimes against children offenses being investigated and prosecuted in both Federal and State courts. Creating a multiagency Task Force response to Internet crimes against children offenses within each State. Participating in the Department’s Project Safe Childhood initiative, the purpose of which is to combat technology-facilitated sexual exploitation crimes against children. Enhancing nationwide responses to Internet crimes against children offenses, including assisting other ICAC Task Forces, as well as other Federal, State, and local agencies with Internet crimes against children investigations and prosecutions. Developing and delivering Internet crimes against children public awareness and prevention programs. Participating in such other activities, both proactive and reactive, that will enhance investigations and prosecutions of Internet crimes against children. 2. Number and Location of ICAC Task Forces

At the time the Act was passed, there were 59 ICAC Task Forces covering all fifty States and the District of Columbia. Each of these Task Forces was selected through a series of competitive requests for proposals issued between 1998 and 2007. In May 2009 OJP released a competitive solicitation for two more ICAC Task Forces to be created in the New York City metropolitan area and in the Houston, Texas metropolitan area. These two new awards were made in August, 2009, bringing the total number of Task Forces to 61.

60

Figure 1: Location of ICAC Task Force Agencies

61

Table 1 : ICAC Task Force Agencies (N=61) State Task Force Agency

State

AK AL AR

Anchorage Police Department State of Alabama Arkansas State Police

MS MT NC

AZ CA CA CA CA

Phoenix Police Department City of San Jose City of San Diego City of Los Angeles County of Sacramento

ND NE NH NJ NM

CA CO CT DE

County of Fresno City of Colorado Springs Connecticut DPS Delaware Department of Justice

NV NY NY OH

FL FL FL GA HI IA ID IL IL

Broward County Sheriff Office County of Polk City of Gainesville Georgia Bureau of Investigation State of Hawaii Iowa Department of Public Safety Idaho Office of Attorney General County of Cook Illinois Attorney General’s Office

OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX TX

IN KS

Task Force Agency Mississippi Attorney General City of Billings North Carolina Department of Justice Office of Attorney General - ND Nebraska State Patrol City of Portsmouth New Jersey DPS New Mexico Attorney General's Office Las Vegas Metropolitan Police New York State Police New York City Police Department85 Cuyahoga County Prosecutors Office Oklahoma SBI Oregon Department of Justice Delaware County, PA Rhode Island State Police South Carolina Attorney General Office of the Attorney General- SD City of Knoxville Texas Office of the AG Pasadena Independent School District 86 City of Dallas Utah Attorney General

Indiana State Police TX Sedgwick County Sheriff’s UT Department KY Kentucky State Police VA County of Bedford LA LA Department of Justice VA Virginia State Police MA Massachusetts State Police VT Burlington VT Police Department MD Maryland State Police WA Seattle Police Department ME Maine State Police WI Wisconsin Department of Justice MI Michigan State Police WV West Virginia State Police MN Saint Paul Police Department WY Wyoming Attorney General MO City of Glendale Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

85

The New York City Police Department was selected in 2009 as the new ICAC Task Force to serve the New York City metropolitan area.

86

The Pasadena Independent School District was selected in 2009 as the new ICAC Task Force to serve the Houston metropolitan area.

62

3. Number of Trained Personnel at Each ICAC Task Force Due to the Task Force structure, affiliate agency personnel working ICAC-related cases fluctuate based on a number of circumstances including amount of pass-through funding to the affiliate and the volume of ICAC-related complaints. For this period, ICAC Task Forces reported the following dedicated full-time equivalents (FTEs) working ICAC-related cases: approximately 954 investigators; 156 prosecutors; 394 forensic specialists (includes forensic examiners and onscene preview personnel); and 153 community education specialists. In an effort to build the capacity to respond to internet crimes against children, each ICAC Task Force provides training to State and local law enforcement, prosecutors, and other personnel. This Table reports the number of personnel attending training by Task Force for FY 2008 and the first six months of 2009. Number of Trained Personnel (N=59) State Task Force Agency

AK AL AR AZ CA CA CA CA CA CO CT DE FL FL FL GA HI IA ID IL IL IN KS KY LA MA MD

Anchorage Police Department Alabama Bureau of Investigation Arkansas State Police Phoenix Police Department Fresno County Sheriff's Office Los Angeles Police Department Sacramento County Sheriff’s Office San Diego Police Department San Jose Police Department Colorado Springs Police Department Connecticut State Police Delaware Department of Justice Broward County Sheriff’s Office Gainesville Police Department Polk County Sheriff's Office Georgia Bureau of Investigation Hawaii Department of Attorney General Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation Idaho Office of Attorney General Cook County State's Attorney's Office Illinois Office of Attorney General Indiana State Police Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office Kentucky State Police Louisiana Department of Justice Massachusetts State Police Maryland State Police 63

Number of Trained Personnel FY 2008 Jan-Jun 2009 599 280 111 245 761 59 1461 369 66 60 182 216 483 77 126 275 1,098 6 94 41 171 338 163 2 19 16 484 157 662 392 485 534 1,001 270 35 281 50 166 1,201 248 48 2,422 947 1,188 239 149 327 545 29 55 1,736 4,907 981 504

State

Task Force Agency

ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX TX UT VA VA VT WA WI WV WY

Maine State Police Michigan State Police St. Paul Police Department Glendale Police Department Mississippi Office of Attorney General Billings Police Department North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation Nebraska State Patrol Portsmouth Police Department New Jersey State Police New Mexico Attorney General's Office Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department New York State Police Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation Oregon Department of Justice Delaware County District Attorney’s Office Rhode Island State Police South Carolina Attorney General’s Office South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation Knoxville Police Department Dallas Police Department Office of the Attorney General of Texas Utah Office of Attorney General Bedford County Sheriff’s Office Virginia State Police Burlington Police Department Seattle Police Department Wisconsin Department of Justice West Virginia State Police Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigation TOTAL Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces

Number of Trained Personnel FY 2008 Jan-Jun 2009 284 196 32 285 1,275 1,490 4,630 1,180 903 170 113 1,209 2,285 743 65 1 61 126 48 185 1,308 732 306 304 7 3 40 560 163 11 615 52 618 471 619 109 6 9 402 251 564 29 1,836 334 1 3 67 57 111 3 739 82 277 260 678 546 391 120 421 1,410 20 0 1 599 32,594 25,183

4. Federal Grants Awarded to Each Task Force In FY 2009, pursuant to the Act, OJJDP changed the ICAC program from a 24-month funding cycle to a 12-month funding cycle. Also pursuant to the Act, in FY 2009 a budget formula was developed to allocate funding to each of the Task Forces.

64

In addition, because of funds made available to the ICAC program through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) (Public Law 111-5) OJJDP made two grant awards to each of the Task Forces.87 The Table below shows the FY 2009 ARRA Award and the FY 2009 Continuation Grant made to each Task Force. Federal Grants Awarded to ICAC Task Forces in FY 2009 (N=61) State Agency FY 2009 FY 2009 Funding ARRA Alabama Alabama Bureau of Investigation $318,423.00 $652,884.00 Alaska Anchorage Police Department $200,000.00 $437,265.00 Arizona Phoenix Police Department $427,898.00 $824,004.00 Arkansas Arkansas State Police $298,451.00 $580,983.00 California San Jose Police Department $437,594.00 $863,930.00 California San Diego Police Department $348,774.00 $708,238.00 California Fresno County Sheriff's Office $297,488.00 $607,097.00 California Los Angeles Police Department $709,836.00 $1,350,900.00 California Sacramento County Sheriff’s $344,321.00 $702,838.00 Office Colorado Colorado Springs Police $332,111.00 $675,991.00 Department Connecticut Connecticut State Police $283,345.00 $584,975.00 Delaware Delaware Department of Justice $200,000.00 $437,109.00 Florida Broward County Sheriff’s Office $474,066.00 $881,389.00 Florida Gainesville Police Department $371,537.00 $729,688.00 Florida Polk County Sheriff's Office $448,962.00 $837,551.00 Georgia Georgia Bureau of Investigation $491,879.00 $947,058.00 Hawaii Hawaii Department of Attorney $250,000.00 $463,917.00 General Idaho Idaho Office of Attorney $205,000.00 $454,294.00 General Illinois Illinois Office of Attorney $426,569.00 $832,822.00 General Illinois Cook County State's Attorney's $341,689.00 $696,224.00 Office Indiana Indiana State Police $405,491.00 $793,329.00 Iowa Iowa Division of Criminal $295,980.00 $574,077.00 Investigation Kansas Sedgwick County Sheriff’s $267,889.00 $557,551.00 Office Kentucky Kentucky State Police $329,569.00 $652,491.00 Louisiana Louisiana Department of Justice $300,523.00 $623,474.00 Maine Maine State Police $205,000.00 $455,239.00 Maryland Maryland State Police $340,226.00 $688,800.00 Massachusetts Massachusetts State Police $397,831.00 $774,492.00 87

FY 2009 Total $971,307.00 $637,265.00 $1,251,902.00 $879,434.00 $1,301,524.00 $1,057,012.00 $904,585.00 $2,060,736.00 $1,047,159.00 $1,008,102.00 $868,320.00 $637,109.00 $1,355,455.00 $1,101,225.00 $1,286,513.00 $1,438,937.00 $713,917.00 $659,294.00 $1,259,391.00 $1,037,913.00 $1,198,820.00 $870,057.00 $825,440.00 $982,060.00 $923,997.00 $660,239.00 $1,029,026.00 $1,172,323.00

The New York City and Pasadena Independent School District Task Forces received only one award in FY 2009, as they did not exist when ARRA awards were made in May-June, 2009.

65

State

Agency

Michigan Minnesota Mississippi

Michigan State Police St. Paul Police Department Mississippi Office of Attorney General Glendale Police Department Billings Police Department Nebraska State Patrol Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department Portsmouth Police Department

Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico

New Jersey State Police New Mexico Attorney General's Office New York New York State Police New York New York City Police Department North North Carolina State Bureau of Carolina Investigation North Dakota North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation Ohio Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office Oklahoma Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation Oregon Oregon Department of Justice Pennsylvania Delaware County District Attorney’s Office Rhode Island Rhode Island State Police South Carolina South Carolina Attorney General’s Office South Dakota South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation Tennessee Knoxville Police Department Texas Dallas Police Department Texas Pasadena Independent School District PD Texas Office of the Attorney General of Texas Utah Utah Office of Attorney General Vermont Burlington Police Department Virginia Bedford County Sheriff’s Office 66

FY 2009 Funding $567,228.00 $355,826.00 $238,389.00

FY 2009 ARRA $1,094,876.00 $701,346.00 $514,677.00

FY 2009 Total

$385,454.00 $200,000.00 $219,969.00 $274,276.00

$733,895.00 $422,046.00 $481,092.00 $566,519.00

$1,119,349.00 $622,046.00 $701,061.00 $840,795.00

$215,000.00

$475,306.00

$690,306.00

$463,399.00 $228,550.00

$901,077.00 $488,527.00

$1,364,476.00 $717,077.00

$373,050.00 $500,000.00

$1,618,399.00 $0.00

$1,991,449.00 $500,000.00

$458,299.00

$879,040.00

$1,337,339.00

$200,000.00

$413,449.00

$613,449.00

$586,566.00

$1,122,272.00

$1,708,838.00

$318,221.00

$635,360.00

$953,581.00

$327,108.00 $596,512.00

$655,983.00 $1,084,541.00

$983,091.00 $1,681,053.00

$205,000.00 $357,072.00

$452,438.00 $687,278.00

$657,438.00 $1,044,350.00

$210,000.00

$444,133.00

$654,133.00

$384,286.00 $392,624.00 $500,000.00

$748,510.00 $776,503.00 $0.00

$1,132,796.00 $1,169,127.00 $500,000.00

$343,321.00

$1,479,163.00

$1,822,484.00

$268,806.00

$539,879.00

$808,685.00

$200,000.00 $349,038.00

$437,282.00 $681,572.00

$637,282.00 $1,030,610.00

$1,662,104.00 $1,057,172.00 $753,066.00

State

Agency

FY 2009 Funding $280,831.00 $431,941.00 $233,026.00 $381,647.00

Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin

FY 2009 ARRA $581,935.00 $848,038.00 $485,386.00 $735,622.00

FY 2009 Total

Virginia State Police $862,766.00 Seattle Police Department $1,279,979.00 West Virginia State Police $718,412.00 Wisconsin Department of $1,117,269.00 Justice Wyoming Wyoming Division of $200,000.00 $424,573.00 $624,573.00 Criminal Investigation TOTAL $20,995,891.00 $41,499,327.00 $62,495,218.00 Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

5. Assessment of Federal, State, and Local Cooperation The Act called for an assessment of ICAC Task Force activities including the following factors: (a) the number of arrests made by each Task Force; (b) the number of criminal referrals to United States attorneys for prosecution; (c) the number of prosecutions and convictions from the referrals to United States attorneys for prosecution; (d) the number, if available, of local prosecutions and convictions based on ICAC Task Force investigations; and (e) other information demonstrating Federal, State, and local coordination. As provided for in Section 106(d) of the Act, each funded State or local ICAC Task Force reported on the following data elements for last 12-month period. For certain data elements, no mechanism was in place to capture the indicated data; however, a full year of data is provided unless otherwise noted. a. Number of Arrests. For FY 2008, ICAC Task Forces reported 3,108 arrests; 2,408 arrests were reported for the first six months of 2009.88 This Table shows the number of arrests for the 59 Task Forces. Number of Arrests Reported by ICAC Task Forces (N=59) State Agency FY 2008 # Arrests AK Anchorage Police Department 24 AL Alabama Bureau of Investigation 35 AR Arkansas State Police 36 88

Jan.-June 2009 # Arrests 10 9 21

No data are reported for the Pasadena Independent School District and the New York City Police because they were not active Task Forces in the data collection period.

67

State

Agency

AZ CA CA CA CA CA CO CT DE FL FL FL GA HI IA ID IL IL IN KS KY LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC

Phoenix Police Department Fresno County Sheriff's Office Los Angeles Police Department Sacramento County Sheriff’s Office San Diego Police Department San Jose Police Department Colorado Springs Police Department Connecticut State Police Delaware Department of Justice Broward County Sheriff’s Office Gainesville Police Department Polk County Sheriff's Office Georgia Bureau of Investigation Hawaii Department of Attorney General Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation Idaho Office of Attorney General Cook County State's Attorney's Office Illinois Office of Attorney General Indiana State Police Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office Kentucky State Police Louisiana Department of Justice Massachusetts State Police Maryland State Police Maine State Police Michigan State Police St. Paul Police Department Glendale Police Department Mississippi Office of Attorney General Billings Police Department North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation Nebraska State Patrol Portsmouth Police Department New Jersey State Police New Mexico Attorney General's Office Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department New York State Police Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office

ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH

68

FY 2008 # Arrests 57 80 12 34 33 12 68 21 52 132 45 96 77 17 21 15 26 65 51 36 66 63 30 42 6 26 19 188 0 9 45

Jan.-June 2009 # Arrests

8

2

33 16 66 13 51

39 13 72 19 38

157 334

118 72

34 26 51 30 22 13 80 4 17 66 43 147 96 18 9 9 24 37 54 17 49 140 16 42 6 41 21 149 2 59 17

State

Agency

OK OR PA

Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation Oregon Department of Justice Delaware County District Attorney’s Office RI Rhode Island State Police SC South Carolina Attorney General’s Office SD South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation TN Knoxville Police Department TX Dallas Police Department TX Office of the Attorney General of Texas UT Utah Office of Attorney General VA Bedford County Sheriff’s Office VA Virginia State Police VT Burlington Police Department WA Seattle Police Department WI Wisconsin Department of Justice WV West Virginia State Police WY Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigation TOTAL Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces

FY 2008 # Arrests 70 44 92

Jan.-June 2009 # Arrests

3 73 21

20 23 22

26 6 98 98 58 92 41 31 80 20 38

43 21 105 72 55 104 14 7 62 16 4

3,108

2,408

18 18 52

b. Number of Criminal Referrals to United States Attorneys for Prosecution. During FY 2008, ICAC Task Forces reported 1,139 referrals to U.S. Attorneys; of those cases, 757 cases (66%) were accepted for federal prosecution. For the first six months of 2009, 681 cases were referred to Unites States Attorneys; of those, 537 cases (79%) were accepted for federal prosecution. The Table below shows the number of referrals by ICAC Task Forces to United States Attorneys and the number of cases accepted for federal prosecution.

69

Number of Criminal Referrals to United States Attorneys for Prosecution (N=59) State Agency FY 2008 FY 2008 Jan.-June Jan.Submitted Accepted 2009 June Submitted 2009 Accepted AK Anchorage Police Department 5 3 2 2 AL Alabama Bureau of Investigation 30 10 17 15 AR Arkansas State Police 18 18 7 6 AZ Phoenix Police Department 0 0 0 0 CA Fresno County Sheriff's Office 51 39 16 15 CA Los Angeles Police Department 2 0 14 4 CA Sacramento County Sheriff’s Office 7 7 14 11 CA San Diego Police Department 16 11 19 17 CA San Jose Police Department 2 1 0 0 CO Colorado Springs Police Department 11 7 6 5 CT Connecticut State Police 0 0 0 0 DE Delaware Department of Justice 12 12 4 4 FL Broward County Sheriff’s Office 10 4 22 22 FL Gainesville Police Department 30 27 16 14 FL Polk County Sheriff's Office 17 18 8 7 GA Georgia Bureau of Investigation 8 8 5 3 HI Hawaii Department of Attorney 19 15 6 5 General IA Iowa Division of Criminal 37 31 16 12 Investigation ID Idaho Office of Attorney General 5 4 3 3 IL Cook County State's Attorney's Office 1 1 0 0 IL Illinois Office of Attorney General 17 17 12 10 IN Indiana State Police 73 59 21 21 KS Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office 5 4 4 4 KY Kentucky State Police 51 36 28 24 LA Louisiana Department of Justice 13 5 8 7 MA Massachusetts State Police 16 3 10 9 MD Maryland State Police 4 3 9 13 ME Maine State Police 6 7 4 4 MI Michigan State Police 4 4 1 10 MN St. Paul Police Department 6 6 3 5 MO Glendale Police Department 59 31 67 48 MS Mississippi Office of Attorney 0 0 0 0 General MT Billings Police Department 29 25 54 44 NC North Carolina State Bureau of 32 24 23 28 Investigation ND North Dakota Bureau of Criminal 12 11 4 3 Investigation NE Nebraska State Patrol 20 19 4 3 70

State

Agency

FY 2008 FY 2008 Jan.-June Submitted Accepted 2009 Submitted

NH NJ NM

Portsmouth Police Department New Jersey State Police New Mexico Attorney General's Office NV Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department NY New York State Police OH Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office OK Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation OR Oregon Department of Justice PA Delaware County District Attorney’s Office RI Rhode Island State Police SC South Carolina Attorney General’s Office SD South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation TN Knoxville Police Department TX Dallas Police Department TX Office of the Attorney General of Texas UT Utah Office of Attorney General VA Bedford County Sheriff’s Office VA Virginia State Police VT Burlington Police Department WA Seattle Police Department WI Wisconsin Department of Justice WV West Virginia State Police WY Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigation TOTAL Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces

9 11 2

4 3 1

3 1 1

Jan.June 2009 Accepted 3 1 2

28

27

12

14

31 0 17

22 0 11

9 0 13

8 0 7

23 30

23 25

8 19

8 20

2 13

1 0

3 5

4 3

17

11

10

8

30 1 22

25 1 19

27 3 6

25 2 6

10 121 66 12 3 18 43 2

8 17 43 9 2 14 15 6

0 74 29 1 12 9 8 1

0 10 21 1 5 4 6 1

1,139

757

681

537

c. Number of Prosecutions and Convictions from Referrals to United States Attorneys. Prior to passage of the Act these data were not collected by OJJDP. Beginning in January, 2009 OJJDP implemented new data collection requirements for the ICAC Task Forces. These data will be available for reporting in 2011.

71

d. Number of local prosecutions and convictions based On ICAC Task Force investigations. Prior to passage of the Act these data were not collected by OJJDP. Beginning in January, 2009 OJJDP implemented new data collection requirements for the ICAC Task Forces. These data will be available for reporting in 2011. e. Cases referred by the ICAC Task Forces to Federal, state or local law enforcement for further review and investigation. In FY 2008, ICAC Task Forces referred 6,387 complaints to Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies for further review and investigation; in the first six months of calendar year 2009, 4,255 complaints were referred out for further review and investigation. shows the number of cases referred by the ICAC Task Forces to Federal, State, or local partners for further investigation. Cases Referred for Further Review and Investigation by ICAC Task Forces (N=59) State Agency FY 2008 Jan.-June 2009 # of Cases Referred # of Cases Referred Federal State Local Federal State Local AK Anchorage Police Department 5 24 5 8 10 1 AL Alabama Bureau of Investigation 14 78 21 15 36 10 AR Arkansas State Police 9 32 11 1 14 12 AZ Phoenix Police Department 29 157 98 15 60 111 CA Fresno County Sheriff's Office 67 11 5 14 9 4 CA Los Angeles Police Department 1 3 9 40 49 30 CA Sacramento County Sheriff’s Office 9 22 25 12 13 14 CA San Diego Police Department 37 8 8 42 0 12 CA San Jose Police Department 11 8 3 3 11 74 CO Colorado Springs Police Department 33 64 29 12 11 13 CT Connecticut State Police 9 12 4 0 8 17 DE Delaware Department of Justice 7 10 9 4 4 13 FL Broward County Sheriff’s Office 9 6 424 2 1 212 FL Gainesville Police Department 21 0 0 13 20 11 FL Polk County Sheriff's Office 14 18 1 10 30 25 GA Georgia Bureau of Investigation 11 60 70 3 38 38 HI Hawaii Department of Attorney 17 1 4 3 2 0 General IA Iowa Division of Criminal 17 11 6 7 3 3 Investigation ID Idaho Office of Attorney General 12 15 14 9 12 4 IL Cook County State's Attorney's Office 5 17 3 0 1 0 IL Illinois Office of Attorney General 26 32 16 5 9 8 IN Indiana State Police 33 5 30 16 40 44 KS Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office 8 29 24 6 8 16 KY Kentucky State Police 18 133 11 8 14 3 72

State Agency

LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX TX UT VA VA VT WA WI WV WY

Louisiana Department of Justice Massachusetts State Police Maryland State Police Maine State Police Michigan State Police St. Paul Police Department Glendale Police Department Mississippi Office of Attorney General Billings Police Department North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation Nebraska State Patrol Portsmouth Police Department New Jersey State Police New Mexico Attorney General's Office Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department New York State Police Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation Oregon Department of Justice Delaware County District Attorney’s Office Rhode Island State Police South Carolina Attorney General’s Office South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation Knoxville Police Department Dallas Police Department Office of the Attorney General of Texas Utah Office of Attorney General Bedford County Sheriff’s Office Virginia State Police Burlington Police Department Seattle Police Department Wisconsin Department of Justice West Virginia State Police Wyoming Division of Criminal

FY 2008 # of Cases Referred Federal State Local 13 26 47 11 55 20 4 7 27 11 72 40 2 12 2 0 29 64 42 51 246 0 7 1 88 393 233 23 36 147

73

Jan.-June 2009 # of Cases Referred Federal State Local 21 85 56 8 27 3 4 1 6 9 92 44 10 0 30 3 17 114 196 32 108 0 3 0 24 15 17 48 14 120

8

11

1

0

3

0

17 9 25 1 24

42 18 39 8 33

3 2 50 7 13

8 3 4 4 9

31 8 0 28 52

3 2 11 6 15

15 82 34

190 98 59

76 91 30

5 19 15

51 7 19

66 33 11

21 75

37 146

56 113

11 21

21 68

26 50

3 11

4 14

1 37

0 2

2 5

0 2

22

11

6

23

21

5

8 5 19

13 222 21

6 41 56

14 9 14

32 372 28

56 102 136

23 24 41 19 5 14 11 4

71 76 15 49 17 36 21 2

10 194 10 4 6 71 5 8

2 13 25 2 10 3 3 1

41 41 37 3 9 31 12 7

3 71 4 7 18 40 4 2

State Agency

FY 2008 # of Cases Referred Federal State Local

Investigation TOTAL Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces

1,136

2,697 2,554

Jan.-June 2009 # of Cases Referred Federal State Local 791

1,618

1,846

6. Investigative technical assistance provided by ICAC Task Forces. ICAC Task Forces reported 11,976 investigative technical assists for FY 2008; 8,227 investigative technical assists were reported for the first six months of 2009. The ICAC Task Forces provide investigative technical assistance in a variety of ways, including reviewing sample affidavit and search warrant language; providing advice and guidance in the development and execution of both small and large scale undercover operations; and participating in the arrest and interview of an individual suspected of engaging in child sexual exploitation. Other examples of investigative technical assistance include providing contact information and direction in communicating with Internet Service Providers or common approaches to extracting information from an online search engine to corroborate a suspect’s Internet activity. The shows the number of investigative assists by ICAC Task Forces. Number of Investigative Technical Assists Provided by ICAC Task Forces (N=59) State Agency FY 2008 Jan.-June 2009 Technical Technical Assists Assists AK Anchorage Police Department 31 130 AL Alabama Bureau of Investigation 48 37 AR Arkansas State Police 333 200 AZ Phoenix Police Department 401 205 CA Fresno County Sheriff's Office 183 94 CA Los Angeles Police Department 55 213 CA Sacramento County Sheriff’s Office 39 35 CA San Diego Police Department 92 92 CA San Jose Police Department 68 61 CO Colorado Springs Police Department 74 82 CT Connecticut State Police 227 123 DE Delaware Department of Justice 32 7 FL Broward County Sheriff’s Office 591 174 FL Gainesville Police Department 345 140 FL Polk County Sheriff's Office 45 48 GA Georgia Bureau of Investigation 155 60 HI Hawaii Department of Attorney General 37 20 IA Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation 314 200 ID Idaho Office of Attorney General 70 49 IL Cook County State's Attorney's Office 64 8 IL Illinois Office of Attorney General 102 63 IN Indiana State Police 186 182 74

State Agency

KS KY LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX TX UT VA VA VT WA WI WV WY

Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office Kentucky State Police Louisiana Department of Justice Massachusetts State Police Maryland State Police Maine State Police Michigan State Police St. Paul Police Department Glendale Police Department Mississippi Office of Attorney General Billings Police Department North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation Nebraska State Patrol Portsmouth Police Department New Jersey State Police New Mexico Attorney General's Office Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department New York State Police Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation Oregon Department of Justice Delaware County District Attorney’s Office Rhode Island State Police South Carolina Attorney General’s Office South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation Knoxville Police Department Dallas Police Department Office of the Attorney General of Texas Utah Office of Attorney General Bedford County Sheriff’s Office Virginia State Police Burlington Police Department Seattle Police Department Wisconsin Department of Justice West Virginia State Police Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigation 75

FY 2008 Technical Assists 142 384 24 256 80 71 47 295 303 35 33 401

Jan.-June 2009 Technical Assists 90 296 93 186 33 102 99 204 264 33 538 156

158

78

191 32 121 207 194

362 58 124 112 121

457 114 336 193 1006

188 31 89 97 448

87 609 225

88 227 114

422 97 172 282 311 112 129 208 348 52 350

331 148 140 173 208 127 40 131 244 47 184

State Agency

FY 2008 Technical Assists 11,976

TOTAL Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces

Jan.-June 2009 Technical Assists 8,227

7. Computer forensic examinations by ICAC Task Forces. In FY 2008, 14,339 computer forensic examinations were reported; 19,269 computer forensic exams were reported in 2009. The goal of a forensic examination is to indentify files that contain child sexual abuse images. Forensic exams may include examination of video, text, or picture files; examination of chat logs, e-mails, or other communication programs; and / or examination of file storage and structure. The level of effort required for a forensic exam varies greatly by the size and type of device being examined. Investigators commonly seize multiple media in one investigation, including: internal and external hard drives, flash drives, DVDs and CDs, cells phones and other digital media devices containing terabytes of data in an effort to identify contraband files. The below shows the number of forensic examinations completed by ICAC Task Forces. Number of Computer Forensic Examinations by ICAC Task Forces (N=59) State Agency FY 2008 Jan.-June # Forensic 2009 # Exams Forensic Exams AK Anchorage Police Department 121 216 AL Alabama Bureau of Investigation 240 193 AR Arkansas State Police 361 271 AZ Phoenix Police Department 274 95 CA Fresno County Sheriff's Office 97 71 CA Los Angeles Police Department 64 205 CA Sacramento County Sheriff’s Office 250 165 CA San Diego Police Department 82 88 CA San Jose Police Department 60 44 CO Colorado Springs Police Department 116 183 CT Connecticut State Police 45 119 DE Delaware Department of Justice 175 75 FL Broward County Sheriff’s Office 107 132 FL Gainesville Police Department 202 267 FL Polk County Sheriff's Office 79 144 GA Georgia Bureau of Investigation 278 188 HI Hawaii Department of Attorney General 57 31 IA Iowa Division of Criminal Investigation 308 244 ID Idaho Office of Attorney General 65 71 IL Cook County State's Attorney's Office 36 16 IL Illinois Office of Attorney General 433 191 IN Indiana State Police 386 318 76

State Agency

FY 2008 # Forensic Exams

KS KY LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND

Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office Kentucky State Police Louisiana Department of Justice Massachusetts State Police Maryland State Police Maine State Police Michigan State Police St. Paul Police Department Glendale Police Department Mississippi Office of Attorney General Billings Police Department North Carolina State Bureau of Investigation North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigation NE Nebraska State Patrol NH Portsmouth Police Department NJ New Jersey State Police NM New Mexico Attorney General's Office NV Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department NY New York State Police OH Cuyahoga County Prosecutor’s Office OK Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation OR Oregon Department of Justice PA Delaware County District Attorney’s Office RI Rhode Island State Police SC South Carolina Attorney General’s Office SD South Dakota Division of Criminal Investigation TN Knoxville Police Department TX Dallas Police Department TX Office of the Attorney General of Texas UT Utah Office of Attorney General VA Bedford County Sheriff’s Office VA Virginia State Police VT Burlington Police Department WA Seattle Police Department WI Wisconsin Department of Justice WV West Virginia State Police WY Wyoming Division of Criminal Investigation TOTAL Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces

77

Jan.-June 2009 # Forensic Exams

118 297 153 224 235 121 187 356 813 67 39 433 178

28 150 91 193 119 71 107 217 628 47 762 234 55

307 64 65 168 292 881 176 222 358 924 34 497 305

343 72 124 200 182 495 149 91 126 495 74 235 212

524 26 602 190 216 43 273 180 679 120 136 14,339

270 91 345 195 152 105 55 94 514 104 37 10,789

8. Number and type of ICAC Task Force affiliate agencies. An affiliate is defined as a law enforcement agency that is working in partnership with a Task Force and has agreed in writing to adhere to ICAC Operational and Investigative Standards. The below shows the number of law enforcement agencies participating in the program standards established by the ICAC Task Force Program as of August 30, 2009. Number and Type of ICAC Task Force Affiliate Agencies (N=59) Agency Type Number of Affiliate Law Enforcement Agencies TF Lead Agencies 59 State 139 County 986 City/Local 1,330 Tribal 8 Federal 124 TOTAL 2,646 Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces (As reported on August 30, 2009) ICAC Task Forces report 199 affiliate agencies added to the program during the first six months of 2009. Additionally, ICAC Task Forces report relationships with law enforcement agencies without a signed agreement (MOU). The below shows the number of agencies cooperating with ICAC Task Forces who have not yet signed an MOU. Number and Type of ICAC Task Force Partner Agencies (N=59) Agency Type Number of Law Enforcement Partnerships State 20 County 43 City/Local 33 Tribal 1 Federal 41 TOTAL 138 Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces (As reported on August 30, 2009) 9. Assessment of training and technical assistance to support ICAC grantees. The purpose of the ICAC Training and Technical Assistance (ICAC T&TA) program is to provide law enforcement officers, computer forensic investigators and prosecutors with the tools necessary to effectively investigate and prosecute computer facilitated crimes against children. Since 2005, OJJDP awarded funding to Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC) to design and implement cutting-edge training and technical assistance focused on investigative techniques and best practices for undercover operations to combat Internet crimes against children.

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In FY 2008, the ICAC T&TA Program delivered 34 T&TA sessions and 1 national conference, reaching nearly 5,700 participants. The below highlights the courses offered and the average evaluation rating by type of event. FY 2008 ICAC T&TA Course Offerings and Evaluation Data Program Sessions # Regional Offered Participants Training or TA CyberTips Management 1 Regional 21 ICAC Investigative Techniques 10 Regional 299 ICAC Investigative Techniques 4 TA 88 ICAC Peer-to-Peer 2 Regional 83 Project Safe Childhood 6 Regional 319 Project Safe Childhood 1 TA 33 ICAC Trial Advocacy for 1 Regional Prosecutors 17 ICAC Undercover Chat 6 Regional Investigations 179 ICAC Undercover Chat 2 TA Investigations 57 ICAC Unit Supervisor 1 Regional 31 ICAC National Conference 1 National 2,280 Source: Reports from ICAC Training & Technical Assistance Program

Average Evaluation Score (Scale 1-10) 8.71 9.34 8.92 9.08 8.55 9.47 8.75 9.28 9.37 9.4 -

From October 2008 to June 2009, the ICAC T&TA Program delivered 39 T&TA sessions and 1 regional conference, reaching over 2,700 participants. The below highlights the courses offered and the average evaluation rating by type of event. ICAC T&TA Course Offerings and Evaluation Data (October 2008 – June 2009) Program # # Sessions Participants Offered CyberTips Management 1 19 ICAC First Responder 9 573 ICAC Investigative Techniques 5 150 ICAC Investigative Techniques 3 106 ICAC Peer-to-Peer 2 58 ICAC Peer-to-Peer 2 58 Project Safe Childhood 3 117 ICAC Trial Advocacy for 2 Prosecutors 60 ICAC Instructor Development 1 41 Train the Trainer 79

Regional Training or TA Regional Regional Regional TA Regional TA Regional Regional

Average Evaluation Score (Scale 1-10) 9.33 9.02 9.08 9.20 8.87 9.17 9.20 9.09

TA

9.7

ICAC Undercover Chat 4 Regional Investigations 119 ICAC Undercover Chat 3 TA Investigations 70 ICAC Unit Supervisor 1 Regional 66 SVICAC Conference 1 Regional 642 Source: Reports from ICAC Training & Technical Assistance Program

9.22 9.07 8.78 -

With funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “Recovery Act”) (Public Law 111-5), OJJDP has increased its capacity to deliver training and technical assistance to the ICAC Task Force. Starting in FY 2010, OJJDP will fund the following training providers: •

• •

• •



Girls Educational and Mentoring Services, Inc. (GEMS) – to deliver training and technical assistance to the ICAC Task Forces to increase the capacity of members to effectively combat interrelated forms of the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). The SEARCH Group, Inc. - to provide highly specialized training related to social networking sites, peer to peer file sharing, wireless networks, and cell phone technology. The National District Attorneys Association (NDAA) – to deliver national training courses for prosecutors, including their two-part Unsafe Havens class (Part I focuses on pre-trial and investigation, while Part II is an advanced trial advocacy course addressing jury selection through sentencing). The University of Mississippi and the National Judicial College – to develop high quality educational programming for State judges on the investigation and prosecution of technology-assisted crimes against children. The National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C) - to deliver an innovative training program for law enforcement, prosecutors, and other stakeholders in the ICAC program to improve investigative, prosecutorial and forensic capabilities; create and distribute guidelines, best practices and investigative methodologies; and coordinate meetings with grantees and practitioners. The Innocent Justice Foundation – to develop a comprehensive mental health and wellness program for ICAC Task Force personnel to address negative effects and trauma for individuals exposed to child pornography through their work.

In addition to funds provided by the Recovery Act, OJJDP will provide funding to the Fox Valley Technical College (FVTC) to support the core ICAC Training and Technical assistance program that includes training focused on investigative techniques and best practices for undercover operations to combat Internet crimes against children. FVTC will also coordinate with OJJDP to provide site-specific technical assistance to the ICAC Task Forces, meeting logistics for the quarterly ICAC Commanders’ meetings, the National ICAC Conference, Missing Children’s Day ceremony, and other tasks.

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10. Assessment of leveraging State and local funds. In addition to bi-annual federal grants to support the work of the ICAC Task Forces89, most Task Forces also receive cash or in-kind support from State and local authorities. The State and local funds are leveraged through the federal support for the ICAC program. Data from a sample of ICAC Task Forces reflecting leveraged State and local funds are shown in the Table below, along with the average annual OJJDP funding awarded to the ICAC Task Forces during each of the three fiscal years. These data are reported over three fiscal years, FY 2006, 2007 and 2008.

Average Total and Percentage of Leveraged Local and State Funds to ICAC Task Forces (N=19) Fiscal Year Funding Source 2006 2007 2008 Average Local Contribution $ 488,526 $ 604,107 $ 665,877 OJJDP Average Award $ 424,993 $ 458,333 $ 462,873 Average Annual Operational Cost $ 915,525 $ 1,064,447 $ 1,130,758 Percent of ICAC Operations 53% Supported with Leveraged State and Local Funds Source: Reports from ICAC Task Forces and OJJDP

56%

58%

OJJDP is taking steps to collect annual data on State and local funds from all Task Forces. These data will be available in 2011. C. Other Federal Agencies’ Efforts 1. Department of Homeland Security’s Efforts The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency. More than 87,000 different governmental jurisdictions at the federal, state, and local level have homeland security responsibilities. The comprehensive national strategy seeks to develop a complementary system connecting all levels of government without duplicating effort. Created in March 2003, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest investigative branch of the Department of Homeland Security. The agency combines the law enforcement arms of the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and the former U.S. Customs Service to more effectively enforce our immigration and customs laws and to protect the United States against terrorist attacks. In the fight against child exploitation and human trafficking, ICE 89

In 2009 OJJDP changed the ICAC Task Force budget cycle from 24 months to 12 months to more efficiently comply with the provision of the PROTECT Act.

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has developed highly successful initiatives that focus on identifying, investigating, and arresting child predators and sexual offenders, as well as attacking the infrastructure that supports smuggling and trafficking organizations and the assets that are derived from these criminal activities. This might include seizing currency, property, weapons, and vehicles. ICE plays a significant role in combating the sexual exploitation of children. ICE accomplishes this mission through the Office of Investigations (OI), the Office of International Affairs (OIA), the Office of Intelligence, and the Office of Detention and Removal (DRO). During FY 2010, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) led a team of subject matter experts from various DHS components to develop computer/web based training (CBT) for Federal, state, local and tribal law enforcement officers to increase awareness of indicators of human trafficking. There are four video training scenarios, one of which addresses trafficking of minors who are sexually exploited. This interactive, web-based training also includes resource information from ICE a. Office of Investigations i. Cyber Crimes Center (C3) Child Exploitation Section Initiated in 1997, the Cyber Crimes Center (C3) Child Exploitation Section (CES) investigates large-scale producers and distributors of child pornography as well as individuals who travel in foreign commerce for the purpose of engaging in sex with minors. The CES employs the latest technology to collect evidence and track the activities of individuals and organized groups who sexually exploit children through the use of websites, chat rooms, newsgroups and peer-to-peer trading. The CES also conducts clandestine operations throughout the world to identify and apprehend violators. The CES assists the field offices and routinely coordinates major investigations. The CES works closely with law enforcement agencies from around the world because the exploitation of children is a matter of global importance. The CES manages the entire ICE Child Exploitation Program to include: Operation Predator. Operation Predator is a program designed to identify, investigate, and as appropriate, administratively remove child predators through the efforts of four principal entities of ICE: the Office of Investigations, the Office of International Affairs, the Office of Detention and Removal, and the Federal Protective Service. Officially launched by ICE on July 9, 2003, Operation Predator combines immigration investigative and administrative initiatives that target foreign nationals, undocumented aliens, and previously deported criminal aliens involved in child exploitation crimes and investigate the importation and exportation of images associated with child exploitation. Operation Predator works in partnership with the Justice’s Project Safe Childhood, a comprehensive program to integrate the efforts of federal, state, and local law enforcement, non-government organizations, industry, and communities to counter the issue of child exploitation. ICE, through Operation Predator, maintains relationships with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), U.S. Postal Inspection Service, U.S. Secret Service, the Department of Justice, and the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces. ICE focuses on the international, trans-border dimension of child exploitation and integrates this enforcement with the national and local efforts of other law 82

enforcement agencies in the United States. ICE routinely coordinates and integrates investigative efforts with foreign law enforcement, in order to identify, arrest and prosecute the principals who are involved in international pedophilic groups or who travel internationally for the purpose of having sex with children. As of February 28, 2010, 12,854 sexual predators have been arrested as a result of this initiatives conducted under the auspice of Operation Predator. Of those, 6,342 have been removed from the United States. The following programs are primary initiatives of the CES and fall under the Operation Predator umbrella: •

National and International Operations The CES initiates national and international investigations involving large-scale production and/or distribution of child pornography by individuals and/or groups. These operations seek to dismantle and prosecute the individuals and/or groups while disseminating the downstream leads to ICE offices, both domestic and international, for further investigation. The CES coordinates these operations with the U.S. Department of Justice, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS). The CES also provides support and guidance to ICE field offices, both domestic and international, that are engaged in large scale child exploitation investigations.



Virtual Global Task Force The Virtual Global Task Force (VGT) is a collaboration of international law enforcement agencies with the common goal of protecting children from sexual exploitation. The mission of the VGT is to make the Internet a safer place, to identify, locate and help children at risk, and to hold predators accountable for their actions. The VGT was established in 2003 and includes the U.S. (ICE), United Kingdom (Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre), Canada (Royal Canadian Mounted Police), Australia (Australian Federal Police), Italy (Postal and Communication Police), the Ministry of Interior for the United Arab Emirates, and The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) as its current members. The VGT is intended to augment, not supplant, existing law enforcement initiatives and international relationships related to child exploitation issues. ICE is the exclusive U.S. representative to the VGT; the Section Chief CES serves as the senior practitioner to the VGT.



Child Sex Tourism The Child Sex Tourism (CST) program originated in 1997 and became a major initiative after the passage of the 2003 Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act, or PROTECT Act. Child sex tourism is a pervasive international problem. These predators often have a long history of abusing children, both in the United States and abroad. The CES investigates U.S. citizens and/or lawful permanent residents who are arrested in, or traveled to, a foreign country for the purpose of engaging in sexual acts with children. The CES is responsible for and the coordinating point for ICE’s National Child Sex Tourism Strategy. The CES also provides support to ICE 83

field offices, both domestic and foreign, engaged in child sex tourism investigations. •

Lead Intake and Dissemination The CES is the central point within OI for the receipt and dissemination of child exploitation and child sex tourism leads. The CES receives leads from INTERPOL, European Union law enforcement Agency (EUROPOL), the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), the U.S. Department of State (DOS), the DOJ, various federal, state, and local government agencies, various non-governmental agencies, both domestic and international, and the ICE field offices, both domestic and international. The CES is responsible for assessing the referrals and identifying the appropriate office for dissemination. This assessment involves identifying the specific violations and issuing legal process.



National Child Victim Identification System Following the April 2002 Supreme Court decision in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, 535 U.S. 234 (2002), a case striking down as overbroad, a ban on “virtually” created child pornography under the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, the need for a single national repository for all known child pornographic images became critically important. ICE recognized this vulnerability and developed the National Child Victim Identification System (NCVIS). NCVIS is an ICE-led initiative in partnership with the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, the Department of Justice funded Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces, the Department’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, the FBI, and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children to facilitate the identification of child pornography produced utilizing real children. The system is dynamic in nature, and contains known and unique digital child pornographic images. NCVIS, operated and managed by C3, supports child exploitation investigations and prosecutions conducted by federal, state, local and foreign law enforcement entities.



National Center for Missing and Exploited Children The CES maintains a full time liaison position at the NCMEC. This liaison position is responsible for receiving ICE field office submissions to the NCMEC Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP), coordinating ICE field office technical assistance requests to NCMEC, and providing additional support as required to NCMEC. The CES liaison also receives leads from NCMEC and facilitates the dissemination to the appropriate ICE field office, both domestic and international. The CES liaison assists ICE Attaché offices in setting up virtual private network connections to NCMEC’s Cybertipline so the Attaché may receive reports for their area of responsibility directly from NCMEC.



U.S. Department of Justice, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section The CES maintains a part-time liaison position within DOJ CEOS. The liaison position facilitates ICE international/national child exploitation operations. The 84

liaison position also provides guidance, in coordination with DOJ CEOS, to ICE field offices, both domestic and international. ii. Victim Assistance Program ICE’s Victim Assistance Program (VAP) plays a key role in assisting victims of trafficking in persons and sexual exploitation. ICE has over 300 collateral duty victim witness coordinators who are trained to recognize indicators of human trafficking and sexual exploitation, and to provide victims with direct support and assistance. These coordinators ensure that victims are aware of their rights under federal law, and make referrals to appropriate local services. b. Office of Intelligence The ICE Office of Intelligence (Intel) supports ICE efforts to combat child exploitation through a number of programs. •

Human Smuggling Intel supports OI and OIA with both tactical and strategic intelligence regarding child smuggling/child trafficking investigations and operations. At the strategic level, Intel Analysts prepare threat assessments to support the accurate deployment of our agency resources. At the tactical level, analysts support significant investigations and operations both domestically and with international law enforcement allies abroad. Via the Secure Communities initiative, ICE Intel identifies aliens illegally present who have reentered the country after deportation for serious sexual offenses against children; Intel identifies and prioritizes those aliens illegally present who pose a significant threat to reoffend against children and a danger to our communities.



Forced Child Labor (FCL) Intel supports OI and OIA with both tactical and strategic intelligence surrounding FCL investigations and operations. At the strategic level, Intel Analysts prepare threat assessments to support the accurate deployment of our agency resources. At the tactical level, analysts support significant investigations and operations both domestically and with international law enforcement allies abroad to prevent the illegal importation of goods produced as a result of the exploitation of children.



Child Sex Tourism In furtherance of ICE’s overall mission to combat Child Sex Tourism, ICE Intel launched Operation Angel Watch, an intelligence-driven effort to combat child sex tourism by identifying registered sex offenders traveling internationally who demonstrate behavior indicative of travel to gain access to children for sexual exploitation.

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2. Department of Defense’s Efforts The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) provides instruction covering the topics of Internet safety and Internet predators as a necessary component of their technology integration program. This instruction is provided to students within the DoD schools by Information Specialists (librarians) and Education Technologists. All of the DoDEA schools are additionally equipped with commercial Internet Filtering devices designed to restrict access to inappropriate sites while, at the same time, allowing the necessary flow of information to and from DoDEA's student population. DoD has dedicated a Military Criminal Investigation Officer (MCIO) Representative position that will rotate among the Military Services (currently held by NCIS) at the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. The MCIO representative will primarily serve as a liaison to NCMEC's Exploited Children Division assisting with the Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP) and CyberTipline, and will also assist the Missing Children Division as the opportunities arise. DoD also implements zero tolerance for trafficking in persons and runs a campaign to raise awareness of trafficking in persons. Training on trafficking in persons is mandatory for all military and civilian personnel. On October 14, 2005, President Bush signed E.O. 13387 “2005 Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States” that enumerates the Article 134, UCMJ, offense of “Patronizing a Prostitute.” A Public Service Announcement is aired on Armed Forces Networks and the Pentagon channel to reinforce this chargeable offense. Moreover, a new Federal Acquisition Regulation was promulgated in February, 2009 ensuring government contractor companies now must include a trafficking clause in their employment contracts which stipulates that they are responsible for: complying with United States law and local theater regulations on trafficking in persons; providing information to their employees to ensure compliance; and that they are subject to contract penalties for non-compliance. These responsibilities also flow down to all the subcontractors of a given company. In compliance with the Congressionally-mandated “William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act”, DoD IG is required to submit a report investigating contracts or subcontracts in which there is a “heightened risk” that a contractor may engage in trafficking in persons. In a report released on January 2010, DOD IG found that 93% of their private contracts included a clause on trafficking in persons.90 In addition to this, DoD Instruction 2200.01 mandates that an annual trafficking in persons briefing requirement applies to all military personnel. The Secretaries of the Military Departments are responsible for the requirement for annual trafficking in persons general awareness training for all military and civilians in their departments, while the Commanders of the Combatant Commands are responsible for combating trafficking in persons policy within their respective areas of responsibility. These briefings will be required both as a part of theater/country in processing orientation and then as refresher training in these briefings. 90

15 January 2010. “Evaluation of DoD Contracts Regarding Combating Trafficking in Persons”.

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DoD is currently revising the DoD trafficking in persons training modules to add more information about child soldiers to make members aware of the Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in the involvement of children in armed conflict. 3. U.S. Postal Inspection Service Efforts Postal Inspectors, since the enactment of the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act of 1977, have aggressively pursued and brought to justice over 5,200 child pornographers who relied upon the mail to traffic in this illegal material and/or sexually exploit a child. Postal Inspectors specializing in child exploitation investigations are in constant demand to provide their guidance and assistance to law enforcement agencies throughout the United States and abroad. Since 1997, Postal Inspectors have arrested over 2,700 offenders; 931 of those offenders were child molesters who were directly responsible for the sexual abuse of a child. The Postal Inspection Service has held a position at the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC), a private, nonprofit, 501(c)(3) organization, for approximately 5 years. The inspector is responsible for handling all evidence submissions by law enforcement agencies under NCMEC’s Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP); coordinating all activities related to the Deliver Me Home program; serving as the primary point of contact between NCMEC and postal inspectors throughout the country; and performing other duties as assigned. In CVIP, the inspector assigned to NCMEC receives and coordinates the thousands of requests by law enforcement for a review of images for known and identified victims. In the past five months, the inspector assigned to NCMEC has processed more than 1,250 requests for review of images, destroyed 1,105 disks containing child pornography, and returned 104 disks to submitting law enforcement. Since October 1, 2004, the USPSIS representative has received, logged, and returned in excess of 13,900 separate submissions from law enforcement agencies. CVIP’s policy of not returning submissions unless specifically requested by the submitting agency is still in effect. a. Deliver Me Home Program Deliver Me Home is a joint program of NCMEC, the Postal Inspection Service, and the United States Postal Service. Postal Inspectors coordinate activities with NCMEC and Postal Service groups to share resources in locating abducted or missing children. Since the program began in September 2004, a total of 54 children have been located. Integral to the Deliver Me Home program are the missing children flyers Postal Inspectors dispatch to targeted ZIP Codes to alert communities and collect information about a missing or abducted child. Postal Inspectors have distributed 750,000 flyers. Deliver Me Home was enhanced in FY 2007 by the lobby poster program, which allowed managers at NCMEC’s Missing Children’s Division to request displays of Missing and Abducted Children posters in the lobbies of all Post Offices within a given geographic area. More than 100 posters have been distributed since the program’s inspection in August 2007. ADVO, a leading marketing services company that offers newspaper-delivered promotions, direct mail, coupons, and other services, operates “Have You Seen Me?” which contains pictures of missing children, which are delivered regularly to more than 90% of American homes as part 87

of a mail circular. Since the program’s inception in 1984, ADVO has mailed more than 80 billion photos profiling over 1,500 of America’s missing children. A newly designed mail circular improves the program’s visibility and overall cost-effectiveness. After a 22-year partnership, NCMEC, USPS, and ADVO continue to work together to find ways to evolve and enhance the Missing Children’s Program. As a result of leads generated by the “Have You Seen Me?” program, 144 missing children to date have been safely recovered. According to NCMEC, photos are the number one tool parents and law enforcement officials have in their search for missing children. By featuring recent or age-progressed photos of missing children and their alleged abductors, the program empowers the American public to help safely recover missing children. Postal Inspectors regularly make presentations and conduct training on various topics related to the investigation of child exploitation at regional, national, and international conferences. In addition, Postal Inspectors often lead workshops or training sessions at Department’s Project Safe Childhood and NCMEC-sponsored training programs.

b. 2 SMRT 4U Campaign The 2 SMRT 4U Campaign was developed by the Postal Inspection Service in conjunction with NCMEC and Teen Vogue magazine in support of the Attorney General’s Project Safe Childhood initiative. The campaign was launched in November 2006 and ran throughout FY 2007. Its purpose was to encourage teens to practice safe, smart habits when posting information about themselves on social networking Web sites and blogs. Using a tagline of “Type Smart. Post Wisely,” the campaign offered teens a free “awareness” ring, similar in concept to the Lance Armstrong bracelet, to promote knowledge of Internet safety. Made of polished steel and engraved with the campaign slogan “2 SMRT 4U,” the ring was promoted via the Website and magazine by 17-year-old actress Hayden Panettiere, star of NBC’s Heroes, who served as the campaign spokesperson. Nearly one-half million rings were ordered and distributed to teens in 82 countries. More importantly, 68 percent of teens who visited the 2 SMRT 4U Web site reported that they changed their behavior and practiced safer online habits. Additionally, the campaign tallied 17,591 calls to the NCMEC’s Cyber Tipline, which allows teens to report child sexual exploitation 24/7. The 2 SMRT 4U Internet Safety Awareness Campaign far exceeded expectations. The Smithsonian National Postal Museum created a Web page to promote the campaign through its exhibit, “Postal Inspectors: The Silent Service.” The Postal Inspection Service was honored to receive the Department of Justice’s 2007 Internet Safety Award for the achievements throughout the campaign. The campaign has now been transferred to the direction of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.

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4. Department of Health and Human Services Efforts At the federal level, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is responsible for helping victims of human trafficking become eligible to receive benefits and services so they may rebuild their lives safely in the United States. It does this primarily through three offices within the Administration for Children and Families: the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division within the Office of Refugee Resettlement; the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect’s programs in the Children’s Bureau; and the Family and Youth Services Bureau, which administers the Runaway and Homeless Youth program. The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division within the Office of Refugee Resettlement helps certify adult victims of “a severe form of trafficking” so that these individuals are able to receive federally funded benefits and services to the same extent as refugees. Though not required to be certified by HHS, minors who are determined to be victims receive “Eligibility Letters” for the same types of benefits, as well as the Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Program’s therapeutic foster care services.

a. The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect The Office on Child Abuse and Neglect provides leadership and direction on the issues of child maltreatment and the prevention of abuse and neglect under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). They are the focal point for interagency collaborative efforts, national conferences, and special initiatives related to child abuse and neglect, and for coordinating activities related to the prevention of abuse and neglect and the protection of children at-risk. They support activities to build networks of community-based, prevention-focused family resource and support programs through the Community-Based Family Resource and Support Program. They also support improvement in the systems that handle child abuse and neglect cases, particularly child sexual abuse and exploitation and maltreatment related fatalities, and improvement in the investigation and prosecution of these cases through the Children's Justice Act. The Runaway and Homeless Youth Program assists homeless youths, providing basic necessities, reuniting youths with their families when possible, and aiding the transition to adulthood for older homeless youths who cannot return home. The Runaway and Homeless Youth Program provides four primary services: • •

The Basic Center Program provides financial assistance to establish or strengthen community-based programs addressing the immediate needs of runaway and homeless youth and their families. Transitional Living Program grantees provide long-term, supportive assistance to older homeless youth, ages 16 to 21, who cannot return to their families but are not yet equipped to live on their own.

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• •

The Street Outreach Program funds local youth service providers that conduct streetbased education and outreach, and that offer emergency shelter and related services to young people who have been, or who are at risk of being, sexually abused or exploited. The National Runaway Switchboard (1-800-RUNAWAY) is a national communications system that assists youth who have run away, or are considering running away, and their families. b. Children’s Bureau

The Children's Justice Act (CJA) provides grants to States to improve the investigation, prosecution and judicial handling of cases of child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse and exploitation, in a manner that limits additional trauma to the child victim. This also includes the handling of child fatality cases in which child abuse or neglect is suspected and some cases of children with disabilities and serious health problems who also are victims of abuse and neglect. States direct these system improvement funds to a variety of projects, a few of the State CJA projects address child exploitation, human tracking and internet safety. Support is provided to State and local police, child welfare staff and others for training and the purchase of equipment and technology to support efforts to prevent child exploitation. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/programs_fund/state_tribal/justice_act.htm The National Resource Center on Youth Development, a service of the Children’s Bureau (CB) is part of CB’s Training and Technical Assistance Network (T&TA Network). The purpose of the T&TA Network is to build the capacity of State, local, Tribal, and other publicly administered or publicly supported child welfare agencies and family and juvenile courts. T&TA Network members provide assistance to States and Tribes in improving child welfare systems and ensuring the safety, permanency, and well-being of children and families. The NRC on Youth Development collaborates with several outside agencies and organizations to continuously improve their ability to offer appropriate technical assistance and training. Included in the workplan for the NRC is focus and work on the prevention of exploitation of youth. These efforts will continue collaboration between CB, the NRC, other Resource Centers and the Family and Youth Services Bureau (and their Runaway and Homeless Youth Training and Technical Assistance Centers). http://www.nrcys.ou.edu/yd/default.html c. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-248) requires that HHS conduct a study to assess the feasibility of establishing a national child abuse and neglect registry and present the results in a Report to Congress. About 45 states maintain child abuse registries, which are databases that allow child protective services investigators routine access to child abuse history information to inform better current investigations. Most states also use their registries to conduct pre-employment background 90

checks on persons who work with children, such as day care providers. The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-248) requires that HHS conduct a study to assess the feasibility of establishing a national child abuse and neglect registry and present the results in a Report to Congress. This interim report describes key issues regarding the feasibility of establishing a national child abuse registry and concludes that implementation is not feasible under the statutory limitations of the authorizing legislation. Further feasibility study activities are underway and will be described in a final report when results are available. Report: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/09/ChildAbuseRegistryInterimReport/index.shtml d. Office of Refugee Resettlement The Children’s Bureau (CB) works closely with the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR). CB’s Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (OCAN) partnered with ORR’s Division of Unaccompanied Children’s Services (DUCS) to develop training materials to assist in the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children. Issues of exploitation and/or trafficking impact many of the children ORR serves. The BRYCS program, Bridging Refugee Youth and Children’s Services (BRYCS) is a one of the initiatives of ORR to provide national technical assistance to organizations serving refugees and immigrants so that all newcomer children and youth can reach their potential.91 5. Military Criminal Investigative Organizations (MCIO) Efforts a. General MCIO Collaboration and Coordination The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC), along with the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC), Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), and the Coast Guard Investigative Service (CGIS), have proposed the creation of a MCIO billet at the NCMEC. The MCIO representative will primarily serve as a liaison to NCMEC's Exploited Children Division assisting with the Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP) and CyberTipline, and will also assist the Missing Children Division as the opportunities arise. Effective April 20, 2009, this new rotating billet will align all MCIO procedures regarding the handling of child sexual exploitation cases where child exploitation images/videos exist. The MCIO representative will become the sole MCIO point of contact for the submission of images/videos to the NCMEC Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP), Child Recognition and Identification System (CRIS). In addition, the representative will monitor the NCIS Child Pornography Image Index (CPII) to help de-conflict duplicate entries, and submit images/videos to the Armed Forces Center for Child Protection (AFCCP) to obtain a Sexual Maturity Rating (SMR). Agents from all branches will be able to send copies of images/videos directly to the MCIO representative (badge-to-badge transfer) who will then coordinate with NCMEC, AFCCP, and 91

See

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/ http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/ http://www.brycs.org/

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the Defense Computer Forensic Laboratory (DCFL). This procedure will expedite results, ensure proper formatting, and eliminate unnecessary evaluations. Additionally, the MCIO representative will have access to the NCMEC CyberTipline. The CyberTipline, often referred to as the "9-1-1 of the Internet," serves as the national clearinghouse for online reporting of tips regarding child sexual exploitation including child pornography, online enticement of children for sex acts, molestation of children outside the family, sex tourism of children, child victims of prostitution, and unsolicited obscene material sent to a child. The MCIO representative will be able to review and take action on reported leads by accessing the "Federal Matrix", a de- confliction tool within the CyberTipline. Access to this matrix is provided to agency representatives assigned to NCMEC, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS), and United States Secret Service (USSS). The MCIO representative will be able to review submitted CyberTipline reports, conduct DoD database searches, and disseminate reports involving DoD assets to the proper jurisdiction. This will ensure MCIO involvement from the inception of the investigation which will help to protect DoD interests and eliminate late or after-the-fact notification. The MCIO representative will work with local, state, and federal partners regarding on-going or large scale child exploitation operations, helping identify possible DoD targets and quickly disseminating this information to the field. The MCIO representative will also provide guidance and training to the MCIO community with regard to child exploitation investigations and operations. The MCIO representative will assist agents and the JAG Corps community with obtaining Victim Impact Statements, ageregression/age-progression images, sanitized photographs for trial preparation, training related PowerPoint presentations, Internet safety materials, and published research studies. The MCIO representative will help to assist outside law enforcement agencies with DoD database checks, Service Record Book reviews, and any additional support with regard to child exploitation investigations. Additionally, the MCIO Representative will sit on the NCMEC Law Enforcement Committee, Federal Agency Task Force on Missing and Exploited Children, and the Internet Crimes Against Children Advisory Group. Representation on these committees will enhance MCIO visibility and information sharing capabilities. b. Department of Navy’s Crime Reduction Program - Campaign to Prevent Child Abuse/Child Exploitation The Department of the Navy (DON) Crime Reduction Program dedicated its third campaign to support child abuse/child exploitation prevention. From Apr-Jun 2009, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) and DON partners, like Fleet and Family Support Center and Marine Corps Community Services, joined forces to increase education and awareness on the subject of child abuse. Eighty-two briefings were conducted with 6,081 attendees. Community outreach events were held aboard installations, including Leadership Breakfasts, Child Abuse

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Prevention Fairs, Information Booths, Distribution of Child Identification Kits, Distribution of Flyers/Posters/Brochures and Presentations by Guest Speakers. D. Public-Private Coordination Efforts to Prevent and Interdict Child Exploitation The Department of Justice also has relationships with private organizations focused on protecting children from exploitation, many of which it supports with grant funding. NCMEC is discussed in the preceding section, but the following is a more fulsome description of the program along with a brief description of several other partnerships. 1. The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) Twenty years ago, a tragic series of child abductions and murders made names like Adam Walsh of Hollywood, Florida and Etan Patz of New York household names. These tragedies exposed a fundamental weakness in our approach to investigating multi-jurisdictional crimes: the United States, with its 50 states and approximately 18,000 separate state and local law enforcement agencies, had no established protocol for inter-agency communication and cooperation around cases of missing and endangered children. Because these cases almost always cross jurisdictional boundaries, this was a fatal flaw in our response. At a White House ceremony on June 13, 1984, President Ronald Reagan announced the creation of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) and challenged it to attack this difficult problem through a true public-private partnership. To assist in their work, NCMEC was granted online access to the FBI's national crime computer (NCIC) and other public databases. In 1997, the FBI Director created a new field in the police report form, so that when a child is abducted, NCMEC receives instant notification. During its first five years of operation, NCMEC's recovery rate for missing children was 62 percent. Since 1990, the recovery rate has climbed to 97 percent. OJP provided the Department of Justice’s ongoing support of NCMEC, awarding more than $24 million in FY 2008 to support the Center’s operations. Among the missions of NCMEC are to help prevent child abduction and sexual exploitation, help find missing children, and assist victims of child exploitation, their families, and the professionals who serve them. OJP funds assist NCMEC in its mission, which is in part based on congressional mandates (see 42 U.S.C. §§ 5771 et seq.; 42 U.S.C. § 11606; 22 C.F.R. § 94.6): • • • • •

Serves as a clearinghouse of information about missing and exploited children; Operates a Cyber Tipline that the public may use to report Internet-related child sexual exploitation; Provides technical assistance to individuals and law-enforcement agencies in the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and treatment of cases involving missing and exploited children; Assists the U.S. Department of State in certain cases of international child abduction in accordance with the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction; Offers training programs to law-enforcement and social-service professionals; 93

• • • •

Distributes photographs and descriptions of missing children worldwide; Coordinates child-protection efforts with the private sector; Networks with non-profit service providers and state clearinghouses about missingpersons cases; and Provides information about effective state legislation to help ensure the protection of children.

As noted above, the NCMEC is a private, nonprofit entity with particular statutory responsibilities. NCMEC works with many of the Department’s components to advance child exploitation interdiction. For instance, pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 5773(b)(1), NCMEC operates the Congressionally-mandated Cyber Tipline and the Child Victim Identification Program. To date, NCMEC has received 753,590 reports to the CyberTipline from the public and electronic service providers on the following categories of crimes: possession, manufacture, and distribution of child pornography; online enticement of children for sexual acts; child prostitution; sex tourism involving children; extrafamilial child sexual molestation; unsolicited obscene material sent to a child; misleading domain names; and misleading words or digital images on the Internet. Analysts in NCMEC’s Exploited Child Division intake the reports, analyze the content, add value, and forward the tip to the appropriate international, state, federal, or local law enforcement agency for investigation. NCMEC’s Child Victim Identification Program (CVIP) has a dual mission: (1) to help prosecutors obtain convictions by proving that a real child is depicted in child pornography images; and (2) to assist law enforcement in locating unidentified child victims. NCMECs Child Victim Identification Program has reviewed more than 28.5 million child pornography images and videos in order to identify and rescue child victims, and has disseminated 19,800 reports to prosecutors in support of their cases against child sexual predators. Because of the United States Supreme Court’s holding in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, 535 U.S. 234 (2002), federal prosecutors need to prove that the children depicted in child pornography images are real children. Local and federal law enforcement agencies submit copies of seized child pornography to federal law enforcement agencies assigned to NCMEC, accompanied by a written request that the images be reviewed for apparent identified children. NCMEC then provides a report to the submitting law enforcement agency listing the files that contain identified child victims as well as detailed information about the law enforcement officer who identified each child victim; those officers can then provide any evidence needed in court. Essentially CVIP acts as a law enforcement pointer system. A critical function of CVIP is the effort to assist law enforcement agencies in rescuing the child victims depicted in these images from their abusers. While reviewing contraband, CVIP analysts closely examine the images and videos submitted by law enforcement and document any clues that may lead to the location of an unidentified child victim. Once a location has been determined, the appropriate law enforcement agency may begin an investigation to rescue the child(ren). CVIP requests notification and basic case information when a victim of child pornography is identified by law enforcement. Working with federal law enforcement partners, information about such investigations is added to NCMEC’s system. The addition of this information increases the value of CVIP’s reviews by assisting in the prosecution of other offenders.

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NCMEC provides training to United States Attorneys and Project Safe Childhood Coordinators at national Project Safe Childhood Conferences. NCMEC’s Exploited Child Division CVIP and CyberTipline staff provide resources and technical assistance to law enforcement. To prevent duplication of efforts, NCMEC provides monthly deconfliction reports to United States Attorneys and ICAC Task Forces describing all law enforcement efforts stemming from CyberTipline reports in their states. Additionally, NCMEC provides information to the Office of Victims Assistance (OVA) about victims of child pornography who have been newly identified by law enforcement so that OVA can begin providing services. 2. Other Examples of Public-Private Coordination Many private organizations receive financial support from the Department of Justice / Office of Justice Programs through earmark appropriations designated by Congress or through participation in competitive grant funding programs. a. Child Help Founded in 1959, Childhelp® is a national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention and treatment. The Childhelp® National Child Abuse Hotline, 1-800-4-A-CHILD operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and receives calls from throughout the United States, Canada, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and Guam. Childhelp’s programs and services also include residential treatment services (villages); children’s advocacy centers; therapeutic foster care; group homes; child abuse prevention, education and training; and the National Day of Hope®, part of National Child Abuse Prevention Month every April. i. Darkness to Light Darkness to Light is a national nonprofit 501c3 organization and initiative located in Charleston, SC. The organizational mission is to diminish the incidence and impact of child sexual abuse, so that more children will grow up healthy and whole and to deliver programs that will raise awareness of the prevalence and consequences of child sexual abuse by educating adults about the steps they can take to prevent, recognize and react responsibly to the reality of child sexual abuse. ii. Girls Educational and Mentoring Services Inc. Girls Educational and Mentoring Services' (GEMS) mission is to empower young women, ages 12-21, who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking to exit the commercial sex industry and develop to their full potential. GEMS is committed to ending commercial sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking of children by changing individual lives, transforming public perception, and revolutionizing the systems and policies that impact sexually exploited youth.

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iii. Enough Is Enough Enough Is Enough (EIE), a non-partisan, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, emerged in 1994 as the national leader on the front lines to make the Internet safer for children and families. Since then, EIE has pioneered and led the effort to confront online pornography, child pornography, child stalking and sexual predation with innovative initiatives and effective communications. iv. i-SAFE i-SAFE Inc. is a non-profit foundation dedicated to protecting the online experiences of youth everywhere. i-SAFE incorporates classroom curriculum with dynamic community outreach to empower students, teachers, parents, law enforcement, and concerned adults to make the Internet a safer place. v. Kristi House, Inc. Kristi House provides a healing environment for all child victims of sexual abuse and their families, regardless of income, through prevention, treatment and coordination of services with our community partners. vi. Nevada Child Seekers Nevada Child Seekers, a registered nonprofit organization, created in 1985, advocates for and engage in prevention, identification and location efforts on behalf of missing and exploited children. vii. Paul And Lisa Program Inc The organization strives to meet the changing needs of the community to help prevent sexual exploitation of children. Paul & Lisa raises awareness through media, attending conferences, writing newsletters, and applying for federal grants, and its Street Outreach and Prevention Education Programs. viii. Web Wise Kids Inc. Web Wise Kids offers fun, challenging and interactive simulations based on real-life criminal cases—MISSING, Mirror Image and Airdog to teach children about Internet risks. ix. San Diego Police Foundation The Foundation is an independent 501 (c) (3) nonprofit organization providing support for efforts that enhance police/community relations, crime prevention and public safety through grant funding for specialized equipment, training, and cooperative community programs.

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x. Self Reliance Foundation The ultimate goal of “Self Reliance” guides all of SRF’s activities. Our programs seek to empower individuals and communities to make well-informed decisions that improve their lives, by providing information and opportunities for self-reliance and empowerment. xi. Washtenaw Area Council for Children The Washtenaw Area Council for Children (WACC) is the Michigan Children's Trust Fund designated agency for the prevention of child abuse and neglect in Washtenaw County. The mission of the Council is to prevent child abuse and neglect through educational services and programs to children, parents, community members and youth-serving professional throughout Washtenaw County. xii. INOBTR In partnership with government and private citizens, INOBTR (“I Know Better”) promotes awareness and educates children, parents and teachers to reduce the chance of children becoming victims of Internet crimes. xiii.

TechMission Youth Program

In 2005, a Department of Justice grant enabled TechMission to start its Safe Families Program, which promotes online safety through providing free training and web-filtering software.

E. A Review of the Department’s Cooperation and Coordination Efforts The Act required the Department to review its efforts to cooperate and coordinate with other agencies and private sector entities. This cooperation and coordination are crucial to the success of this effort to prevent and interdict child exploitation. Examples of activities provided here include interactions involving States, local, and tribal government agencies and Federal programs. The efforts included in this section include interagency working groups to facilitate cooperation and coordination of programs and policy; public-private groups intended to bring private industry and federal agencies together to work on specific issues; efforts to coordinate with the judicial branch; and federally funded programs that provide resources and other support to State, local, and tribal government agencies private and non-profit organizations. The program descriptions included in the section were collected by surveying the members of the Federal Inter-Agency Task Force on Missing and Exploited Children and other agencies and components about their programs and by reviewing programs recently funded by the Department addressed in the websites maintained by the Department’s components and offices.

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1. Overarching Efforts to Coordinate Child Exploitation, Prevention, and Interdiction a. The Federal Inter-Agency Task Force on Missing and Exploited Children Title IV of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, as amended, the Missing Children’s Assistance Act of 1984, authorizes the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to coordinate the Federal Government’s response to missing and exploited children. From this role, the Federal Inter-Agency Task Force on Missing and Exploited Children was created in 1995. The Task Force has met quarterly for more than ten years, and is chaired by the OJJDP Associate Administrator for the Child Protection Division. Members include the Department of Justice, Department of Defense, Department of Education, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of State, Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Postal Service. The Task Force meets to discuss programs and policy that affect efforts to protect children. b. Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG) The Online Safety and Technology Working Group (Working Group) was established pursuant to the "Protecting Children in the 21st Century Act." Participants, including federal agencies, evaluate industry efforts and are developing recommendations to promote online safety for children through education, labeling, and parental control technology. The Working Group also evaluates and develops recommendations on industry efforts to prevent and respond to criminal activity involving children and the Internet. The OSTWG will submit a report to Congress and the Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information of its findings and make recommendations on how to increase online safety measures. c. Project Safe Childhood Initiative While Project Safe Childhood was mentioned above, it is more fully described here. The Department’s 93 U.S. Attorney’s Offices lead Project Safe Childhood. Project Safe Childhood (PSC) is a Department of Justice initiative launched in 2006 that aims to combat the proliferation of technology-facilitated sexual exploitation crimes against children. OJJDP’s Project Safe Childhood public education and community awareness program is a critical part of current law enforcement efforts to combat the sexual exploitation. PSC coordinates investigations and prosecutions of online sexual predators and is implemented through a partnership of U.S. Attorneys, CEOS, Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) task forces, FBI, U.S. Postal Inspection Service, ICE, Marshals Service, advocacy organizations such as the NCMEC and state and local law enforcement officials. In FY 2007, OJJDP provided $4 million dollars in grants to further the goals of Project Safe Childhood. As part of that effort, OJJDP provided $ 2.5 million to fund a national public education and awareness campaign. This media campaign was unique in that various components could be adapted for continued use and distribution at the local, state, and regional levels by PSC Coordinators and other appropriate organizations. OJJDP also provided $1.5 98

million dollars in funding for projects at the local, state, or multi-state levels. These projects featured outreach efforts and innovative programming to schools, youth and community organizations, business entities, and various parent groups. These programs provided comprehensive training, curricula and online educational programming about online safety for children. The focus of OJJDP’s Project Safe Childhood public education and community awareness program is prevention: public education and awareness about the online sexual exploitation of children helps to prevent the victimization of children through technologyfacilitated means. •





• •

The national media campaign was designed as a bilingual campaign (in English and Spanish) and featured four public service announcements, a three-part Webisode, Web banners, radio ads, movie theater ads and print materials. These materials are being used by appropriate law enforcement and advocacy groups to educate the public about the technology-facilitated victimization of children and about the importance of online safety. The PSAs titled “Know Where They Go” and “No Lo Harias” are a call to action to parents and ask them to learn about online safety and to supervise their children’s online activities. The PSAs titled “Decisions” and “No Arruines Tu Vida” target potential and low-level online predators, informing them that downloading child pornography or enticing minors online are serious federal crimes with lifelong consequences and legal ramifications. Audience-specific websites were created to provide additional information. The PSC media campaign featured a national media launch, regional media events in four cities, and large scale public awareness events about Internet safety in designated markets. These events were supported by television, radio, online and movie theater placement of PSAs in these regions. The Department supported local events with U.S. Attorneys’ Offices across the nation utilizing materials developed under the Project Safe Childhood initiative. Under PSC, the number of federal child exploitation prosecutions has increased significantly, along with the number of federal, state, and local investigations and convictions, and more victims are being identified. d. ICACs

As discussed in depth above, the 61 ICAC Task Forces are funded and coordinated through the Department’s OJP. These Task Forces are designed and have proven successful in collaboratively working with federal, state, and local offices. 2. FBI’s Law Enforcement Coordination Efforts As noted above, the FBI is engaged in many task forces and initiatives, including their Innocent Images National Initiative, the Innocence Lost National Initiative, and the Innocent Images International Task Force. All of these initiatives involve agents and investigators from all levels of the government. The FBI has also stepped up its efforts to disrupt human trafficking operations worldwide and to free these organization’s victims. The FBI works with other local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies and national victim-based advocacy groups in joint task forces that 99

combine resources and expertise on the issue. Today, the FBI participates in approximately 30 law enforcement task forces and the 42 Bureau of Justice Assistance-sponsored task forces around the nation. FBI Victim Specialists (along with victim specialists from the United States Attorneys’ Offices and/or other non-government victim assistance providers) work with human trafficking victims to not only advise them of their rights as victims but also to assure they get the help they need to address their short-term and long-term needs—like legal and repatriation services, immigration relief, housing, employment, education, job training, and child care. In addition, FBI field offices continue to build relationships with civic and community groups and non-governmental organizations that can refer cases and provide valuable insights and information. 3. Efforts to Coordinate With the Judicial Branch The Department is actively engaged with the Judicial Branch. Under the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, the Attorney General serves as an ex-officio member of the United States Sentencing Commission. Each year, the Department submits to the Sentencing Commission a report commenting on the operation of the sentencing guidelines, suggesting changes that appear to be warranted, and otherwise assessing the Commission’s work. 28 U.S.C. § 994(o). The Department participates in all Sentencing Commission meetings, testifies at Commission public hearings on all significant issues pending before the Commission, and participates in the Commission’s annual training seminar. The Department also serves as an ex-officio member of the Advisory Committee on the Criminal Rules, the Judicial Conference Committee responsible for reviewing proposals to amend the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, as well as the Judicial Conference’s Standing Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure. The Department will be participating in a panel discussion on child exploitation sentencing at the Sentencing Commission’s National Conference in June 2010. 4. International Coordination Efforts to Prevent and Interdict Child Exploitation The circulation and collection of child pornography, child sex trafficking, and child sex tourism are crimes that necessarily cross international borders. Therefore, the United States regularly engages in bilateral and multilateral efforts to deter and prevent the sexual exploitation of children. With respect to the international trafficking of children for sexual exploitation, the United States funds programs abroad to combat trafficking, exploitive child labor, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and child sex tourism. In 2003, President Bush launched a $50 million Initiative on Trafficking in Persons (POTUS Initiative) to support organizations that rescue, shelter, and provide services to women and children who are victims of trafficking. This initiative has funded projects in Brazil, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The Departments of State and Health and Human Services have also funded deterrence and public information campaigns abroad in countries such as Cambodia, Costa Rica, Brazil, Thailand, and Mexico targeted at U.S. child sex tourists.

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As previously noted, pursuant to bilateral and multilateral legal assistance treaties with foreign governments, the United States regularly cooperates with law enforcement authorities of other countries to investigate and prosecute the prostitution of children, child pornography, and the sale of children, as well as child sex tourism. The United States funds training for law enforcement and consular officials of foreign countries in the areas of trafficking in persons, child sex tourism, and sexual exploitation of women and children. The United States also supports deterrence programs that encourage innovative partnerships among governments, labor, industry groups, and NGOs to end the employment of children in hazardous or abusive conditions. Examples of these innovative partnerships include: cooperation with the government of South Korea to replicate a San Francisco-based model offenders prevention program targeted at persons who are arrested for soliciting sexual services from prostituted persons; cooperation with travel and tourism companies both in the United States and abroad to support an ethical code of conduct to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation in travel and tourism; and cooperation between an international faith-based organization, UNICEF and the Madagascar ministries of Population, Tourism and Education to conduct a survey of the types of child labor and sexual exploitation that will lead to a nationwide anti-trafficking campaign. The United States is also a Party to several relevant child protection treaties. In 1999, the United States was one of the first countries to ratify ILO Convention 182. This Convention calls on signatories to take immediate measures to eliminate, as a matter of urgency, the worst forms of child labor, which include all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children and forced labor; the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution or pornography; the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities such as drug trafficking; and work which, by its nature of the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children. In 2002, the United States ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. This treaty contains a broad range of protection for children, including requirements for states Parties to criminalize a broad range of acts and activities relating to sexual exploitation of children. The United States submitted its Initial Report on its implementation of the Optional Protocol to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child in 2007. A U.S. delegation led by the State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons took part in a vigorous, transparent discussion of obligations met, best practices, and areas for further intensity of effort on this protocol and its counterpart protocol on children in armed conflict in a regular review by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child in May 2008 in Geneva. In January of this year, the United States submitted its second report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child regarding further implementation of the same two optional protocols. The United States is also a Party to the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. The United States signed the Protocol on December 13, 2000, and it entered into force for the United States on December 3, 2005. The Protocol calls for information exchange in certain circumstances (Art. 10). The general provisions of the Transnational Organized Crime Convention, to which the United States is also a Party, apply to the Protocol and contain provisions on extradition (Art. 16) and mutual legal assistance (Art. 18). Additionally, since the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) was passed in 2000, the 101

United States has submitted annual Trafficking in Persons Reports to the United States Congress on foreign governments’ efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons. The 2008 Report assessed the efforts of 170 countries to combat trafficking in persons, including their government’s efforts to prosecute traffickers, protect victims, and prevent the crime. A government that fails to make significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for eliminating trafficking, as established in the TVPA, receives a “Tier 3” assessment in the Report. Such an assessment may trigger the withholding of U.S. non-humanitarian, nontrade-related foreign assistance to that country. The TIP Report has also added greater emphasis on foreign government’s efforts to combat demand and exploitation of children overseas by its citizens. Based on the minimum standards for fighting child sexual exploitation constituting trafficking in persons, it has been a useful vehicle to encourage other nations to adopt extraterritorial laws which allow for the prosecution of its citizens for victimizing children when engaging in sex tourism in other countries just as the United States enacted in the form of the PROTECT Act in 2003. In 2007, the United States actively promoted the issue of confronting commercial sexual exploitation of children in multilateral fora. For the United Nations’ annual Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (“Crime Commission”), the United States successfully pushed for the issue of commercial sexual exploitation of children to be one of two Commission themes. The United States introduced a resolution that was subsequently adopted titled: Effective Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Responses to Combat Sexual Exploitation of Children. During the Crime Commission, the U.S. delegation also co-hosted a successful event for representatives of member states that included screening of the movie Human Trafficking and an expert panel discussion on child trafficking. The Department’s CEOS and OIA worked closely with the Department of State on these efforts. The G-8 Lyon-Roma Group finalized two U.S.-drafted documents in 2007 related to commercial sexual exploitation of children. The first document was a Justice and Home Affairs Ministers’ statement Reinforcing the International Fight Against Child Pornography. All eight countries endorsed this document, which emphasizes the importance of having strong legislation against child pornography in all countries. The second document addressed Experience in the Implementation of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction for Sex Crimes. This document discusses the growing problem of international sex tourism and the need to be able to prosecute citizens in their home country for the sex crimes they commit against children abroad. CEOS and the Department of State collaborated on these efforts. Also in 2007, the U.S. Department of State served as chair of the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM), an organization composed of Central and North American immigration and policy officials. Trafficking in persons was the theme of the 2007 ministerial meeting in New Orleans. At this meeting, the United States worked in tandem with other member countries to adopt a non-binding document “Regional Guidelines for Special Protection in Cases of the Repatriation of Child Victims of Trafficking.” Through the RCM, ICE, and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) organized a training workshop on trafficking in persons and smuggling that included presentations by RCM members Honduras, Mexico, Canada, and El Salvador. Additionally, CEOS, NCMEC, FBI, and ICE helped to develop and implement the first-ever INHOPE International Law Enforcement Coordination Conference held in Helsinki, Finland, in 102

2009. This conference, attended by online child exploitation experts from around the world, is scheduled to occur again this year on September 28, 2010 in Madrid, Spain. Further, CEOS routinely presents on the subject of online child exploitation at other international conferences held annually by Europol, Interpol, and the European Commission. In the area of child sex tourism, CEOS and ICE partner in ICE’s sex tourism initiative to identify “hot spot” locations and send a team of investigators and prosecutors to those locations to partner with the foreign government and develop a proactive strategy to identify and prosecute offenders. a. Department of Justice’s International Efforts Through various components of the Department of Justice, the United States has trained foreign law enforcement officials in numerous countries on investigating and prosecuting child sex trafficking and has worked with governments to develop model anti-trafficking legislation and has fostered international cooperation in hundreds of cases. The FBI’s Innocent Images International Task Force (IIITF) became operational on October 6, 2004, and includes law enforcement officers from countries such as: United Kingdom, Norway, Finland, Ukraine, Belarus, Australia, Thailand, the Philippines, Croatia, Latvia, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, Sweden, Fiji, Cyprus, Iceland, Denmark, Panama, and Europol. To date, more than 70 international officers have traveled to the United States from 33 different countries and worked side-by-side with Special Agents of the FBI at the Innocent Images Operations Unit. IIITF has allowed for the real-time transfer of information from and to the FBI, and between task force members and their countries. Task Force Officers stay in the United States for several weeks and they remain an integral part of the task force once they return to their home countries. The FBI’s IIITF successfully brings together law enforcement from around the world to address the global crime problem of online child exploitation. The FBI has implemented joint operations overseas with governments in two major child sex tourism (CST) destinations, Thailand and Cambodia. These operations target child sex tourists who do not plan their illegal activities from the United States, but rather seek to procure children once they arrive at their destination. The purpose of these operations is to coordinate with host country law enforcement to gather evidence against American offenders that is admissible in American courts, with the goal of extraditing those offenders back to the United States for prosecution. The FBI coordinates all efforts through its Legal Attachés in those countries to provide, training, equipment and logistical support to these joint operations. FBI’s CST Initiative employs a proactive investigative strategy to identify and disrupt the activities of sexual predators before they are able to victimize additional children. In conjunction with those country authorities, as well as interested NGOs, the CST Initiative employs the use of both undercover employees and confidential human sources to identify predatory individuals and groups operating in high threat areas for child sexual exploitation. Furthermore, its purpose is to collect evidence against these predicated targets and facilitate their arrest/prosecution by host country authorities as well as the United States.

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CEOS has worked with foreign law enforcement agencies, such as Interpol, Europol, and Eurojust, to coordinate international investigations. Some of these investigations begin with the identification of an offender in the United States, while others begin with the identification of an offender in a foreign country. All, however, are complex cases requiring close international teamwork. The Criminal Division’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT), drawing on the expertise of experienced prosecutors from CEOS, the Civil Rights Division and its Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit, and the United States Attorney’s Offices, has designed and executed technical assistance and training programs overseas to strengthen international capacity to combat trafficking in persons, including child sex trafficking and child exploitation offenses. OPDAT assisted Brazil in the drafting of a child pornography law, enacted in November 2008, which makes possession of child pornography a felony, the first time it has been so criminalized in Brazil. OPDAT provided technical assistance and training to Russia in addressing its serious child exploitation and pornography problems. As a result, the Russian MVD (Interior Ministry) agreed to participate in the FBI’s Innocent Images Global Task Force; Russian child pornography investigations increased tenfold; and in July 2009, Russia enacted legislation with severe penalties for crimes against minors, including sexual abuse. Additionally, CEOS, in partnership with OPDAT and the State Department, regularly provides training for foreign delegates on child exploitation offenses as part of the State Department’s International Visitor Program. These training sessions range from providing an overview of U.S. child exploitation laws, including child protection statutes, and how to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases successfully. From 2007 – 2009, CEOS discussed these issues with delegates from countries such as Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bosnia, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Colombia, Cyprus, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo and Bosnia, Laos, Latvia, Macedonia, Malta, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, the Ukraine, and the United Arab Emirates. Moreover, CEOS trial attorneys regularly perform extensive overseas training programs. For example, CEOS team members have travelled to several cities throughout Latvia to train an audience of Latvian judges, police, and prosecutors on numerous topics related to human trafficking. These topics included an overview of U.S. laws, a discussion of appropriate investigative techniques, and a primer on the international response to human trafficking, including a discussion of relevant international treaties. CEOS attorneys have conducted similar training programs in Cambodia, Nepal, Thailand, Morocco, Nigeria, Armenia, and Indonesia. In 2009 alone, CEOS attorneys went to the Philippines, Panama, Morocco, Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic for child sex tourism trainings. As outlined above, CEOS contributes to policy developments at the international level, working with such bodies as the G8, the United Nations, and the Council of Europe. For example, to address a lack of consensus concerning the danger posed by child pornography collectors to children, CEOS proposed, developed and delivered, through the G8 Law Enforcement Projects 104

Sub-Group, an International Symposium of experts to identify the correlation between child pornography offenders and child molesters. As outlined above, this symposium led to a May 30, 2009, declaration by the G8 Ministers of Justice and Home Affairs titled, “The Risk to Children Posed by Child Pornography Offenders” recognizing the findings made by the experts at the symposium. CEOS also contributes information and expertise to inform the U.S. Government’s report on its implementation of the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography to the U.N.’s Convention on the Rights of the Child. CEOS also attended the meetings at which the Council of Europe drafted its “Convention on the Protection of Children Against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse.” The convention will require signatories to criminalize all child pornography crimes, including simple possession and intentionally accessing child pornography online, solicitation (grooming), child sex abuse, and child prostitution. In November 2008, the Department led the U.S. Government’s multidisciplinary delegation to the World Congress III Against Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The U.S. Government prepared and submitted to the Rapporteur of World Congress III a report reflecting the U.S. Government’s efforts to combat sexual exploitation of children and adolescents since World Congress II in Yokohama in 2001. While in Rio, the U.S. Government was an active participant in negotiating and working on the Rio Declaration and Plan of Action to Prevent and Stop Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents. In 2008, INTERPOL Washington, the Department, and DOS joined with the G8 members to fund and create the INTERPOL International Child Sexual Exploitation Database (ICSE): Formerly known as the INTERPOL Child Abuse Images Database (ICAID), the database allows investigators to compare newly seized images of child pornography to those already known to the international law enforcement community in order to identify new victims and rescue them from ongoing abuse. INTERPOL’s database currently contains over 550,000 images reported by 40 countries and has led to the identification of over 1,600 child victims. INTERPOL Washington facilitates participation in the ICSE by ICE and the FBI. Within the INTERPOL member countries, INTERPOL Washington was the first to make the issuance of Green Notices against child sex offenders a priority. These notices serve as international warnings about subjects who are assessed by national law enforcement authorities as continuing threats to public safety or may commit other criminal offenses. The issuance of Green Notices is also based on previous criminal convictions or history of criminal activity (habitual offenders, sex offenders, violent gang members, child pornographers). To date, INTERPOL Washington has published 3,285 such notices on deported child sexual predators in support of ICE’s Operation Predator. Finally, by administering numerous MLATs and multilateral conventions for evidence gathering, other forms of legal assistance and extradition, OIA has supported numerous trans-national investigations and foreign prosecutions.

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b. Department of Homeland Security’s International Efforts ICE’s Office of International Affairs maintains an active and aggressive overseas investigation program to combat the sexual exploitation of children. OIA’s 63 offices in 44 countries are responsible for the coordination of international investigations with foreign counterparts and providing investigative support to domestic offices. ICE Attachés are DHS’ primary liaison with host country governments, industries, and law enforcement. In addition to its investigative responsibilities, Attaché and OIA Headquarters offices conduct training and outreach to educate foreign government counterparts of the dangers child exploitation poses to their country’s wellbeing. OIA helps facilitate capacity building in host nations by sharing best practices utilized by U.S. federal law enforcement. ICE has been charged with investigating violations of the Tariff Act of 1930 (Title 19 USC 1307), which prohibits the importation of merchandise mined, produced, or manufactured wholly or in part in any foreign country by forced labor, including forced child labor (FCL). ICE also has a legislative mandate to conduct international FCL outreach and training. OIA fulfills these responsibilities by conducting continuous outreach and training to foreign law enforcement and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), thusly promoting investigative collaboration. OIA hosts three major biennial regional training events to discuss the issues of FCL, Child Sex Tourism, and Human Trafficking. The events are hosted in three separate regions of the world to address not only international topics of concern, but also topics specific to each region (Asia, the Americas and Europe/Middle East/Africa). Since the implementation of the regional training concept several years ago, a strong correlation between training forums and increased case referrals and statistics has been demonstrated. Foreign subject matter experts are invited to participate in the regional training events. The inclusion of foreign subject matter experts has fostered better collaboration, opened and sustained investigative dialogues, and facilitated proactive working relationships with foreign counterparts. The goals of the events are to increase awareness within ICE and ICE’s foreign law enforcement counterparts and enhance communication and cooperation between Attaché offices and representatives of other U.S. agencies and NGOs. Presentations at the events are provided by ICE subject matter experts and representatives of other U.S. Government agencies including Department of Labor, DOS, and the DOJ as well as a number of NGOs and international organizations. In addition to the three major events, ICE Attachés conduct regional trainings in various international locations.

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c. Department of State’s International Efforts The President’s Interagency Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons (PITF) is a Cabinetlevel entity mandated by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act whose purpose is to coordinate government-wide efforts to combat human trafficking. It is chaired by the Secretary of State. The Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) coordinates activities of Federal departments and agencies regarding policies, including grants and grant policies, involving trafficking in persons and the implementation of the TVPA. The SPOG consists of senior officials designated as representatives by the PITF members and is chaired by the Director of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking at the Department of State. Three standing committees include Research & Data, Grantmaking, and Public Affairs. Through the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP), the Department of State helps to lead the international efforts in the global movement to abolish modern-day slavery. It engages with foreign governments, civil society, and multilateral organizations, to fight human trafficking around the world. G/TIP has built global awareness of modern-day slavery through nine annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Reports, covering 176 countries in 2009(compared to 82 in 2001). The Report is the U.S. Government’s principal diplomatic tool used to engage foreign governments on the subject as well as an important reference for targeting U.S. foreign assistance funding. It is also the world’s most comprehensive compendium of antihuman trafficking efforts and reflects the USG’s global leadership on this key human rights issue. In preparation for the 2010 Report due to be released in June, the Ambassador-at-Large and/or G/TIP Reports and Political Affairs staff traveled to 50 countries to meet with foreign government officials, international organizations and NGO representatives. Pursuant to the TVPRA of 2005, the TIP Report now includes assessments of foreign governments’ efforts to combat demand, including punishment of its citizens for engaging in child sexual exploitation overseas. G/TIP has widely disseminated anti-TIP information through electronic and print media, the Internet, and digital video conferences – reaching over 1 billion people in 2009. In FY 2009, G/TIP obligated more than $26 million for anti-human trafficking programs: 80 projects in 50 countries totaling approximately $21.85 million, five regional projects totaling $2.25 million, and eight global projects totaling roughly $1.9 million. Nearly all of these awards were funded through the office’s annual competitive grant process. A complete list of G/TIP awarded projects and descriptions are available at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/other/2009/131167.htm. G/TIP’s programmatic work is part of a larger effort of United States agencies which has spent over $688 million on international anti-human trafficking programs since FY 2001 – efforts G/TIP helps coordinate by chairing the SPOG. G/TIP has also raised awareness on child sex tourism (CST) through funding public awareness and deterrence campaigns, supporting research on CST, engaging the travel, tourism, and hospitality community, compiling informational resources, and facilitating educational film releases on the topic.

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Finally, G/TIP has worked extensively with the relevant State Department bureaus in engaging with multilateral organizations such as the UN, the Organization of American States, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Group of Eight to promote a victim-centered and multidisciplinary approach based on the U.S. experience, and to promote ratification and implementation of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. d. U.S. Agency for International Development’s International Efforts The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has played a leading role in addressing the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents abroad through a number of activities or interrelated initiatives. The majority of USAID’s programs are bilateral, multilateral, or regional arrangements that complement and support in-country enforcement actions directly or in-directly. Specifically, since 2001 USAID has provided more than $100 million for programs directed at the elimination of human trafficking, a major factor behind the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents worldwide, through a wide range of activities in more than 70 countries. To complement anti-trafficking activities, USAID has also instituted a number of parallel development efforts to include girls' education, administration of justice, and refugee assistance. For example, since 2005, USAID has worked to prevent the trafficking of girls in the Mekong Delta through scholarships, vocational training and job placement to at-risk girls. In Mozambique, USAID partnered with the government and an NGO network to draft antitrafficking legislation that passed unanimously in the National Assembly in 2008. Simultaneously, in Benin USAID helped promote awareness of the Family Code, which established a legal marriage age of 18. In Ecuador USAID continues to provide technical assistance and training towards the implementation of a national anti-trafficking plan, which aims to increase protections for vulnerable children. To create awareness of trafficking in Asia, USAID and MTV collaborated to target a young media-savvy audience through a television special featuring well-known models, actors and musicians. This public-private partnership spearheaded a collaborative partnership with Radiohead, a popular rock band that reached out to as many as 560 million households. In Moldova, USAID set up regional centers for job skills, job search, technical training, legal assistance and counselling for trafficking victims. More than 25,000 women received services and nearly 10,000 rural women were assisted through established mobile units. The totality of USAID’s efforts has been instrumental in mitigating and resolving the negative affects attributed to the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, and USAID will continue to place a high priority on this and other associated issues. e. Department of Labor’s International Efforts The United States contributes to a wide array of programs that support the elimination of the worst forms of child labor worldwide, including programs to address the sexual exploitation of children. Since 1995, the Department of Labor has provided approximately $720 million for 108

technical assistance projects aimed at eliminating exploitative child labor internationally. Of this amount, over $330 million has gone to organizations to carry out projects to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children and child trafficking for the purpose of labor and commercial sexual exploitation. The projects supported by the Department of Labor aim to remove or prevent children from exploitive labor through the provision of educational and training opportunities. In addition, projects provide alternative income generation and skills training for families; workplace and community-based monitoring systems to ensure that children do not return to exploitive work; capacity building of national and local organizations to ensure sustainability; awareness raising on the hazards associated with exploitive child labor and the benefits of education and data collection and research to inform policymakers on child labor, forced labor and human trafficking. For projects focused on commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking, additional activities include provision of medical care and psychosocial services to survivors, as well as legislative and policy reform to incorporate anti-trafficking efforts at the local, national, and regional levels. f. Interdepartmental Government Efforts

The Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC) was formally established under Section 7202 of the Intelligence Reform Act and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. The Secretary of State, Secretary of Homeland Security, Attorney General, and members of the national Intelligence Community jointly oversee the HSTC through a high-level interagency steering group. The HSTC serves as a fusion center for information on human smuggling and trafficking, bringing together analysts, officers, and investigators from such agencies as the CIA, the Department of Justice, the Department of State, and the Department of Homeland Security. The HSTC coordinates activities with foreign governments to ensure that efforts are addressed globally, and brings together subject matter experts from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence and diplomatic arenas to leverage participating agencies’ knowledge, expertise and authorities to address the global threat. HSTC regularly shares information on human trafficking, including child sex trafficking.

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F. Review of Internet Safety Programs The Act also required the Department review all its work related to programs educating the public on Internet Safety. 92 The search for federally funded programs was conducted both online and through document review. In all, 18 programs were identified, 16 of which are educational programs for children, youth, or adults. Two are federally funded research projects that include recommendations to prevent the online victimization of children. The federally funded programs included in this inventory address a number of Internet safety issues including: • • • • • • •

Safety in online relationships. Avoiding pornography and other offensive materials. Copyright, plagiarism, and intellectual property theft. Internet citizenship. Cyberbullying. Identity theft and privacy concerns. Hacking and malicious programming.

The programs are designed for a variety of audiences, including children and youth, parents, teachers and other school personnel, and law enforcement. Many of the programs deliver their content through a Web site. Others make printed materials available, including lesson plans and classroom activities, books, or reports. This inventory of federally funded Internet safety programs reveals much overlap in programs funded and much potential for collaboration among programs to ensure that they reach the widest possible audience. Programs were deemed to be federally funded if they were entirely or largely funded with federal funds or, when funding information was not available, if the program identified itself as being the product of a federal initiative. The target audiences for programs included in the inventory are youths ages 21 and younger and parents, teachers, and leaders of youth groups (e.g., boy scouts, girl scouts, boys and girls clubs). “Internet safety” was defined broadly to include not only programs to teach children how to avoid online contact with adults who might harm them, but also programs that educate youth about online issues such as avoiding unwanted exposure to pornography, copyright and intellectual property theft, good Internet citizenship, cyberbullying, identity theft, and hacking. The term “programs” also was construed broadly to mean interactive Web sites with a didactic purpose (but not Web sites that only listed safety rules), curriculums, 92

Internet safety. The [congressional] conferees strongly support programs that provide various services and resources to protect children from being vulnerable to online predators. The conferees understand that parents, law enforcement personnel, school personnel, and afterschool program staff can obtain information about Internet safety from a multitude of arenas. The conferees want to better understand what types and how many Internet safety programs are being federally funded. The conferees direct the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, in coordination with the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, to submit a report on federally funded Internet safety programs to the Committees on Appropriations within 180 days of the enactment of this Act. House Report 108–792.

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online games and activities, and scholarly articles or other materials with an educational focus. Major federally funded research programs on the topic of Internet safety were included because the recommendations they yield contribute to public awareness about the topic. Web pages with lists of Internet safety rules with no other interactive content did not meet the criteria for inclusion in this inventory. Software packages marketed to parents, schools, and libraries for blocking, recording, or monitoring Internet usage by youth were also outside the scope of this inventory because they are products of private commercial enterprises. 1. Methodology of Review The search for English-language materials was conducted both online and through document review. The search engines Google and Yahoo were used to scan for the term “Internet safety,” and a list of hits was compiled for review. Programs that were linked to these sites as additional resources also were included in the equivalent of an electronic “snowball sampling” strategy.93 The home pages of federal agencies and departments were included, and the page search function, if available, was used to search for the term “Internet safety.” In addition, persons working in federal agencies were asked to describe their own departments’ efforts in this area. In all, 18 federally funded programs were identified, 16 of which are educational programs for children, youth, or adults. Two are federally funded research projects that include recommendations to prevent the online victimization of children. (See appendix 1 for a description of all 18 federally funded programs.) Appendix 2 lists a representative (but not exhaustive) set of nonfederally funded Internet safety programs. It is not within the scope of this inventory to discuss these programs in detail or to evaluate the programs identified. Pursuant to Pub. L. No. 108–447, this inventory was prepared in coordination with the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. On January 7, 2005, J. Robert Flores, OJJDP Administrator and Vice Chair of the Coordinating Council, sent a letter to Coordinating Council members requesting, among other things, their cooperation in preparing this report. Mr. Flores also discussed the preparation of the inventory at the meeting of the Coordinating Council on March 4, 2005. OJJDP appreciates the cooperation of Council member agencies in providing and reviewing information incorporated in this report. a. History of Federal Involvement in Internet Safety Programs for Youth The federal government’s first broad foray into the field of Internet safety for children was marked by the passage of the Child Online Protection Act of 1998 (COPA). COPA created a commission to “identify technological or other methods that will help reduce access by minors that is harmful to minors on the Internet.” The COPA Commission was charged with evaluating

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Snowball sampling is an approach where informants are asked to identify other persons knowledgeable about the topic of study. When these persons are interviewed the researcher accumulates more and more information about the topic. The chain of “recommended informants” initially diverges, but finally converges as a few key persons emerge as the most frequently mentioned names. Patton, Michael Quinn (1990). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, p. 237.

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the accessibility, cost, and effectiveness of technology designed to prevent children from accessing sexually explicit material over the Internet and also with assessing the possible effects on privacy of that technology. The commission released its final report in 2000, reporting on the viability of filtering and blocking services, labeling and rating services, age verification strategies, “green spaces” containing only material appropriate to children, monitoring and timelimiting technologies, acceptable-use policies and family Internet- use contracts, and options for more vigorous prosecution of persons who distribute illegal online material. b. Programs Identified for This Inventory The 18 programs identified through the search methodology are described below. They are primarily organized according to funder and secondarily organized by function (educational programs first, research programs second). The narrative descriptions are based on information provided in the referenced Web sites. Note that inclusion in the inventory does not constitute an endorsement. In producing this inventory, no attempt has been made to evaluate the content or effectiveness of any program. 2. U.S. Department of Justice Funded Programs a. i-SAFE America Program name: • i-SAFE America, Inc. Contact • www.isafe.org information: • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Funder: Delinquency Prevention Audience: • Children and youth grades K–12 Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; copyright, plagiarism, and intellectual property theft; Internet citizenship; cyberbullying; identity theft and privacy concerns; hacking and malicious programming Media: • Workbooks and Web-cast videos for students; instructor materials Delivery: • Classroom i-SAFE America, Inc., a nonprofit foundation founded in 1998, is dedicated to educating and empowering youth to safely and responsibly take control of their Internet experiences. i-SAFE produces and distributes a curriculum for classroom use in grades K–12. The i-SAFE program is designed to teach students to recognize and avoid dangerous, destructive, or unlawful behavior online and to respond appropriately. The i-SAFE curriculum includes online exercises and activities, pen-and-paper activities, and class projects. Training and technical assistance for teachers are provided free of charge.

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b. NetSmartz Workshop Program name: • NetSmartz Workshop Contact • www.netsmartz.org information: Funder: • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; National Center for Missing & Exploited Children; Boys & Girls Clubs of America Audience: • Children and youth grades K–12 Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; Internet citizenship; cyberbullying; identity theft and privacy concerns; Internet “addiction” Media: • Internet; activity cards for group or class projects Delivery: • Classroom; afterschool programs; community education programs delivered by law enforcement or others; independent exploration The NetSmartz Workshop® is an online interactive, educational safety resource from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children® (NCMEC) and Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) for children ages 5 to 17, parents, guardians, educators, and law enforcement. The goal of the NetSmartz Workshop is to extend the safety awareness of children to prevent their victimization and increase their self-confidence whenever they go online. c. Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces Program name: • Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces Contact • ojjdp.ncjrs.org/programs/ProgSummary.asp?pi=3 information: Funder: • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Audience: • Varies by state/regional task force; typically adults, children, and youth Focus/scope: • Varies by state/regional task force; may include safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; and other topics Media: • Varies by state/regional task force; many task forces have developed educational materials and presentations Delivery: • Varies by state/regional task force; typically classroom or community education programs; public service announcements The Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Force Program helps state and local law enforcement agencies develop an effective response to cyberenticement and child pornography cases. This help encompasses forensic and investigative components, training and technical assistance, victim services, and community education. Forty-five state and regional task forces have been established throughout the United States. The ICAC Program was developed in response to the increasing number of children and teenagers using the Internet, the proliferation of child pornography, and the heightened online 113

activity by predators searching for unsupervised contact with underage victims. The fiscal year 1998 Justice Appropriations Act (Pub. L. No. 105–119) directed OJJDP to create a national network of state and local law enforcement cyberunits to investigate cases of child sexual exploitation (i.e., ICAC Program). In addition to assisting law enforcement with investigations, many ICAC Task Forces also sponsor community outreach to help families understand rules for safe Internet use. Some of the ICAC Task Forces have developed their own educational materials. d. A Parent’s Guide to Internet Safety Program name: • A Parent’s Guide to Internet Safety Contact • www.fbi.gov/publications/pguide/pguidee.htm information: • Corresponding list of safety rules for children posted at www.fbi.gov/kids/k5th/safety2.htm Funder: • U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crimes Against Children Program Audience: • Parents Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials Media: • Online guide Delivery: • Individual use by parents The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Crimes Against Children Program produced A Parent’s Guide to Internet Safety to inform parents of the risks children face online of encountering adults who might sexually exploit them and how to recognize child behaviors that might indicate the child is at risk for being exploited. The guide is available in hard copy and online at www.fbi.gov/publications/pguide/pguidee.htm. The FBI also posts a list of safety rules for children using the Internet at www.fbi.gov/kids/k5th/safety2.htm. e. Program name: Contact information: Funder:

Cybercitizen Awareness Program • Cybercitizen Awareness Program • www.cybercitizenship.org/aboutus/aboutus.html •

Audience: Focus/scope:

• •

Media: Delivery:

• •

U.S. Department of Justice with the Information Technology Association of America Children and youth; parents Cyberethics; Internet citizenship/“netiquette”; cybercrime; identity theft and privacy concerns; copyright, plagiarism, and intellectual property theft; hacking and malicious programming Online Self-exploration

The Cybercitizen Awareness Program is intended to educate children and young adults about the dangers and consequences of cybercrime. By reaching out to parents and teachers, the program is designed to establish a broad sense of responsibility and community in an effort to develop in young people smart, ethical, and socially conscious online behavior. The Cybercitizen 114

Partnership was created with a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice and is managed by the Information Technology Association Foundation. f. Program name: Contact information: Funder: Audience: Focus/scope:

Media: Delivery:

Cyberethics for Kids/Cyberethics for Teachers • Cyberethics for Kids/Cyberethics for Teachers • www.cybercrime.gov/rules/kidinternet.htm and www.cybercrime.gov/rules/lessonplan1.htm • U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division • Children and youth; separate component for teachers • Identity theft and privacy concerns; copyright, plagiarism, and intellectual property theft; hacking and malicious programming; safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; cyberethics; Internet citizenship/“netiquette” • Online • Self-exploration for children and youth; lesson plans for classroom presentation

The Cyberethics for Kids site presents information for youth about good “net citizenship” and addresses hacking, intellectual property theft through illegal file trading and copyright violations, plagiarism, using others’ passwords and accounts without their permission, and malicious programming (worms and viruses). A related site, Cyberethics for Teachers, offers an elementary or middle school lesson plan on the same topics. Both sites discuss safe “chatting” online and appropriate responses to encountering material or people online that make a child uncomfortable. g. ChildSafeNet Program name: • ChildSafeNet Contact • www.childsafenet.org information: Funder: • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Audience: • Law enforcement; parents Focus/scope: • Preventing sexual abuse of children via Internet exploitation Media: • Online; community programs Delivery: • Self-exploration for parents; community programs by law enforcement The mission of ChildSafeNet is to proactively combat the sexual abuse and exploitation of children and to educate local communities about risks to children, both on the Internet and in the community. ChildSafeNet’s signature program, Protecting Children Against Sex Offenders (P’CASO), represents a collaborative public/private partnership between ChildSafeNet, Inc., a 501(c) (3) nonprofit organization, and its first law enforcement partner, the Fairfax County [Virginia] Police Department, with funds from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

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3. Federal Trade Commission and Department of Commerce Funded Programs a. Kidz Privacy Program name: • Kidz Privacy Contact • www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/edcams/kidzprivacy information: • The FTC also posts a list of suggested rules for family Internet use at www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/online/sitesee.htm. Funder: • Federal Trade Commission Audience: • Parents, children, and youth Focus/scope: • Identity theft and privacy concerns; plagiarism and intellectual property theft Media: • Online Delivery: • Self-exploration The Kidz Privacy site offers information tailored to youth and parents about the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998. As described by the Kidz Privacy Web site, the Act prohibits the release of personal information collected from a child in identifiable form by an operator for any purpose. An exception is made when this information is provided to a person other than the operator who provides support for the internal operations of the Web site and does not disclose or use that information for any other purpose. In addition, the Act makes it a violation to make personal information public if that information was collected from a child by a Web site or service directed toward children. The site offers rules for youth and families to follow to avoid disclosing private information online that might put them at risk. b. kids.us Program name: • kids.us Contact • www.kids.us information: Funder: • U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration Audience: • Children and youth Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials Media: • Online Delivery: • Self-exploration The kids.us domain went live in fall 2003 to provide a moderated online forum for children ages 13 and younger. Created by the Dot Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002 (Pub. L. No. 107–317), it is designed to be a youth-friendly Web space. A private firm, NeuStar, developed the kids.us content policy, monitors domain content, and enforces the content policy on behalf of the federal government.

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4. U.S. Department of Education Funded Programs Program name: Contact information: Funder:

• •

List of Internet safety resources www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/technology/safety.html



U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Office of Educational Technology Parents, teachers, youth, children Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; privacy concerns Online Self-exploration

Audience: Focus/scope:

• • •

Media: Delivery:

• •

5. Federal Communications Commission Funded Program: E-rate Program name: Contact information: Funder: Audience: Focus/scope:

• •

E-rate www.sl.universalservice.org

• • •

Media: Delivery:

• •

Federal Communications Commission Schools and libraries Discount Internet access available to schools and libraries that certify that safety measures are in place to protect children from harmful Internet content n/a Makes discount Internet access available to schools and libraries

Under the E-rate program, schools and libraries are afforded Internet access at discounted fees for students and patrons. According to the E-rate Web site, the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA), enacted by Congress in December 2000, governs access to E-rate funds. E-rate recipients must certify that they have certain Internet safety measures in place. These include measures to block or filter pictures that (a) are obscene, (b) contain child pornography, or (c) are otherwise harmful to minors. 6. U.S. Department of Agriculture Funded Program: Technology 4-H Program name: Contact information:

• • • •

Technology in 4-H www.4-h.org Lists Internet safety rules at its Web site, 4h.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=97&Itemid=2 7 Discusses home security for your identity and your computer at 4h.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=40&Itemid=5 3 117

Funder: Audience: Focus/scope:

• • •

Media: Delivery:

• •

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 4-H Children and youth Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; cyberbullying; privacy concerns Online Self-exploration; organized 4-H activities

The 4-H program disseminates information about Internet education and safety through its technology programming. The Department of Agriculture’s Rural Utility Service also posts Internet safety tips at www.usda.gov/rus/educate/tel_safe.htm. 7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Funded Program: 4Girls Health: How To Be Safety Savvy Program name: Contact information: Funder:

• •

4Girls Health: How To Be Safety Savvy www.4girls.gov/safety/internet.htm



Audience: Focus/scope:

• •

Media: Delivery:

• •

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health Girls ages 10–16 Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; cyberethics; privacy and personal information on the Internet; cyberbullying Online Self-exploration

This Web site for adolescent girls includes a list of Internet rules, a quiz about Internet safety, and an FAQ-style document about Internet issues. In addition, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, a unit within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has Internet safety tips listed at www.mentalhealth.org/kidsarea/internettips.asp. 8. U.S. Department of Homeland Security A search for Internet safety programs funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) revealed no such programs. However, the Department’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) lists tips for children and parents on Internet safety on its FEMA for Kids Web site: www.fema.gov/kids/on_safety.htm. 9. Program name: Contact information:

U.S. Department of Defense Funded Program: Safekids • •

Safekids www.ncis.navy.mil/info/safekids.cfm

118

Funder:



Audience: Focus/scope:

• •

Media: Delivery:

• •

U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Naval Criminal Investigative Service Parents Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials Online PowerPoint briefing for parents

The Safekids Web site includes lists of Internet rules and a downloadable PowerPoint presentation for parents, which can be used in a community education setting. Resources for military families who encounter Internet predators also are listed. The Navy Morale, Welfare and Recreation unit also posts an Internet Safety Kit with resources for children and parents at www.mwr.navy.mil/mwrprgms/y2tinternet.htm. 10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Funded Program: NASAexplores Cybersafety Program name: Contact information: Funder: Audience: Focus/scope:

• •

Media: Delivery:

• •

• • •

NASAexplores Cybersafety www.nasaexplores.nasa.gov/show_k4_teacher_st.php?id=03022112 0608 National Aeronautics and Space Administration K–4 students and their teachers Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials Online Teacher lesson plans; student worksheets

This lesson on cybersafety is posted in the NASA Explores section of NASA’s education Web pages. 11. Interagency/Federal–State Collaboration Funded Program “I Keep Safe”—Faux Pas, the Techno Cat Program name: • “I Keep Safe”—Faux Pas, the Techno Cat Contact • www.ikeepsafe.org information: Funder: • “I Keep Safe” is state funded and managed by a nonprofit organization. The organization sought the input of, and continues to collaborate with, federal agencies and the National Crime Prevention Council, including the FBI’s Internet Crimes Task Force and the U.S. Department of Justice. Audience: • Parents and children (grades 2–4) Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; privacy concerns Media: • Online; hard-cover storybook available 119

Delivery:



Online games; printable workbooks and puzzles; hard-cover storybook. Future plans include school programs with costumed characters.

Launched February 28, 2005, “I Keep Safe” is the creation of a coalition of the spouses of 47 state governors and federal and private agencies. The program will expand from online delivery to a traveling cast of characters who visit schools to deliver the Internet safety message. 12. Congressionally Mandated - Federally Funded Research National Academy of Sciences Study: Youth, Pornography, and the Internet Program name: • Youth, Pornography, and the Internet Contact • books.nap.edu/html/youth_internet information: Funder: • Federally funded study conducted by the National Academy of Sciences Audience: • Adults, researchers, practitioners Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials Media: • Book in print; also available online Delivery: • N/A This federally funded study was conducted by the Committee on Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content, part of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Academy of Sciences. The committee report, published in 2002, examines options for protecting children from inappropriate sexually explicit material on the Internet and discusses social and educational strategies, technological tools, and policy options for how to teach children to make safe and appropriate decisions about what they see and experience on the Internet. 13. U.S. Department of Justice-Funded Research Crimes against Children Research Center Juvenile Online Victimization Study Program name: • Crimes against Children Research Center Juvenile Online Victimization Study Contact • www.unh.edu/ccrc/NJOV_info_page.htm information: Funder: • U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Audience: • Adults, researchers, practitioners Focus/scope: • Safety in online relationships; avoiding pornography and other offensive materials; cyberethics; identity theft and privacy concerns; Internet “addiction”; cyberbullying Media: • Report in print; also available online 120

Delivery:



N/A

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children fund the University of New Hampshire’s Crimes Against Children Research Center Juvenile Online Victimization (N–JOV) Study. The N–JOV study collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of Internet sex crimes committed against minors and the numbers of arrests for these crimes during a 1-year period. The resulting N–JOV statistics about online victimization of children were published in 2004 and are the most widely cited statistics in this area.

121

Cyberbullying

Identity Theft and Privacy Concerns

Hacking and Malicious Programming

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

NetSmartz Workshop www.netsmartz.org

9 9

9

Boys & Girls Clubs of Ameri ca

9

9

Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces www.ojjdp.ncjrs.or g/programs/ProgSu mmary.asp?pi=3

9 9

9

Genera l comm unity educati on and outreac h

Varies by local task force

A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety www.fbi.gov/public ations/pguide/pguid ee.htm

9

For Others Law enforc ement

For Schools and Teachers

9

For Parents

9

For Kids

i-SAFE America, Inc. www.isafe.org

Program/ Product Name and Contact Information

9

94

Internet “Addiction”

Cyberethics/Internet Citizenship

9

Avoiding Pornography and Other Offensive Materials

9

Safety in Online Relationships

Copyright, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property Theft

TABLE 1: FEDERALLY FUNDED INTERNET SAFETY PROGRAMS94

9

9

NOTE: Inclusion of a program on this table does not constitute an endorsement of the program. In preparing this inventory, no attempt has been made to evaluate any program.

122

9

Law enforc ement

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

123

Internet “Addiction”

9

9

www.cybercrime.g ov/rules/lessonplan 1.htm Childsafenet www.childsafenet.o rg

9

Cyberbullying

For Others

9

Cyberethics for Teachers

Hacking and Malicious Programming

9

Identity Theft and Privacy Concerns

Cyberethics for Kids www.cybercrime.g ov/rules/kidinternet. htm

9

Cyberethics/Internet Citizenship

9 9

9

Copyright, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property Theft

Cybercitizen Awareness Program www.cybercitizens hip.org/aboutus/abo utus.html

Avoiding Pornography and Other Offensive Materials

9

Safety in Online Relationships

FBI Safety Tips for Kids www.fbi.gov/kids/k 5th/safety1.htm

For Schools and Teachers

For Parents

For Kids

Program/ Product Name and Contact Information

Kidz Privacy www.ftc.gov/bcp/c online/edcams/kidz privacy

9 9

kids.us www.kids.us Parents Guide to the Internet www.ed.gov/pubs/p arents/internet/inde x.html

9

E-rate www.sl.universalse rvice.org

9

Technology in 4-H www.4-h.org 4Girls Health: How to be Safety Savvy www.4girls.gov/saf ety/internet.htm

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

Librar y

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

9

124

9

9

9

9

9

Internet “Addiction”

Hacking and Malicious Programming

Identity Theft and Privacy Concerns

Cyberbullying

Cyberethics/Internet Citizenship

Copyright, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property Theft

Avoiding Pornography and Other Offensive Materials

9

4-H

9

9

Safety in Online Relationships

For Others

9

9

Safekids www.ncis.navy.mil/ info/safekids.cfm NASAexplores Cybersafety www.nasaexplores. nasa.gov/show_k4_ teacher_st.php?id=0 30221120608

For Schools and Teachers

For Parents

For Kids

Program/ Product Name and Contact Information

I Keep Safe—Faux Pas, the Techno Cat www.ikeepsafe.org

9 9

9

9

Internet “Addiction”

Hacking and Malicious Programming

9

Youth, Pornography, and the Internet books.nap.edu/html /youth_internet

Resear chers, practiti oners, interest ed adults

9

9

Crimes Against Children Research Center Juvenile Online Victimization Study www.unh.edu/ccrc/ NJOV_info_page.ht m

Resear chers, practiti oners, interest ed adults

9

9

125

Identity Theft and Privacy Concerns

Cyberbullying

Cyberethics/Internet Citizenship

Copyright, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property Theft

Avoiding Pornography and Other Offensive Materials

Safety in Online Relationships

For Others

For Schools and Teachers

For Parents

For Kids

Program/ Product Name and Contact Information

9

9

9

9

Copyright Kids

Copyright Society of the U.S.A. Guardian Angels, Inc.

9

9

9

www.copyrightkids.or g

9

9

9

www.cyberangels.org

CyberNetiquette Comix

Disney Online

9

9

disney.go.com/cybersa fety

CyberSafety

CyberSafety.us

9

9

www.cybersafety.us/st ep1.html

CyberSmart! Curriculum

CyberSmart!® Education Company GetNetWise

9

University of Minnesota, University of Nebraska— Lincoln, North Carolina State University, Zope Corporation, Ohio State University, New Mexico State University

9

CyberAngels

GetNetWise Online Safety Guide GoCyberCamp

For Parents

Web Site

9

For Others

Childnet International

For Schools

Chatdanger

For Kids

Program/ Product Name

Producer

TABLE 2: SAMPLE OF PRIVATE NONPROFIT, COMMERCIAL, AND STATE AND LOCAL RESOURCES FOCUSED ON INTERNET SAFETY95

www.chatdanger.com

9

9

www.cybersmart.org

9

kids.getnetwise.org/sa fetyguide 4-H

95

www.gocybercamp.or g

NOTE: Inclusion of a program on this table does not constitute an endorsement. No attempt has been made to evaluate the content or effectiveness of any program. The sources of the information provided are the referenced Web sites. This list is representative but not exhaustive.

126

responsiblenetize n.org

Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use

9

Internet Safety and Safe Surfing for Kids Internet Safety Awareness

ProtectYourKids .info Illinois State Library, a Division of the Office of the Secretary of State, using federal LSTA funding

9

9

Internet Safety for Teachers and Students

Center for Innov ation in Engineering and Science Education, Stevens Institute of Technology

9

9

Kidscomjr. Internet Safety Game

Circle 1 Network

9

9

www.protectkids.com

For Parents

9

9

9

Netforce

NetSafeKids

9

Web Site

9

For Others

Enough Is Enough

For Schools

Producer

ProtectKids.com

For Kids

Program/ Product Name

Techwww.responsiblenetiz nology en.org planning organiza -tions www.safesurfing.itgo. com www.internetsafety.org/scripts/cont ent.cgi?template=defa ult&args=guides,intro duction

9

Libraria ns

www.k12science.org/i nternetsafety. html

www.kidscomjr.com/g ames/safety/ safety.html

www.geocities.com/ne t_enforce 9

National Academy of Sciences

127

www.nap.edu/netsafek ids/res_helpful.html

www.onlineguardians. org/parents.htm

P2P PATROL: Peer-to-Peer Parents and Teens React On Line

Distributed Computing Industry Association (DCIA)

9

PBSKids.org Get Your Web License Planet CRuSH/Project CRuSH Play It Cyber Safe

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) TOUCH Community Services Business Software Alliance Nemours Foundation

Distribut www.p2ppatrol.com -ed computi ng compani es www.pbskids.org/lice nse

Safe Surfing Tips for Teens

For Parents 9 9

Web Site

9

For Others

OnlineGuardians .org

For Schools

Producer

Online Guardians™

For Kids

Program/ Product Name

www.planetcrush.org

9

9

9

www.playitcybersafe. com

9

www.kidshealth.org/te en/safety/ safebasics/internet_saf ety.html

SafeKids.com SafeTeens.com staysafeonline.in fo

NetFamilyNews. org National Cyber Security Alliance, a public-private partnership

9

9

9

9

WebMonkey for Kids

Lycos, Inc./ Carnegie Mellon University

9

9

www.safekids.com Small business es

www.staysafeonline.in fo

webmonkey.wired.co m/webmonkey/ kids/planning/safety.ht ml

128

What Can I Do To Be Net Safe?

University of Oklahoma Campus Police

9

www.ou.edu/oupd/kid safe/inet.htm

Wired Kidz

Wired Safety

9

www.wiredkidz.org/ki ds.html

Wired Teens

Wired Safety

9

9

WiredSafety

WiredSafety

9

9

Yahooligans! Parents’ Guide

Yahoo! Inc.

For Parents 9

Web Site

9

For Others

Web Wise Kids

For Schools

Producer

Web Wise Kids

For Kids

Program/ Product Name

www.webwisekids.org

www.wiredteens.org 9

9

Law enforcement

www.wiredsafety.org

www.yahooligans.yah oo.com/docs/ safety

G. Results of the 2008 Project Safe Childhood Conference The 2008 National Project Safe Childhood Conference was held September 23-26 2008 in Columbus, OH. Over 1,400 attendees participated in the PSC Conference, including 455 attendees from federal agencies. The conference agenda included 119 separate lecture and 59 hands-on computer lab workshops for prosecutors, law enforcement, community educators, advocates, and child welfare professionals. Over 120 national and international instructors presented the conference on topics including best practices for working with child victims, new community awareness campaigns, emerging technology to improve child exploitation investigations, winning prosecutorial strategies, and offender characteristics and modus operandi. The conference was very well received by participants. Table 1 below shows some of the 2008 Project Safe Childhood National Conference evaluation results. The conference program is attached to this report in Appendix 2.96

96

The 4 mb file for the Conference Program of the 2008 Project Safe Childhood national Training Conference is available at: http://www.icactraining.org/agendas/PSC/PSC_Conf_Program_FINAL.pdf

129

TABLE 1: PARTICIPANT EVALUATIONS OF 2008 PROJECT SAFE CHILDHOOD CONFERENCE (N=939) Percent of Favorable Responses from participants 100%

“The conference program was relevant to my needs.” “I would attend the 97% conference next year.” I would recommend the 97% conference to others in my field.” Source: Fox Valley Technical College

This program, which has been funded by the Department for many years, is critical to the continued success of the Department’s efforts to prevent and interdict child exploitation. H. Child Exploitation Computer Forensics As noted in the Threat Assessment, some of the most egregious and threatening child exploitation crimes are facilitated by the Internet and the use of computers and other digital media. The forensic analysis of the computers is the most important aspect of the investigation. Computer forensic examinations that provide investigators and prosecutors the information they need – a when they need it – are absolutely critical to the investigation and prosecution of these serious crimes. Investigation of these crimes is not simple, however, due to the challenges that ever-advancing technology presents to law enforcement. Ensuring that timely and adequate computer forensics analysis is provided in child exploitation investigations and prosecutions has become increasingly difficult. The sheer volume of the increase of persons using computers and the Internet is one reason. The number of U.S. households having at least one computer rose from 22.9% in 1993 to 61.8% in 2003. It is estimated that today more than 80% of U.S. households have a computer. In 1997, the percentage of households with Internet access was 18%. By 2009, that percentage had increased to 68.7%. Additionally, it is increasingly easy and inexpensive for individuals to acquire and store large amounts of data. Digital media storage capacity has soared while the cost of storing the data has plummeted. For example, the cost of storing one gigabyte of data in 1995 was approximately $1,000. By 2009, terabyte (1,000 gigabyte) hard drives for home use were available and the cost to store one gigabyte of data approximately 10¢. Further, as described in the Threat Assessment, the wide variety of ever-changing/evolving technologies being used by offenders seriously challenge law enforcement’s ability to keep pace. 1. State and Local Agencies The majority of computer forensic examinations conducted in child exploitation investigations are performed by State and local law enforcement agencies. Of the more than 17,000 State, 130

local, and tribal law enforcement agencies in the U.S., more than 2,500 are members or affiliates of one of the 61 Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces. The ICAC Task Forces have demonstrated a dramatic increase in the number of computer forensic examinations they have conducted. In 2007, they reported nearly 10,500 computer forensic examinations. ICAC computer forensic capacity was increased in 2007 through targeted grants to 13 of the then-59 ICAC Task Forces, totaling $2.6 million, for that purpose. These grants, which expanded capacity at roughly one fourth of the ICAC Task Forces, had a direct impact – in 2008, ICAC Task Forces reported 14,339 computer forensic examinations in 2008 and 19,269 in 2009. In short, following the issuance of capacity-increasing grants, the ICAC Task Forces performed about twice as many forensic examinations in 2009. 2. FBI Computer Analysis Response Team and Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Programs Child exploitation investigators, as well as other federal, state and local law enforcement agencies rely upon the FBI’s Computer Analysis Response Team (CART) and Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory (RCFL) programs to provide digital forensic search and examination support, in support of their investigations. Nominally, the Computer Analysis Response Team (CART) is an organizational component of the FBI’s Digital Evidence Section (DES) that began in 1988 under the FBI Laboratory Division as one of the earliest computer forensic examiner groups in the country. Today, the term CART generically refers to three groups: 1) the CART Forensic Analysis Unit (CART-FAU) that staffs and manages the FBI’s Digital Evidence Laboratory (DEL) which is fully accredited by American Society of Crime Laboratory Director’s Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD-LAB) and assists in setting written, tested, verified, vetted, defensible forensic procedures and protocols for all CARTcertified personnel that are designed to meet and exceed the expert witness technical/scientific admissibility requirements of Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579 (1993) and its progeny; 2) The CART Operational Support Unit (CART-OSU) which supports and equips but does not manage CART-certified digital evidence forensic examiners but who are annually proficiency tested, monitored and periodically trained by the DES, and; 3) The CART Field Examiners, themselves, who are trained, certified, tested and monitored by CART-OSU and other DES units but are exclusively supervised and controlled by the management staff of each individual FBI Field Division in which they are located. In the FBI, there are approximately 225 CART-certified digital evidence forensic examiners dispersed at nearly 98 FBI locations, approximately 45% of which are sworn FBI Agents while the remainder are professional support staff. An additional 200 or so state and local task force officers and professional support from approximately 130 police agencies are also “CARTcertified” and are located at 16 Regional Computer Forensic Laboratories (RCFLs) geographically dispersed around the country. The RCFL Program is built on partnerships between the FBI and other law enforcement agencies at the federal, state and local levels operating within a geographic area. An RCFL is a computer forensics laboratory and training center devoted to the forensic examination of digital evidence in support of criminal investigations. The RCFL Program currently manages a network of 14 existing laboratories in major cities across the United States with two more labs due to open by 131

FY 2011. The primary forensics responsibilities of an RCFL are to conduct a comprehensive examination of digital evidence, provide a complete and timely report to the contributor, provide testimony as needed, and to generally act as a regional focal point for digital evidence issues. RCFL Examiners can extract information from a computer system and/or digital media, and can recover deleted, encrypted, or damaged files. Any or all of this information may be useful during discovery, depositions, or litigation. Over 130 different state and local agencies participate in and have personnel assigned to a RCFL. The RCFL Program has supported a substantial number of investigations over the last several years. For example, from FY 2007 to FY 2009 the RCFL Program achieved a 60% increase in the total number of examinations completed for investigations relating to crimes against children – increasing from 1,386 to 2,194. The RCFL Program is also far reaching in that it has conducted examinations for over 650 separate state and local law enforcement agencies. Resources from the Department of Justice’s Asset Forfeiture Fund (AFF) have enabled the RCFL Program to fight the backlog of forensic service requests at the RCFLs by providing overtime reimbursement to sworn law enforcement staff detailed to RCFLs. In the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report, “Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward” (page 1-4), backlog statistics from the 2005 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) census report are cited. Specifically, the NAS report states that: “… in a typical publicly funded crime laboratory ended the year with a backlog of about 401 requests for services, received another 4,328 such requests, and completed 3,980 of them. The average backlog has risen since the 2002 census, with nearly 20 percent of all requests backlogged by year end.” In comparison to the trend at general (i.e., non-computer-forensic) crime laboratories, the RCFL Program has steadily reduced the overall backlog in digital forensic exams at RCFLs over the last 3 years. As a result, RCFL statistics show a drop of 36% from FY 2007 – FY 2009. In FY 2009 the total number of service requests for FY 2009 was 5,616. The total number of backlogged cases at the end of that year was 506 - resulting in a backlog of just 9% of all cases received. Despite the sustained efforts from both the CART and RCFL Programs, FBI studies indicate that there have not been enough trained, certified, annually proficiency tested, peer-reviewed, monitored digital evidence forensic examiners or laboratories to meet the growing demand for forensic analysis. With more than five thousand independent state/ local law enforcement agencies in the United States, 16 RCFLs and dozens of ICAC task forces with non-laboratory “forensic capacity” to help address the growing volume of data and requests associated with child exploitation investigations, there is still a need for additional resources to handle the forensic processing and analysis of digital evidence. To this end, the FBI has been exploring and utilizing a number of strategies to increase the number of trained, digital evidence forensic examiners both for its own investigations and for the RCFLs. The FBI believes that providing training to the law enforcement community both builds the digital forensics capacity and also reduces the burden on CART/RCFL examiners. ImageScan is 132

a user-friendly software tool developed by the FBI CART Program and deployed in conjunction with the RCFLs at CART offices and RCFLs across the country. It is specifically designed to locate graphic image files such as child pornography–without altering any data on the electronic device. Through the CART/RCFL Training Program, which provides training to Law Enforcement Personnel free of charge, ImageScan software and training have been provided to over 10,000 Law Enforcement Personnel throughout the United States in the past 6 years. There are numerous free training initiatives the RCFL Program uses to educate the law enforcement community on a variety of topics ranging from the use of the freely distributed ImageScan software, to distributing free field guides on handling digital evidence to providing free web-based world-wide training events in handling mobile devices properly. The use of free preview tools such as ImageScan and DriveQuest provides investigators and prosecutors with more actionable information early on in the investigation. The strategy of providing free, continuing education, over time, will minimize the need later in the investigation to absorb additional forensic resources for “full” forensic examination and thus reduce the overall backlog. Other initiatives from the CART and RCFL programs that have enhanced service offerings while increasing efficiency with very limited resources include a network of self service kiosks at FBI field offices and RCFLs around the country. Cell Phone Investigative Kiosks (CPIK) are available to all law enforcement officers wishing to merely extract readily retrievable data from cell phones, such as contacts, calendars and recent calls. The cell phone kiosk allows users to extract data from a cell phone, insert that data into a report, and burn the report to a CD or DVD in as little as 30 minutes. In FY 2009, the Heart of America RCFL (HARCFL) was able to reduce its backlog by 60 percent in part by making extensive use of their Cell Phone Kiosk for cell phones and videos. Currently 13 of the 14 operational RCFLs have these kiosks. The CART and RCFL programs are also prototyping Loose Media Kiosks (LMK) in testing at WFO and San Diego RCFL (SDRCFL). This tool enables investigators to quickly review removable media in a forensically sound manner and analyze evidence related to child exploitation investigations to determine its value in an investigation without waiting for the availability of a forensic examiner. The FBI is also developing new tools, including, DriveQuest, which is now nearing completion of it development phase and should begin BETA field testing soon. DriveQuest is a program that has been designed to provide investigators with new, configurable, capabilities while conducting consent or triage searches on-scene including; text string search on user defined dictionaries to user defined areas of a computer system, view and search through Internet History Files, view Windows Registry Information, and search and Identify Encryption, Data Hiding, and Data Destruction Utilities. 3. U.S. Postal Inspection Service Digital Evidence Unit The Digital Evidence Unit (DEU) has offices throughout the country. The unit is led by an Assistant Inspector in Charge located at Dulles, Virginia and is comprised of Inspector Program Managers, Forensic Computer Analysts and Ad Hoc analysts domiciled in each of the eighteen Inspection Service Field Divisions. In addition, there are Audio/Video Forensic Analysts located at the USPIS National Forensic Laboratory. 133

The DEU is the principal group responsible for the collection, preservation, and examination of computer digital evidence in support of all Inspection Service investigations. Digital evidence analysts are tasked with examining computer evidence and any digital media for information or data pertinent to Postal Inspection Service investigations. Examples of cases that may incorporate this type of evidence are: child pornography/exploitation, homicide, rape, suicide, mail theft, fraud, identity theft, or other related crimes against the Postal Service. Approximately 26% of the digital forensic work conducted by the DEU involves child exploitation cases. In FY 2008, the DEU conducted 269 child exploitation forensic examinations; in FY 2009, it conducted 260; and in the first six months of FY 2010, it has conducted 105. In addition to processing cases, the Digital Evidence Unit is available for technical advice and assistance in seizing and preserving evidence at the crime scene. 4. ICE Computer Forensics Program The ICE Computer Forensics Program (CFP) was formalized under the legacy U.S. Customs Service in 1997 under the Office of Investigations. The ICE CFP continues to operate under the ICE Office of Investigations as a Section within the ICE Cyber Crimes Center (C3). The Computer Forensics Section (CFS) provides programmatic oversight, equipment, technical support, guidance and training to the entire ICE Computer Forensics Program (CFP). The ICE CFP is comprised of ICE Special Agents and Criminal Research Officers, trained and equipped to conduct analysis of digital evidence in furtherance of criminal investigations. The successful investigation and prosecution of criminal violations by ICE is largely dependent on the ability to quickly seize, process, and analyze evidentiary digital data obtained from seized electronic devices and digital media. To meet the goals and objectives of the overall ICE mission, the ICE CFS draws upon a long-standing, comprehensive training curriculum that provides Computer Forensics Agents/Analysts (CFA) with basic and advanced computer forensics training skills. To support the CFP, the CFS also conducts research and development and initiates projects in new and challenging technologies. The CFS continually procures software, equipment, supplies, upgrades, storage media, and new digital forensic equipment to support the CFP in meeting the demands posed by these ever-changing technologies. The CFS also monitors and tracks the efficiency and production of the CFP and responds to requests for assistance and operational support. The CFS promotes continuing education, such as professional and industry-standard certification initiatives, in an effort to ensure that CFAs in the field are trained and certified in the most current computer forensics techniques. There are currently 240 trained Computer Forensics Agents in 105 field offices worldwide. The Treasury Computer Forensics Training Program (TCFTP) is at the core of the ICE CFP and is a joint training initiative funded by the Treasury Executive Office of Asset Forfeiture (TEOAF). The TCFTP is comprised of the respective computer forensics and training programs of ICE, the U.S. Secret Service, and Internal Revenue Service. Since the inception of the TCFTP in 1997, approximately 325 ICE Special Agents have been trained. In FY 2005, ICE initiated a Regional Computer Forensic Storage Program with funding from a Congressional earmark. During the past four years, ICE has provided funding for the project, 134

which has allowed for its continued expansion. There are currently 13 operational and interconnected storage locations nationwide: C3, Newark, Tampa, Detroit, Chicago, Houston, Denver, Los Angeles, Seattle, San Diego, Boston, Miami and San Juan. In 2007 there were over 3 billion mobile phone subscribers in the world. With the popularity of smartphones, iPhones and wireless internet communication, that number has grown and the amount of data contained within a mobile device has also grown. To keep up with this evolving technology the CFP has created a two tier system of analyzing mobile devices. In FY 2008, equipment was issued to every ICE office with at least one CFA. The agents that have this equipment are to be utilized to perform the analysis of mobile devices in their Area of Responsibility (AOR). If the agent cannot acquire the necessary data or the device is not supported by the tools they have, then the device should be sent to the CFA that has advanced training within their SAC AOR. Every SAC office has at least one CFA with advanced mobile device training and tools, within their AOR. In FY 2009, the CFP trained and equipped over 40 CFA’s in mobile device forensics. The goal of the mobile devices program is to continue to train as many CFA’s as possible in advanced mobile devices data extraction and analysis techniques. Digital data analysis efforts continue to be a critical project under the CFS. The Pathfinder program has effectively supported numerous field investigations that have required the ability to search vast amounts of digital data for evidentiary content. It is used to organize and then search through seized evidence data, primarily on cases with large amounts of data. This data is typically electronic evidence files contained on hard drives, CDs, or other storage mediums. This project has recently supported national child pornography investigations, major corruption investigations, Counter Proliferation Investigations (CPI), and numerous worksite enforcement operations. The CFS is responsible for the development of the policies and procedures associated with the Computer Forensics Program. The CFS also provides guidance to the field on legal, technical, procedural and other issues related to the CFP. The CFS is also responsible for the development of the Computer Forensics Handbook. As password and encryption technology becomes more available and easier for the average user to implement, it has become necessary for the CFS to development a program to assist the field in investigations where passwords and encryption are encountered. The CFS currently utilizes a powerful array of computers, mathematical accelerators and PlayStation 3s, capable of generating nearly four million passwords per second for data decryption. The CFS can assist field offices with reducing backlogs by coordinating assistance among CFA’s located throughout various SAC Offices. The CFS can also conduct computer forensics examinations at C3 for offices without a CFA, to help reduce backlog or provide additional technical assistance in support of field investigations. The CFS manages the hard drive repair program for active investigations. In situations where a CFA encounters a hard drive or other type of media that has been damaged beyond their ability to fix, the CFS will assist in having the drive repaired when possible, and returning the recovered information back to the field for analysis. The CFS also utilizes equipment that can repair scratched or otherwise damaged

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CD/DVDs. The CFS has the capability to assist in processing large volumes of CD/DVDs and preparing them for analysis by the field. The ICE Computer Forensics Program has seen a significant increase in the amount of data presented for examination. In 2004, the ICE CFP processed over 22,000 pieces of digital media, totally 73TB (Terabytes) of data. Compare that to 2009, in which the ICE CFP processed nearly 30,000 pieces of media and 824TB (Terabytes) of data. While this is a 36% increase in the number of pieces of media processed, it is a 1029% increase in the amount of data processed over the same time period. It is anticipated that the ICE CFP will process over 1,100TB (Terabytes) in FY2010.

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IV.

FIGHTING THE THREAT GOING FORWARD

While the Department has vigorously fought all aspects of child exploitation, much more work remains to be done. This work includes better coordination among all the nation’s investigators, better training for investigators and prosecutors, advancing law enforcement’s technological capabilities to stay one step ahead of the exploiters, and better research to help us understand the abusers of our children in order to make more informed decisions on deterrence, incarceration, and sex offender monitoring. It also includes an expanded commitment to public awareness and community outreach. Ever-changing technologies and tactics by offenders demand nimble and innovative training for law enforcement. The Threat Assessment revealed a growing problem that will require more investment in investigators, prosecutors, technology, tools, and research to search out and find offenders. The market that demands younger victims, violent images, and on-demand sexual assaults must be diminished. The Threat Assessment revealed troubling links between those who traffic in child pornography and those who participate in the production of the images or molest children offline. Well-trained investigators are critical to finding and arresting those who profit, in money or otherwise, from the pain of our children. The Department’s goals and priorities include: (1) broad goals to direct the National Strategy; (2) more specific goals to address the dangers identified by the Threat Assessment; (3) programmatic goals that can provide some measurable information and results to help guide the Strategy going forward; and (4) individualized goals by each of the relevant Department components that are designed to support both the broad goals of the Strategy and the programmatic goals of the Department. At its core, the goal of this National Strategy is to reduce the incidence of the sexual exploitation of children. This goal is the guiding principle for all the Department’s current and future efforts. The sexual abuse and exploitation of children rob the victims of their childhood, irrevocably interfering with their emotional and psychological development. The cost to society is profound. Working toward reducing this blight on society will include a coordinated effort to achieve the broad Strategy goals, specific goals to address the current threats identified, the programmatic goals of the Department, and the goals of each of the components. A. The National Strategy’s Broad Goals As noted above, the guiding principle of all of the Department’s work must be to reduce the incidence of the sexual exploitation of children. This Strategy recognizes that investigation and prosecution will not alone defeat the threat our children face. A multi-disciplinary approach to the problem is required because of the complexity of the threats involved. Solving this problem must include not only investigators and prosecutors, but social service providers, educators, medical professionals, academics, non-governmental organizations, and members of industry, as well as parents and families.

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First, the Department will continue to partner closely with state, local, tribal, and nongovernmental entities, as well as other federal agencies and the private sector to implement the National Strategy in a coordinated fashion. Second, the Department will build on the success of the Project Safe Childhood initiative. Third, the Department will increase its commitment to a leadership role in finding a global solution to the transnational problem of the sexual exploitation of children. Fourth, the Department will work toward improving the quality, effectiveness, and timeliness of computer forensic investigations and analysis. Fifth, the Department will increase its commitment to effective and sophisticated training for prosecutors and investigators. Sixth, the Department will continue to partner with Industry to develop objectives to reduce the exchange of child pornography. Seventh, the Department will explore opportunities to increase the education and awareness of federal, state, local and tribal judges of the difficult issues involved in child sexual exploitation. In support of the goals above, the Department has set priorities for accomplishing the goals of this National Strategy. The following is a summary of those priorities. B. Goals to Address Dangers Identified by the Threat Assessment To address the specific dangers identified by the Threat Assessment, the Department will emphasize certain areas of priority, including: (1) child pornography and online enticement of children for sexual purposes; (2) commercial sexual exploitation of children (domestic prostitution), (3) child sex tourism; and (4) child exploitation in Indian Country. 1. Child Pornography and Online Exploitation The Threat Assessment revealed that the expansion of the Internet has lead to an explosion in the market for child pornography, leading, in turn, to increased access, creation, and distribution of these abusive images. As noted above, Project Safe Childhood was designed to develop district-specific strategies between U.S. Attorney’s offices, ICAC task forces, and other federal, state, and local partners, to combat Internet-facilitated child exploitation. PSC has lead to a dramatic increase in the federal prosecution of these cases, and to the rescue and identification of many victims. Priorities Utilizing enhanced investigative and technological resources, the Department will focus its efforts on the most dangerous, most prolific offenders. Sophisticated training for investigators 138

and prosecutors, as well as enhancing forensic and technology available to both, will increase the impact the Department can make on this problem. Through partnerships with Industry, the Department will explore strategies to reduce the ability of offenders to use the Internet to traffick in these vile images. The Department will also increase the level of coordination between PSC and the ICAC task forces, leveraging all the nation’s child exploitation investigative capabilities together. The Department will assess its current methods of collecting data on the scope of the problem, and determine whether further, or different, data collection would contribute more fully to eradicating this problem. The Department will also increase training coordination between PSC and the ICAC task forces, so that investigative tactics, techniques, technologies, forensics, and analysis are more fully standardized and continuously updated as information is shared and technology advances. The Department will explore close partnerships with the State Attorneys General and District Attorneys to share best practices, standards, information and strategies to attack this threat. These partnerships should include education, outreach, sex offender monitoring and deterrence. The Department is also fully committed to its role in the global battle against the sexual exploitation of children, and will foster international cooperation in sharing information, technology, victim identification, forensics, and best practices. We will also participate in transnational enforcement operations and training opportunities. As previously noted, research into various aspects of child sexual exploitation, from offender behavior to victim impact, is critically important so that the Department can adjust to the ever-changing practices of those who prey on our children. The Department will focus substantial research funding into these important areas, and will ensure that this research is informed by all the key partners involved in child exploitation prevention and interdiction. 2. The Domestic Prostitution of Children The Threat Assessment described that children, often runaways, are recruited and coerced into prostitution by pimps who lure the children with food, clothes, attention, friendship, and love. They then use violence or intimidation to trap these children into a life of prostitution. Through the Innocence Lost Initiative, a joint effort of the FBI, CEOS, and NCMEC, 38 task forces operate to collect intelligence on pimps, recover child victims, and prosecute the pimps and madams who prey on these vulnerable children. These cases are uniquely difficult to investigate and prosecute, but progress has been made, as noted previously in this Report. Priorities The Department will explore the expansion of the Innocence Lost Initiative into other cities. We will also work to ensure that adequate victim services for this group of child victims are available to assist these victims break free from their offenders and aid law enforcement in investigating and prosecuting those who have abused them. The Department will also explore strategies to reduce the demand for prostituted children through public awareness campaigns and systematic enforcement. The Department will also explore further coordination between ICAC task forces 139

and the Innocence Lost task forces, both of which are staffed by largely local investigators with a wealth of experience in investigating crimes against children. The Department can learn much in this area from the many NGOs operating to assist victims, and will organize “listening sessions” to aid in the development of plans to address this problem. The Department will work closely with the Departments of Education and Health and Human Services to develop comprehensive strategies to combat the glorification of pimps and prostitution often found in popular culture. The Department will also focus resources on coordinated training to include first responders and medical providers, so that these personnel can better recognize the signs that a child might be a victim of forced prostitution. 3. Child Sex Tourism The Threat Assessment revealed that some Americans capitalize on their relative wealth and travel to foreign nations to purchase the sexual assault of children for as little as five dollars. Many countries are considered an easy target for these predators, due to a variety of reasons. CEOS, working with ICE and the FBI to address this problem, has traveled to countries where child sex tourism is high to gain intelligence about these activities to inform the Department’s enforcement efforts. CEOS has conducted training for law enforcement in these high-risk countries, and has met with foreign officials to foster a cooperative law enforcement relationship. Priorities The Department will continue to increase its capacity to investigate Americans who sexually exploit children abroad. We will explore opportunities to partner with foreign law enforcement and NGOs who can assist in identifying victims and perpetrators. We will also pursue opportunities for international cooperation, information sharing, and training across borders to reduce this crime. The Department of State will be a key partner in these efforts, and the Department will pursue a close working relationship to develop strategies and initiatives to combat child sex tourism. The Department will also explore formulating “jump teams” to travel to foreign hot spots for sustained efforts to coordinate with foreign law enforcement, and in developing proactive enforcement operations. In this area, like in the others in this Report, research is critical, and will be fully supported by the Department. Offender behavior is an area ripe for research, and will aid law enforcement in identifying those likely to offend in this way. 4. Indian Country The Threat Assessment noted that there is a lack of data available to measure the threat that sexual exploitation poses to children in Indian Country. There is, however, widespread agreement among child exploitation professionals that the threat is a serious one. The Department, through the FBI and the U.S. Attorney’s Offices in Indian Country, has already committed resources to this problem, and will continue to maintain a strong focus on this unique area of the country. Resources are devoted to training investigators and prosecutors in this area.

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Priorities The Department is dedicated to decreasing child sexual exploitation in Indian Country. Toward that end, the Department will continue its efforts to assess the scope of the problem and build upon resources already being devoted to fighting this threat. A key partnership that must be developed is between the Department and the Department of Education. The two should pursue development of prevention and education measures for schools in Indian Country. The Department will also explore targeted grant funding for education, awareness and the promotion of reporting of child exploitation in Indian Country. The Department will also commit to assisting in the expanded training of first responders, investigators and prosecutors in Indian Country. Further research into the scope of the problem will be necessary, and will be a priority for the Department. C. Programmatic Goals In addition to the priorities related to key areas examined by the Threat Assessment, the Department will pursue goals and priorities in the areas delineated below. 1. Supporting and increasing outreach and education. The Department intends to continue to support and increase coordination with Internet Safety training programs. The Threat Assessment noted that children who are sexually assaulted are most often victimized by those closest to them. Continued, and expanded, investment into education, Internet Safety training, community-outreach, and public awareness must be a high priority. As noted above, the Department has a robust set of programs relating to Internet Safety training and community outreach. A coordinated approach including the Department of Education will reach many more thousands of school children. Such coordination is already underway, and Department representatives have met with Department of Education personnel to discuss programs in the future. In the next report to Congress, the Department anticipates reporting on programs the two Departments will have implemented. 2. Creating and disseminating a national database to aid in investigations. As described in the Threat Assessment, offenders are using advanced technology to avoid detection, share strategies to abuse children, and to traffic in vile images of children. Law enforcement, too, must have advanced tools to detect offenders. This include the creation of a national database to perform three critical functions: first, to allow federal, state, local, and international law enforcement to deconflict their cases with each other; second, to allow federal, state, and local law enforcement to engage in undercover operations from a portal facilitated or hosted by the database; and, third, to share information and intelligence, as well as conduct analysis, on dangerous offenders and future threats or trends. Especially as the level of sophistication of offenders, and the newly-emerging threat of organized groups, rises, such a technological tool is simply critical in the fight against the sexual exploitation of our children. The Department is currently working to develop this important tool. Many federal, state, and local agents currently utilize many different systems to conduct undercover operations, 141

deconflict cases, and share information. However, a national system linking all those law enforcement investigators, and approved international partners, will exponentially increase our knowledge of the threats and our ability to track suspects, than ever before. 3. Increasing prosecutions and prosecution training. The Department is committed to increasing the number of federal prosecutions of child exploitation crimes. This objective will be measurable each year and reported to Congress. The Department intends to achieve this goal by continuing to pursue the increasing number of investigations that are initiated by federal and state law enforcement officers. The more investigations that are pursued, the more likely it is that the number of successful prosecutions will result. Further, the Department plans to continue educating and training prosecutors to develop expertise in prosecuting child exploitation cases. 4. Continuing cooperation and increasing collaboration. This Report highlights the numerous agencies and entities engaged in the fight against child exploitation, increased cooperation between federal, state, and local law enforcement and nongovernment organizations will only strengthen the battle. To that end, cooperation between the Department and industry remains a high priority. Industry, like Internet Service Providers and software makers, will be a valuable partner in the fight to protect our children from technologyfacilitated child exploitation. Another critical area of coordination with industry is in the retention of data that might be relevant to child exploitation investigations. The Department has participated in an Online Safety and Technology Working Group led by the Department of Commerce to discuss this issue, among others, with industry and other interested parties, and a report to Congress will be forthcoming from that group. As noted above, Americans who travel to abuse foreign children show the worst of America to the rest of the world. The Department is committing resources to working with our international partners to address this problem. Increased cooperation between allies is a critical underpinning to successfully curtailing what is known as “child sex tourism.” The Department’s partnership with the Department of Homeland Security to provide space and agents from their respective law enforcement components to staff Interpol is a prime example of this country’s commitment to international cooperation. 5. Supporting and reviewing of relevant research. In preparing this Report, a comprehensive review of the relevant research relating to child exploitation was conducted, and is reviewed at the end of this Report. As the Threat Assessment noted, there are troubling links between those who exploit children by collecting and trading in their sexually abusive images and those who are hands-on abusers. One might assume, and research appears to confirm, that those with a sexual interest in children, whether manifested by gratification using the images of horrific sexual assault or by committing a sexual assault, represent a risk to our nation’s children. However, to better prioritize targets and assess individual risk levels, research is need to answer many questions, such as: how high is the risk a child pornography trafficker will be a hands-on offender; does the collection and use of these 142

vile images for sexual gratification increase the desire to sexually act against a child; does the type of image used for sexual gratification, whether violent or of very young children, impact the risk to offend; does the sheer volume of images collected or trafficked affect that risk? The Department, through the Office of Justice Programs will continue to fund this kind of critical research, but non-governmental organizations should also join in this effort. D. Departmental Component Goals In addition to the goals noted above, the Department will strive to improve in other, concrete, ways. 1. U.S. Attorney’s Offices As noted above, U.S. Attorney’s Offices have been allocated 38 additional Assistant U.S. Attorney positions to devote to child exploitation cases. Over the next several months, the Department will work to fill the outstanding vacancies and train the new Assistants in this complex area of specialty. As Project Safe Childhood intended, U.S. Attorney’s offices will increase their focus on coordination and training between federal agencies and ICAC task forces. The Department will also consider innovative strategies, like encouraging ICACs to provide funds for Special Assistant United States Attorneys for child exploitation cases, which would increase cooperation with ICACs and the referrals of cases. The prior experience of these Special Assistant United States Attorneys working with the ICACs will enhance the USAO relationship with the ICACs, bring more specialization to federal child exploitation investigations and prosecutions, and increase the overall number of ICAC referrals for Federal prosecution. 2. CEOS At CEOS, the specialists there are committed to continuing their leadership in training for prosecutors and agents at the National Advocacy Center, and across the country and the world. They will also continue their strong commitment to aiding the AUSAs in the field in research and prosecution support for cases, especially complex cases. The High-Tech Investigative Unit will continue its leadership in forensics. CEOS will also continue to advise the Department on relevant legislation and policy initiatives and will work with multiple domestic and international agencies and allies. As they have done in the past, CEOS will continue to develop complex, multi-jurisdictional investigations. 3. OJP OJP will continue its efforts to increase the Nation’s capacity to prevent and control crime and reduce the impact of crime on victims and hold offenders accountable, including working to prevent and reduce the victimization of children. They will continue their efforts to oversee, coordinate, and distribute funding to the numerous groups that contribute to the fight against child exploitation. This will include assisting the ICACs with their continued aggressive pursuit of those who sexually exploit children, especially in the file-sharing network arena. They will also assist with the creation and dissemination of NIDS. Further, they will assist in coordinating 143

with the ICACs to help increase the number of referrals of cases to federal prosecutors and to continuing the training on emerging technologies. 4. FBI The FBI will continue to lead through its Innocent Images National Initiative. They will also focus on further coordination and cooperation with ICAC task forces in both investigations and training, and increasing capacity for digital forensic examinations. The FBI further plans to participate in the NIDS. They will continue to focus on domestic child prostitution through the Innocence Lost National Initiative, and will continue partnerships with International allies, Interpol and NCMEC in the identification of victims of child pornography. 5. United States Marshals Service The Marshals Service will stand up a fully operational National Sex Offender Targeting Center to better track and apprehend fugitive sex offenders. They will also increase training for apprehension of fugitives who abduct children. The Marshals Service also plans to host other countries for discussion of national sex offender registries. The Marshals Service will continue to develop their Behavioral Analysis Unit, which will develop key research to aid in sex offender tracking and apprehension. Of course, the Marshals Service will continue to aggressively pursue and apprehend fugitive sex offenders and enforce all aspects of the sex offender registries in fulfillment of their Adam Walsh Act obligations. The Marshals Service also plans to participate in the National Internet Crimes Against Children Data System. (“NIDS”) 6. Interpol Washington INTERPOL Washington will continue to establish a Child Protection Division through the allocation of additional dedicated positions. In support of the Adam Walsh Act, this division will focus on providing immediate and secure communications with foreign and domestic law enforcement partners through the INTERPOL I-24/7 network in order to monitor the international movements of convicted and non-compliant fugitive sex offenders. These efforts will be coordinated with the state sex offender registries, the U.S. Marshals Service, and the National Sex Offender Tracking Center. INTERPOL Washington will also continue to broaden the use of the INTERPOL Notice System in order to locate and apprehend non-compliant fugitive sex offenders, locate missing and abducted children, and combat child sex tourism. V.

CONCLUSION

The Department is committed to the success of its National Strategy for Child Exploitation Prevention and Interdiction. Continued investment in personnel and technology will be a priority as we fight the scourge of child exploitation. Cooperation and coordination at all levels of government will lead to better results for our nation’s children. As this Report has shown, the Department is already increasing its forensic and prosecution capacity, two key components necessary to attack this problem. The spirit of our children, and their continued innocence, demands our best efforts. We can do no less.

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APPENDIX A THREAT ASSESSMENT: LAW ENFORCEMENT OPERATIONS Operation Achilles Operation Achilles (initiated June 2006, charges filed 2008, trial 2009), conducted by the FBI, targeted and dismantled an international and highly sophisticated 60-member group that used Internet newsgroups to trade more than 400,000 images of child pornography over the suspected course of 15 years. This group included a number of dangerous child sex abusers. The group was highly sophisticated, using complex encryption, identity anonymizers, other technical protections, and strict rules of procedure to avoid detection. It took 18 months of intensive investigative effort for the FBI, working closely with foreign law enforcement partners from Queensland, Australia, among others, to dismantle the group. Despite those efforts, 38 members of the group remain unidentified (including the group administrator). In addition to trading images between group members, some of whom boasted collections in excess of one (1) million images, the group contracted for and facilitated the sexual abuse of children, including very young children, to generate new child pornographic images for the group. Twenty-two members of the group were ultimately identified and located, including 14 individuals in the United States. Of the 14 U.S. defendants, at least five (5) were active molesters. Three (3) of those had prior convictions for the sexual molestation of children and had served prison sentences. This investigation resulted in the rescue of nine (9) American child victims, in addition to at least five (5) foreign victims. This case represented one of the largest digital seizures in the history of the FBI; over 57 terabytes of data. The investigation and forensics required highly-sophisticated technological skills to overcome complex encryption and other emerging technologies.97 As a result of this investigation, a newly passed Child Exploitation Enterprise statute which carries a mandatory minimum sentence of 20 years, never attempted before by any law enforcement agency was utilized. Of the 14 U.S. citizens charged in a 40 count indictment, seven (7) entered guilty pleas and the remaining seven (7) defendants participated in a joint/simultaneous trial. Sentences ranged from 20 to 30 years in prison with one (1) defendant receiving 13 years in prison. The other seven (7) defendants received life sentences.

Operation Avalanche USPIS, in coordination with ICE, Dallas ICAC and the U.S. Department of Justice/Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS), through Operation Avalanche (1999-2000, unveiled August 8, 2001) dismantled a multi-million dollar commercial child pornography business and targeted the paid subscribers to various web sites containing child pornography and bearing names such as “Child Rape” and “Children Forced to Porn.” The web sites were promoted and made available to paying customers by Landslide Productions, Inc., of Fort Worth, Texas. Landslide charged a fee of approximately $29.95 per month to the subscribers. Records seized 97

Seven of the 14 U.S. defendants pleaded guilty and received sentences ranging from 164 months (for a cooperating defendant) to 365 months in prison. The remaining 7 were convicted at trial, and all received life sentences.

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from Landslide’s business premises and servers, pursuant to federal search warrants, revealed more than 100,000 paying customers from more than 60 countries. The principals of Landslide were prosecuted and the investigation into the subscribers of the various web sites became Operation Avalanche.98 The investigation into Landslide Productions began in the spring of 1999 after a Postal Inspector, acting in an undercover capacity, discovered Landslide’s web site and determined it was a huge commercial child pornography enterprise being operated in Fort Worth, Texas. The Landslide web site acted as a gateway to approximately 5,700 other web sites, many of which contained child pornography images. Landslide’s servers revealed the names of approximately 100,000 people from more than 60 countries who had purchased child pornography through the Landslide web site. Law enforcement estimated that the site operators earned more than $1 million (USD) per month while the site was in operation. In 2001, Landslide’s owner and principal operator was tried, convicted, and sentenced to 180 years in federal prison. Many of the 150 paid subscribers who were arrested and prosecuted as part of Operation Avalanche were responsible for molesting children and trafficking in child pornography.

Operation Cybersafe Operation Cybersafe (initiated November 2003) was a historical investigation of a group of sexual predators in the Peoria Division of the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Central District of Illinois. The investigation was initiated in November 2003 and concluded in 2004. The district targeted a total of 17 defendants and identified more than 200 child victims of these predators; the victims ranged in age from younger than 10 to 16 years. Law enforcement forensically examined more than 70 computers in a six-month period. Operation Cybersafe involved all types of online networking involving child exploitation and the production and dissemination of child pornography, including sexting, distribution, enticement, texting, e-mails, private chat room groups, in-person meetings, and sexual abuse. The group members (defendants here) were not typically friends outside of their interests in and motivations for sex with minors. In fact, they were competitors with each other for the same children, but they communicated with each other for the mutual benefit of increasing the number of children who they could target, entice, and exploit. In essence, they grouped together for the sharing of information about existing child victims, recruitment of new children into the group, and encouraging new children into experimenting with sex. One defendant described why these online predator groups are more dangerous than “for-profit” groups. The defendant stated to the (AUSA), “You don’t understand. You have your work, your hobbies, and your family. My thoughts are occupied with kids and sex. When I’m at work I’m 98

According to an October 13, 2009, e-mail from USPI Ray Smith, more than 6,000 search warrants were served in other countries. In the United States, more than 175 searches in 37 states were carried out, resulting in 150 arrests. Although, this was a USPIS- led operation, 30 ICACs from across the country joined forces with Postal Inspectors on many of the cases.

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looking online for kids; when I get off work at 5:00, I’m online looking for kids for sex; when I wake up in the morning, I’m online looking for sex with kids.” The defendant claimed he had had sex with more than 500 area children. The AUSA did not believe him until he confirmed just over 125 children.

Operation Falcon (Regpay) http://www.justice.gov/usao/nj/press/files/pdffiles/regp0228rel.pdf The investigation into subscribers of the web site was dubbed Operation Falcon (2003-2004). Through February 2006, the operation netted 341 federal, state, and local arrests in the United States and approximately 703 additional international arrests. http://republicans.energycommerce.house.gov/108/Hearings/09212006hearing2032/Christie.pdf Congressional Testimony of U.S. Attorney Chris Christie to the U.S. House of Representatives Operation Falcon (Regpay) and an ongoing investigation into a group (not named for law enforcement reasons) revealing the existence of thousands of web sites offering child pornography and up to 100,000 people from 60 countries purchasing the child pornography. Regpay was a company that operated a global Internet pornography business that had thousands of paid memberships to dozens of web sites featuring children. In addition to operating several of its own web sites, the company earned millions of dollars by processing credit card fees for more than 50 other web sites. The Regpay web sites were operated from Minsk, Belarus, and had host Internet service companies in the United States and abroad. Regpay processed between $2.5 million and $7 million (USD) in credit card transactions for sales of web sites containing child pornography. Operation Falcon resulted in the identification of hundreds of persons who paid for subscriptions to commercial child pornography web sites, approximately 78, 825 transactions. In New Jersey alone, law enforcement identified 52 such targets. Of those, five had prior convictions for sexual offenses against children, three others admitted to molesting a total of at least 14 children, and two targets—one of whom had a prior conviction—admitted to attempting to meet children in online chat rooms.

Operation Hamlet U.S. Customs Service Press Release, August 9, 2002 Operation Hamlet, an investigation begun in November 2001, uncovered an international ring of active child molesters, many of whom were molesting their own children. The sexual abuse was photographed and videotaped and then exchanged among the ring of child molesters using various Internet methods including ICQ, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and e-mail. In some instances the abusers molested the children while simultaneously running live-feed via webcams so that other molesters could watch the abuse occurring in real time. In other cases, abusers traveled to each other's homes so they could molest children together. Investigators identified 45 A-3

victimized children worldwide, including 37 in the United States, who were subjected to abuse as a result of this group. Operation Insider In December 2006, U.S. Postal Inspectors executed search warrants at a commercial video club. This business conducted direct mail operations that sold DVDs, videotapes, and still photographs of adult pornography, child pornography, and child erotica. The company’s computer database of past and current customers, including customers’ order histories, was seized, searched, and analyzed. The USPIS, in a coordinated effort with DOJ/CEOS, conducted a proactive undercover mail operation, purporting to be the same business, targeting former customers who purchased the greatest amounts of child pornography and/or child erotica from 2002 through 2006; however, many of the suspects had ordered material from the video club long before that period. As part of the undercover operation, the law enforcement officers mailed advertisements from a fictitious company that offered to sell child pornography DVDs. After a suspect responded to the inquiry, law enforcement agents would conduct controlled deliveries of purchased items and execute search warrants. The searches resulted in large seizures of child pornography, computers and peripherals used to collect and distribute child pornography, and, the identification of child victims. To date, 67 suspects in 28 states have been encountered and their homes searched. Of these, 20 have been identified as currently registered sex offenders. Further investigation of these registered offenders confirmed that all were contact offenders. Additionally, these contact offenders admitted that they previously possessed or received child pornography by computer or mail prior to this undercover operation.

Operation Joint Hammer This operation arose in 2006, when law enforcement in Australia began trying to identify a child depicted in a sexually abusive image they came upon on the Internet. Through investigation, they learned that the girl and her sister, who resided in Belgium, had been routinely molested by their father. Further investigation revealed that the father had an arrangement with a “photographer” and commercial web site operator, who lived in yet another European country, Italy, for him to produce sexually abusive images of his children. The father would invite the photographer to travel to Belgium to witness and photograph his abuse of his underage daughters. One of the children was mentally disabled. Those images, along with many others, were available for sale on the photographer’s web site and could be obtained either through Internet download or through the mail. European investigators learned that the photographer also traveled to Ukraine, where he located and paid as many as 17 minor girls to be in the sexually abusive images that fueled his commercial web site business. The Italian web site operator and photographer, along with the sexually abusive father in Belgium, were eventually arrested and prosecuted. The girls were rescued. Through their investigation, European investigators also obtained data regarding the customer base for the Italian’s web site business. The investigation revealed that there were approximately 50,000 separate e-mails of customers from approximately 30 countries who had corresponded with the A-4

web site operator. Europol sent these leads to the United States and approximately 30 other affected countries. From the 10,000 e-mails associated with the United States, approximately 1,400 unique U.S. e-mail addresses were identified. From this group of 1,400, approximately 800 suspects in the United States were identified. By this time, the evidence was in most cases too stale to support an application for a search warrant of the targets’ computers for evidence of their offense; therefore, law enforcement had to dedicate substantial resources to further investigate the targets in hopes of uncovering additional and current information. In early 2007, DOJ/CEOS, the USPIS, the FBI, and ICE, began developing an investigative strategy through target prioritization based on a number of criteria that would support strong criminal cases against the most viable and potentially dangerous targets. This nationally coordinated initiative using proactive undercover investigative techniques was named Operation Joint Hammer. Starting in May 2007, U.S. law enforcement began obtaining and executing search warrants on these targets. To date, more than 200 searches have been conducted throughout the United States by agents from the three federal agencies. Due to a lack of centralized recordkeeping by law enforcement agencies and the involvement of large numbers of different law enforcement agencies at the state level, along with many ICAC Task Forces, the data we have does not represent a full accounting of the results of the operation, simply a baseline. Several of the executed searches from Operation Joint Hammer, highlighted below, are worthy of mentioning. This operation identified major offenders, including a co-conspirator with the Italian “photographer” and web site operator in the global distribution scheme, teachers, producers of child pornography, contact offenders, and, in one case, a target who was involved with an international adoption association: (1) Houston, Texas—A man was identified as a co-conspirator of the Italian producer and web site distributor. Evidence demonstrated that this individual purchased Gstring lingerie specially sized for minor females between 7 and 13 years old and mailed it to the Italian to be used in his photos and videos. Evidence further demonstrated that this individual provided financial support to the Italian and consultation on how to run his online distribution web site. Two weeks after his arrest and detention, the suspect committed suicide in prison. (2) Phoenix, Arizona—A man identified as a customer of the child pornography web site was a Grade 5 teacher at a charter school in the Phoenix area. After the search of his home and discovery of child pornography in his possession, investigators uncovered allegations of unwanted sexual contact with female students at the school. (3) Los Angeles, California—A man initially identified as a customer of the child pornography web site was determined to have traveled to Ukraine and the Netherlands, where he paid to take explicit photographs of some of the same minor victims that the Italian producer had already exploited. (4) Los Angeles, California—During the search of this man’s residence, law enforcement seized more than 1.5 terabytes of electronic storage media containing a very large quantity of child pornography. In addition, printed images of child pornography were located in several areas of the home, as well as stories detailing an adult male’s sexual encounters with children. The man, who was involved with an international adoption A-5

association, was arrested after the search. After his arrest, he committed suicide in prison. (5) Birmingham, Alabama—This man was identified as a customer of the child pornography web site, as well as a member of the two noted online bulletin boards. After the search of his residence and the recovery of numerous images and videos of child pornography, investigators identified a series of sexually explicit images involving the man’s four-year-old daughter and taken by him. A few hours after the search of his residence, the suspect was killed in a head-on collision. (6) Medford Lakes, New Jersey—An individual in New Jersey was prosecuted for and ultimately pled guilty to producing sexual images of his own 9-year-old daughter. Evidence seized during the search of his residence revealed that he possessed nearly 130,000 images of child pornography. Currently in custody, he was sentenced to 19.5 years in prison. (7) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania—An individual in Pennsylvania was identified and charged with advertising, distributing, receiving, and possessing child pornography. Evidence indicated he created and administered a major online child pornography bulletin board with global membership. He was a prior convicted sex offender and spent 14 years in state prison on two separate convictions for molesting a 9 and 10year-old. He was convicted at trial on all charges and received a life sentence. This joint operation highlights several key aspects to the future success of combating child pornography in America and the employment of Project Safe Childhood teams, a DOJ initiative, to accomplish that end. First, its genesis was a major international cooperative operation in which the United States fully participated. Second, because of its multifaceted nature, three major federal investigative entities, in conjunction with CEOS, jointly endeavored to investigate each international lead. Finally, when leads were generated through the operation, Project Safe Childhood coordinators and teams were used in the field to conduct searches and prosecute cases. As is expected in any investigation, a number of offenders opted to give statements to law enforcement. Through those statements and ensuing law enforcement actions, law enforcement learned of seven more online child pornography trading communities. The membership in those communities is believed to number approximately 2,000. Many of the members of these online communities, who at first appeared only to be child pornography collectors, were also actively abusing children and producing images of that abuse. The single discovery in Australia of a child being sexually abused in Belgium led to the discovery of thousands of persons in 30 different countries trading in child pornography. When search warrants were executed, law enforcement discovered that a number of targets had been actively sexually abusing children. A number of those children would still be in that sexually abusive situation today had it not been for the identification of the offender through the child pornography investigation.

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Operation Marcy Operation Marcy (2002-2003) was an ICE investigation into 40 Internet communities dedicated to the exchange of child pornography. These communities accounted for more than 20,000 images of child pornography and yielded 37,000 e-mail addresses of subscribers worldwide.

Operation Site Key Operation SiteKey began in February 2002, and was an FBI and ICAC operation targeting a third-party billing company (site key) that serviced more than 70 pornographic web sites, many of which offered child pornography. The Site Key customer database identified approximately 20,000 customers.

Operation Shadowz Brotherhood Operation Shadowz Brotherhood (2001) is an example of a case involving an international, Internet pedophile group. The Shadowz Brotherhood group was highly secretive and operated an encrypted web site through which its 70 to 100 members could trade child pornography, including images of group members sexually abusing children. The members were highly organized, with several individuals designated “administrators” of the site, and individual members being given various degrees of access to the site depending on specific criteria. The group prided itself on security and all members were instructed on how to re-route messages through various servers and hide all traces of their identity. The investigation was international in scope and, through cooperation among various European countries and the United States, led to the arrest of 46 men in 12 countries.

Unnamed Ongoing Investigation An unnamed ongoing operation (2006-present) being conducted by ICE-C3, to date, has identified more than 230 child pornography web sites, estimated to account for upward of 90 percent of the commercial child pornography web sites in existence, and in excess of 60,000 transactions99 (each for a subscription costing $79.95 to $99.95 per month) to the sites. More than 30,000 of those transactions came from U.S.-based customers. The criminal organization made an estimated $5 million to $7 million (USD) during the nearly 2 years it was active. The investigation revealed that the group running the web sites, operating out of Eastern Europe and having ties to other parts of Europe and the United States, appeared to be motivated solely by profit rather than by any particular interest in the content of the sites. The group is well organized, with individual members playing specific roles in the distribution chain. The group uses proxy servers and other means to obscure their true identities and locations. The enterprise

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Transactions of 60,000 do not equal 60,000 customers because, in numerous instances, one customer made multiple purchases.

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is transnational in scope; cooperation with foreign law enforcement is critical to dismantling the operation.

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APPENDIX B THREAT ASSESSMENT: FEDERAL PROSECUTIONS National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) Analysis of “Overnight” Case Summaries NDIC intelligence analysts reviewed 1,663 case summaries provided by individual U.S. Attorney offices to the Executive Office of U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA) between 2005 and 2009. A child pornography offense was at least one of the charges in 495 case summaries. Of those 495 case summaries: • 186 (38%) indicated the defendant had previously been convicted of or admitted to a prior sexual offense against a child. • 301 (61%) indicated the defendant was discovered to have child pornography after being caught for contact offenses; this group includes online enticement cases. Often, the defendant started chatting with the child, turning the conversation to sex, and then started using child pornography to entice the child into to meeting him or sending him nude photos. The defendant’s ultimate goal in most of the online enticement cases was contact offenses, not necessarily child pornography. • 145 (29%) indicated that, as a result of the particular investigation, the defendant was initially discovered with child pornography but was found to have prior convictions for contact offenses, admitted to contact offenses, or contact offenses were discovered when law enforcement officers found child pornography images involving the defendant and one or more victims. Thus, 78 percent (145 of 186) of the child pornography offenders that were also known contact offenders were discovered as such as a result of these investigations. • 49 were inconclusive regarding whether the defendant was first caught for child pornography offenses or contact offenses. • 73 explicitly stated that the defendant used child pornography to entice children (online or in real life) to pose for photos or engage in sexual activity. U.S. v. Crow 164 F.3d 229 (5th Cir. 1999) http://cases.justia.com/us-court-of-appeals/F3/164/229/488707/ In 1996, a Florida law enforcement officer logged into a “preteen” chat room using the screen name “StephieFL” with a profile that revealed his assumed identity as “Stephanie, a single female from Clearwater, Florida, born on January 26, 1983.” (The birth date he listed indicated a 13-year-old girl.) The officer encountered the defendant, William Crow, whose profile read “seeking young slender amateur women interested in making very explicit adult videos!” In the course of chatting with StephieFL, Crow discussed how he paid girls $300 to “pose, masturbate and talk really nasty to him” and subsequently invited StephieFL to pose for photographs and videos for him. “In response to StephieFL’s question on how he wanted her to pose, Crow sent StephieFL a photograph of a prepubescent girl lying on her back spreading her labia, exposing her genitalia.” B-1

Over the course of their communication, Crow sent StephieFL numerous images of prepubescent children engaged in sexually explicit conduct, attempted to overcome StephieFL’s stated reservations about being photographed, and instructed StephieFL on how to encrypt and retrieve files. Ultimately, StephieFL secured a mailing address from Crow and informed him that she had sent him a video of herself posing as he had directed. Crow was arrested as he left the post office with the videotape he believed contained this footage. Crow was subsequently convicted by a jury on all six counts charged in the indictment, including attempted sexual exploitation of a minor in violation of 18 U.S.C. §§ 2251(a) and (d). Note: Subsection (d) was subsequently recodified as subsection (e) on April 30, 2003. See PROTECT Act of 2003, Public Law No. 108-21. On appeal, the Fifth Circuit rejected Crow’s challenge to the sufficiency of the evidence, stating that the facts and information presented to the jury clearly supported his conviction. U.S. v. Culver ICE press release: Georgia woman admits producing child pornography, April 2, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/pi/nr/0904/090402newhaven2.htm As a result of ICE’s Operation Predator, law enforcement arrested Laura Culver, 53, of Gray Georgia, on October 3, 2008. In 2001 and 2002, while residing in Connecticut, Culver videotaped an eight-year-old female engaging in sexual acts with Culver and Edgardo Sensi. Culver was found guilty of production of child pornography and faces a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison. U.S. v. Curry ICE press release: Houston man sentenced to 5 years in prison for possessing child pornography: He fantasized about abducting a young girl, August 19, 2008, http://www.ice.gov/pi/nr/0808/080819houston.htm Law enforcement executed a search warrant at the house of the defendant based on probable cause to believe he was trading images of child pornography. In addition to finding child pornography images, officers discovered a handwritten list containing the following items: “rope, strong fishing wire, duct tape, camera battery, very large garbage bags, two stun guns." Curry eventually admitted to fantasizing about abducting a young girl, disabling her with the stun guns, tying her up, and photographing her. According to Curry’s admission, he had been accessing child pornography over the Internet for approximately 3 years. U.S. v. Dickson ICE press release: North Texas man convicted of producing, possessing child pornography: Defendant babysat for toddler boy in his pornographic images, June 8, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/pi/nr/0906/090608ftworth.htm

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ICE agents executed a federal search warrant at Dickson’s Keller home on March 11; Dickson was home at the time. The affidavit filed with the complaint alleged that Dickson purchased access to child pornography from an Internet web site. The ICE agent testified at trial June 8 that during the execution of the warrant, Dickson directed them to a disk in his computer that contained numerous images of child pornography. He informed the agents that he had been viewing child pornography since 2006. He further stated that he had an urge to touch young boys, preferring 4 to 5 year olds. Dickson said that he fantasized about having sex with a 4-yearold boy, but satisfied his urges by accessing child pornography and masturbating. Further testimony at trial revealed that on that same computer disk were seven images of a child under 2 years old. That child was identified as a child for whom Dickson babysat. The child victim’s father testified and identified his son on the images, identified his son’s birth certificate, and testified that his son is now 2 years old. U.S. v Harvey U.S. Attorney District of Alaska, press release: California Man Sentenced to 36 Years in Federal Prison for Child Sexual Abuse and Child Exploitation Crimes, May 14, 2009, http://www.justice.gov/usao/ak/press/2009/May%202009/Harvey_Danny_05-14-09.pdf In June 2007, an undercover ICE agent responded to a post in a pedophile-oriented chat room in which an individual was seeking access to “kink minded” families or young females. The poster was 46-year-old Danny Michael Harvey, a resident of Lancaster, California. After the agent advised that he was a grandfather with sole custody of his 5-year-old granddaughter and 4-yearold grandson, Harvey conveyed his strong desire to sexually abuse the 5-year-old girl, and he noted that he would be willing to travel for the “real thing,” especially if he could film or photograph the anticipated abuse. Less than a week later, Harvey bought an airline ticket, a laptop computer with a video camera, and toys to “break the ice” with the children. Before actually traveling to Anchorage, Harvey sought assurances that the agent was not law enforcement or part of any group that would report him for being a pedophile. When Harvey arrived in Alaska on August 18, 2007, he was promptly arrested by ICE agents and Anchorage Police Department officers. Harvey deplaned carrying a camera bag with numerous lenses and peripherals, a laptop computer, and an MP3 player. After Harvey’s arrest, agents learned that the laptop contained 11 videos of child pornography and songs celebrating the molestation of young children. Some of these same videos, plus two child pornography images and 72 child erotica images of prepubescent girls had been deleted from Harvey’s MP3 player. Harvey also brought sexual lubricants, sex aids, condoms, and a CD entitled “Songs for Amy” with him to Alaska. Examination of Harvey’s laptop revealed that it contained 11 videos of child pornography. Subsequent investigation of other electronic items revealed that Harvey had, at one time, 72 pictures of child erotica, primarily of preteen girls. U.S. v. Kapordelis U.S. Attorney Northern District of Georgia, press release: Doctor Sentenced to 35 Years in Prison for Producing, Receiving, and Possession Child Pornography, September 18, 2007, http://www.justice.gov/usao/gan/press/2007/09-18-07.pdf B-3

An ICE investigation resulted in the arrest of Gregory C. Kapordelis, 46, of Gainesville, Georgia, on April 12, 2004. Kapordelis was a respected anesthesiologist in Georgia. Forensic examination of his computers yielded over 10,000 images and 300 videos of child pornography depicting underage boys engaging in sexual acts. Some of the child pornography had been downloaded over a two-year time span from various newsgroups. There was evidence that some of the child pornography found on three of his computers was downloaded as early as the late 1990’s. Kapordelis produced numerous images himself by sexually abusing children both in the U.S. and abroad. In the U.S. he would earn the trust of parents so that they would allow their sons to travel with Kapordelis or stay at his home. While the underage boys were in his care, he would furnish them with alcoholic beverages so strong that the boys would pass out. While they were sleeping, Kapordelis would then pull down their pants and molest them while photographing the abuse. Two of those victims were 11 and 14 year old at the time of the abuse and were unaware the molestation occurred until law enforcement discovered the images through the initial investigation. Kapordelis also abused foreign children while traveling abroad in countries such as Russia and Prague. On May 24, 2007, Kapordelis was convicted of three counts of using a minor to produce a sexually explicit image, two counts of receipt of child pornography, and one count of possession of child pornography He was sentenced to 35 years in federal prison and 6 years of supervised release. U.S. v. Mariscal DOJ, Statement of Deputy Attorney General Laura H. Parskey before the U.S. Senate, January 16, 2006, http://www.justice.gov/criminal/ceos/DAAG%20Testimony%201192006.pdf From 1989 until his arrest by U.S. Postal Inspectors in 2002, Angel Mariscal produced child pornographic videos for sale, including made-to-order videos for persons with specific child pornographic interests. Mariscal, who was HIV positive and several coconspirators, personally victimized more than 150 children from 9- to 16-years-old, mostly in Ecuador and Cuba, to produce the videos. Customers also were given the option of writing their own fantasy scripts. When Mariscal was arrested, he was selling his videos for as much as $975 each. The investigation revealed that Mariscal grew a customer base in the United States of approximately 300 people who expressed an interest in or actually purchased his material.

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U.S. v. Merz DOJ, Office of Public Affairs press release: Philadelphia Man Sentenced to Life in Prison for Advertising, Transporting, Receiving and Possessing Child Pornography, September 9, 2009, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2009/September/09-crm-941.html Through Operation Joint Hammer, the FBI and U.S. Postal Inspection Service identified an online group named “my Kingdom,” dedicated to trading images and videos depicting the sexual abuse of minors, and providing members a forum in which to discuss their sexual interest in children. Robert P. Merz, a 45-year old Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, resident, created and controlled the password-protected bulletin board, personally selecting members from around the world. A search of Merz residence yielded numerous computers, DVDs, and CDs that contained hundreds of thousands child pornography images and videos depicting victims as young as toddlers, some involved in violent sexual acts. Merz has two previous convictions in Pennsylvania for molesting young girls. U.S. v. Phillips ICE press release: Louisville man sentenced to 8 years in prison for possessing child pornography, July 28, 2008, http://www.ice.gov/pi/nr/0807/080728louisville.htm A 43-year-old Louisville, Kentucky, resident, Danny Lee Phillips, was sentenced to 8 years and 1 month in federal prison for receiving and possessing child pornography. When asked if he possessed any images or videos depicting child pornography, Phillips responded, "Yes, saved in 'My Pictures' folder." Phillips further stated that he never created his own child pornographic images. He claimed to have acquired all his child pornography by paying for access to web sites or by trading with others using Yahoo Messenger, specifically images of 12- to 15-year-old girls displaying their genitalia. Phillips told the agents conducting the search that they would find several CDs containing child pornographic pictures in his bedroom closet. However, a search of Phillips's bedroom closet revealed numerous recordable CDs. Agents also discovered about two dozen girls' panties and various sexual lubricants next to the CDs. U.S. v. Rearden U.S. v. Rearden, 349 F.3d 608, 611-612 (9th Cir. 2003), http://openjurist.org/349/f3d/608/united-states-v-rearden In one case, a man posted an advertisement for “snuff films of little children” as well as a message in a chat room inquiring whether interested parties wanted to “rap[e] and ravag[e]” his 8-year-old, 14-year-old, and 16-year-old nieces. The defendant in the case responded and soon encouraged the man to come visit him so that they “could ‘hunt’ children together.”

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U.S. v. Richardson ICE PRESS RELEASE: FORMER PASTOR SENTENCED TO 17 YEARS IN PRISON ON CHILD PORNOGRAPHY CONVICTIONS: DEFENDANT WAS PASTOR AT FIRST UNITED METHODIST CHURCH IN ROYSE CITY, TEXAS, JUNE 30, 2009, HTTP://WWW.ICE.GOV/PI/NR/0906/090630DALLAS1.HTM Through ICE’s Operation Predator, a former pastor in Royse City, Texas, was arrested on child pornography charges on September 24, 2008. Steve Richardson, 36, traded child pornography through Google Hello, a type of peer-to-peer software. He admitted to possessing over 600 child pornography images, including sadistic, masochistic, and other violent images on his home computer, an external hard drive, and his computer at the church. He pled guilty to one count of transporting and shipping child pornography, and one count of possessing child pornography. Richardson was sentenced to 17 years in prison, a lifetime of supervised release, and must register as a sex offender. U.S. v. Rust-Tierney U.S. Attorney Eastern District of Virginia, press release: Arlington Youth Sports Coach Pleads Guilty to Receipt of Child Pornography, June 1, 2007, http://www.justice.gov/criminal/ceos/Press%20Releases/EDVA%20RustTierney%20plea%20PR_060107.pdf Charles Rust-Tierney, a 53-year-old resident of Arlington, Virginia, was arrested as a result of an ICE investigation. Rust Tierney, a coach for various youth sports teams in Arlington County, admitted to purchasing Internet access to commercial child pornography websites on five occasions between March 2005 and October 2006. During a two-week time span in January 2006, Rust-Tierney accessed over 850 child pornography images and videos on one of those websites. He downloaded approximately 560 images and 135 videos onto his computers and various digital media. Most of the images and videos depict children under 12 years old being forced to engage in sexual acts with adult males. Rust-Tierney was charged with receiving child pornography. He faces a mandatory minimum sentence of five years in prison and a maximum sentence of twenty years in prison. Rust-Tierney also faces a term of supervised release following his prison sentence of five years to life. U.S. v. Stubblefield ICE press release: Oregon Woman Sentenced in Child Pornography: Traded Images Online Using a Commercial Search Engine "Hello" photo-sharing program, April 3, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/pi/nr/0904/090403seattle.htm Through ICE’s Operation Predator, a Springfield, Oregon, woman was arrested on child pornography charges. Rebecca Stubblefield, 22, was living with her boyfriend in Issaquah, Washington, when he became the subject of an ICE child pornography investigation in 2007. Agents seized a computer that the two shared and found child pornography images in the boyfriend’s files and in a file named “Becca’s Stuff/Puppies.” Stubblefield had downloaded over 600 child pornography images to that file. She had used Google Hello, a type of peer-to-peer

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software, to trade images. Further investigation revealed that she had also molested the 3-yearold daughter of an acquaintance. She pled guilty to possessing child pornography and was sentenced to four years in federal prison and 15 years of supervised release. She will also be required to undergo sex offender treatment while in prison. U.S. v. Witt ICE press release: Kettering man sentenced to 10 years in prison for transmitting child pornography over the Internet, March 13, 2007, http://www.ice.gov/pi/news/newsreleases/articles/070313dayton.htm The defendant went from chatting with other offenders about sexual activities involving children, to encouraging others in the online community to use their webcams to show children, and to using his own webcam in that manner. In March 2004, he turned to an infant being cared for by a family member, and used his webcam to video tape himself removing the infant’s diaper and masturbating to that. This was streamed live over the Internet to other members in the online community.

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APPENDIX C THREAT ASSESSMENT: ACADEMIC RESEARCH It is important to note that the inclusion of any study or research project in this Report is not intended to convey support for the findings of any of such study or research project. The Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, Enhancing Child Safety & Online Technologies: Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States, December 31, 2008, http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/sites/cyber.law.harvard.edu/files/ISTTF_Final_ReportExecutive_Summary.pdf The following excerpts are from the main text of the study and Appendix C: Research Advisory Board Literature Review of the study. Selected Quotes from the Main Text: From the Harvard Study: “More problematically, media coverage has regularly mischaracterized research in this area, thus contributing to inaccurate perceptions of what risks youth face. This problem was most visible in the public coverage of the Online Victimization studies done at the Crimes Against Children’s Research Center (Finkelhor et al. 2000; Wolak et al. 2006). These reports are frequently referenced to highlight that one in five or one in seven minors are sexually solicited online. Without context, this citation implies massive solicitation of minors by older adults. As discussed below, other peers and young adults account for 90%-94% of solicitations in which approximate age is known (Finkelhor et al. 2000; Wolak et al. 2006). Also, many acts of solicitation online are harassing or teasing communications that are not designed to seduce youth into offline sexual encounters; 69% of solicitations involve no attempt at offline contact (Wolak et al. 2006). Misperception of these findings perpetuates myths that distract the public from solving the actual problems youth face.” pp. 13-14. *** “Although numerous studies have examined sexual solicitation, three national datasets provide the most statistically valid findings— N-JOV, YISS-1, and YISS-2— and are regularly analyzed in articles by Wolak, Finkelhor, Ybarra, and Mitchell. Findings in regional studies (e.g., McQuade and Sampat 2008; Rosen et al. 2008) affirm their trends. “The percentages of youth who receive sexual solicitations online have declined from 19% in 2000 to 13% in 2006 and most recipients (81%) are between 14–17 years of age (Finkelhor et al. 2000; Wolak et al. 2006). For comparison, a regional study in Los Angeles found that 14% of teens reported receiving unwanted messages with sexual innuendos or links on MySpace (Rosen et al. 2008) and a study in upstate New York found that 2% of fourth through sixth graders were asked about their bodies, and 11% of seventh through ninth graders and 23% of tenth through twelfth graders have been asked sexual questions online C-1

(McQuade and Sampat 2008). The latter study also found that 3% of the older two age groups admitted to asking others for sexual content (McQuade and Sampat 2008). “Youth identify most sexual solicitors as being other adolescents (48%; 43%) or young adults between the ages of 18 and 21 (20%; 30%), with few (only 4%; 9%) coming from older adults and the remaining being of unknown age (Finkelhor et al. 2000; Wolak et al. 2006). Not all solicitations are from strangers; 14% come from offline friends and acquaintances (Wolak et al. 2006, 2008b). Youth typically ignore or deflect solicitations without experiencing distress (Wolak et al. 2006); 92% of the responses amongst Los Angeles–based youth to these incidents were deemed “appropriate” (Rosen et al. 2008). Of those who have been solicited, 2% have received aggressive and distressing solicitations (Wolak et al. 2006). Though solicitations themselves are reason for concern, few solicitations result in offline contact. Social network sites do not appear to have increased the overall risk of solicitation (Wolak et al. 2008b); chat rooms and instant messaging are still the dominant place where solicitations occur (77%) (Wolak et al. 2006). “A study of criminal cases in which adult sex offenders were arrested after meeting young victims online found that victims were adolescents and few (5%) were deceived by offenders claiming to be teens or lying about their sexual intentions; 73% of youth who met an offender in person did so more than once (Wolak et al. 2008b). Although identity deception may occur online, it does not appear to play a large role in criminal cases in which adult sex offenders have been arrested for sex crimes in which they met victims online. Interviews with police indicate that most victims are underage adolescents who know they are going to meet adults for sexual encounters and the offenses tended to fit a model of statutory rape involving a post-pubescent minor having nonforcible sexual relations with an adult, most frequently adults in their twenties (Wolak et al. 2008a). Hines and Finkelhor note that youth often initiate contact and sexual dialogue; they are concerned that ‘if some young people are initiating sexual activities with adults they meet on the Internet, we cannot be effective if we assume that all such relationships start with a predatory or criminally inclined adult’ (Hines and Finkelhor 2007: 301).” pp 15-16. *** “Sexual solicitation and predation are serious concerns, but the image presented by the media of an older male deceiving and preying on a young child does not paint an accurate picture of the nature of the majority of sexual solicitations and Internet-initiated offline encounters; this inaccuracy leads to major risks in this area being ignored. Of particular concern are the sexual solicitations between minors and the frequency with which online-initiated sexual contact resembles statutory rape rather than other models of abuse. Finally, though some technologies can be more easily leveraged than others for solicitation, risk appears to be more correlated with a youth’s psychosocial profile and risky behaviors than any particular technological platform.” p. 16.

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Selected Quotes from Appendix C of the Study: “The purpose of this literature review is to move beyond fears or myths and paint an accurate and data-centric portrait of what risks youth are truly facing. Although fears of potential dangers are pervasive, the research presented here documents the known prevalence and frequency of Internet harm. Threats involving the Internet have not overtaken other harmful issues that youth encounter. For instance, although pervasive and frequently reported in the media (Potter and Potter 2001), Internet sex crimes against minors have not overtaken the number of unmediated sex crimes against minors (Wolak et al. 2003b), nor have they contributed to a rise in such crimes. This situation may seem at odds with the large number of reports made of Internet crimes against youth—in 2006, CyberTipline (a congressionally mandated system for reporting child crimes) received 62,480 reports of child pornography, 1,098 of child prostitution, 566 of child sex tourism, 2,156 of child sexual molestation, and 6,384 reports of online enticement of children for sexual acts (National Center for Missing & Exploited Children 2006). Yet the increased popularity of the Internet in the United States has not been correlated with an overall increase in reported sexual offenses; overall sexual offenses against children have gone steadily down in the last 18 years. State reported statistics show a –53% change in reports of sexual offenses against children from 1992 to 2006 (Calpin 2006; Finkelhor and Jones 2008), which Finkelhor (2008) argues is both significant and real. Furthermore, sex crimes against youth not involving the Internet outweigh those that do; Internet-initiated statutory relationships are greatly outnumbered by ones initiated offline (Snyder and Sickmund 2006; Wolak et al. 2003b) and the majority of sexual molestations are perpetrated primarily by those the victim knows offline, mainly by family members or acquaintances (Snyder and Sickmund 2006). This appears to be partly true of Internetinitiated sexual offenses as well, as a considerable percentage (44%) of Internet sexual offenders known to youth victims were family members (Mitchell et al. 2005b).” p. 10. *** “More importantly, 95% of sexual assault cases reported to authorities are committed by family members or known acquaintances (Snyder and Sickmund 2006). In a study of Internet-initiated sex crimes reported to law enforcement, 44% of crimes were committed by family members and 56% were committed by people known to the victim offline, including neighbors, friends’ parents, leaders of youth organizations, and teachers; known cases involving strangers are extremely rare (Mitchell et al. 2005b). In other words, the threat of Internet-initiated sex crimes committed by strangers appears to be extremely exaggerated (Finkelhor and Ormrod 2000).” p. 15. *** “Online sexual solicitations by adults are of great concern, because some of this type of contact is considered to “groom” youth (Berson 2003) and coerce them to participate in either offline or online sexual encounters. Although conceptually similar to the process that pedophiles use to recruit child victims (Lang and Frenzel 1988), neither online solicitations nor Internet-initiated relationships particularly involve prepubescent children. It is generally assumed that adults use some degree of deception in the C-3

grooming process to coerce the youth into sexualized discussions, transmission of selfcreated images, or offline sexual contact (typically intercourse). In total, 52% of offenders lied about at least one aspect of themselves. Yet significant deception did not appear to be common (Wolak et al. 2008b). A quarter (25%) of adults participating in Internet-initiated sexual relationships with minors shaved off a few years from their real age, a practice also common in online adult–adult interactions (Hancock et al. 2007), and 26% lied about some other aspect of their identity. Only 5% of offenders pretended to be the same age as the youth victim online (Wolak et al. 2004). Wolak, Finkelhor, Mitchell, and Ybarra concluded that, ‘when deception does occur, it often involves promises of love and romance by offenders whose intentions are primarily sexual’ (2008b: 113)” p. 16 *** “In the small number of offline meetings between minors and adults that involved sex, interviews with police indicate that most victims are underage adolescents who know they are going to meet adults for sexual encounters and the offenses tended to fit a model of statutory rape involving a postpubescent minor having nonforcible sexual relations with an adult, most frequently in their twenties (Hines and Finkelhor 2007; Wolak et al. 2008b). Of all law enforcement reports of Internet-initiated sexual encounters, 95% of reported cases were nonforcible (Wolak et al. 2004). In one national survey (YISS-1) no instances of Internet-initiated sex were reported, and another (YISS-2), two youth out of 1500 (one 15-year-old girl and one 16-year-old girl) surveyed reported an offline sexual assault resulting from online solicitation. Although identity deception may occur online, it does not appear to play a large role in criminal cases where adult sex offenders have been arrested for sex crimes in which they met victims online; only 5% of youth were deceived by offenders claiming to be teens or lying about their sexual intentions (Wolak et al. 2008b).” p. 17-18. *** “Similarly, despite anecdotal reports (Quayle and Taylor 2001), cyberstalking—a crime where offenders locate youth offline using information found online (Jaishankar et al. 2008)—appears to be very rare (Wolak et al. 2008b).” p. 18. *** “In addition to being a crime in and of itself, child pornography also factors into sexual solicitation. Some offenders expose youth to child pornography during the grooming process and make videos and images of offline sexual acts with youth, or ask youth to take sexual pictures of themselves. Once these videos and images are uploaded, it is nearly impossible to keep them from being traded, downloaded, and viewed by third parties. Taylor and Quayle describe the way this content can never be deleted as, ‘a permanent record of crime, and serves to perpetuate the images and memory of that abuse’ (Taylor and Quayle 2003: 24).” p. 35.

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*** “Sheldon and Howitt (2007) argue that there are three primary reasons to be concerned about online child pornography: offenders who view and trade child pornography create a demand, ‘deviant sexual fantasies based on Internet images may feel a need to sexually abuse other children,’ and child pornography is sometimes created during the grooming process by both solicitors and youth victims (which may or may not be initiated online). Similar to how child pornography viewers were widely varied in their motivations, ‘there was no typical scenario for [child pornography] production’ (Wolak et al. 2005: 44). The N-JOV study found that 21% of Internet-initiated sex crimes involved the victim being photographed in a ‘suggestive or sexual pose,’ 9% of offenders sent the victim adult pornography, and 10% of offenders sent the victim child pornography (Wolak et al. 2004). Additionally, some offenders may send pornographic images of themselves (such as genitals) to potential victims, or request them from potential victims. Youth victims of Internet solicitations said that the offender requested a sexual picture from them or sent them a sexual photograph (such as of their genitals) 15% of the time (Wolak et al. 2006). One in five online child molesters took ‘sexually suggestive or explicit photographs of victims or convinced victims to take such photographs of themselves or friends’ (Wolak et al. 2008b: 120). Compared with the collection habits of child pornography collectors, requests for minors to self-produce pornography more directly affects online youth. Despite low rates of compliance among youth, this is a serious issue for both contact and child pornography offenses, as, ‘[even] if only a small percentage cooperate, considering such requests flattering, glamorous, adventuresome, or testament of their love and devotion, this could be a major contribution to the production of illegal material’ (Mitchell et al. 2007b: 201).” pp. 37-38.

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Additional Academic Sources Fagan, P., Wise, T., Schmidt, C. and Berlin, F. (2002), “Pedophilia,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(19), 2458-2465. Child Pornography Desensitizes Viewers Hernandez, Andres, “Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics of Child Pornography Offenders in Treatment,” presented at the University of North Carolina Symposium. http://www.iprc.unc.edu/G8/Hernandez_position_paper_Global_Symposium.pdf Child Pornography and Contact Offenses A study completed in 2000 by the Director of the Sex Offender Treatment Program at the Butner Federal Correctional Complex in North Carolina revealed that of 54 inmates convicted of child pornography offenses, 79.6% of them admitted that they had also molested significant numbers of children. Dr. Andres Hernandez, director of the Bureau of Prisons Sex Offender Treatment Program, looked at a sample of 155 offenders in his program who had been convicted of possession, receipt, or distribution of child pornography. Of these 155 offenders, 26 percent had known documented histories of contact sexual offenses against children upon entering treatment, with a total number of 75 victims. By the end of treatment, however, 85 percent of the sample admitted that they had committed at least one prior hands-on offense against a child, with a total number of 1,777 victims. Fifty-two percent of the sample underwent a polygraph examination to validate the accuracy of the self-reported instances of abuse. Dr. Hernandez concluded that a “substantial percentage of offenders in our study who initially claimed to be at low (or no) risk of harm to children because they exclusively collected child abuse images and allegedly never molested a child, subsequently indicated that they had committed undetected child sexual abuse.” Dr. Hernandez’ findings, by his own admission, may overstate the relationship between child pornography offenders and contact offenders, since the subjects of his study were a self-selected group. Jensen, C.J., Bailey, P., and Jensen, S., “Selection, Engagement and Seduction of Children and Adults by Child Molesters,” The Prosecutor, 36, 41-47 (2002). Klain, E.J., Davies, H.J., and Hicks, M.A., Child Pornography: The Criminal-Justice-System Response, NCMEC, Alexandria, Virginia, (March 2001). Lanning, K.V., “Pedophiles Use the Images to Silence Their Victims: Photograph the Abuse and Blackmail the Child Into Silence With the Shameful Images of Abuse,” NCMEC 1992.

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McCarthy, J. and Gaunt, N. (2004). “Responding Effectively to On-line Child Pornography Offenders,” SAFE Programme, Auckland, New Zealand, www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/cybersafety/extensions/pdfs/ papers/john_mccarthy.pdf. Montgomery-Devlin, J., “The Sexual Exploitation of Children and Young People in Northern Ireland: Overview from the Barnardos Beyond the Shadows Service,” Child Care in Practice, 14, 381-400 (2008). Muir, D., Violence against children in cyberspace, ECPAT International (2005). Quayle, E., Loof, L., and Palmer, T., “Child pornography and sexual exploitation of children online,”. Paper presented at the End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) International to the World Congress III against Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (2008). Quayle, E., and Taylor, M., “Model of Problematic Internet Use in People with a Sexual Interest in Children,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(1), 100 (January 2003:93-106) Obsessions with Collecting Child Pornography In the words of one offender, “I managed to find the whole series from somebody and I let the channel operators know…[ ] they were deeply grateful. It’s kind of like an art collector who finds a lost Picasso.” Quayle, E., and Taylor, M., “Child Pornography and the Internet: Perpetuating a cycle of abuse,” Journal of Deviant Behavior, 23(4), 331-362, (2002) at p. 10 Child Pornography to Contact Offenses “Accessing the images appeared to reinforce existing fantasies and was used to give permission to act on them. "… it made me want to do the things I wanted to do. It gave me more courage to do them… knowing that I've seen it on there… they were doing it… I can do it." (DX p. 67) Here the account used the pictures as a form of justification, a sense that if others are engaged in this then it doesn't matter. It allowed one respondent to ignore the other cues that were presented to him, such as his victim crying or constantly covering her face with her nightdress.” Quayle, E., and Taylor, M., “Child pornography and the Internet: Perpetuating a cycle of abuse,” Deviant Behaviour 23(4), 331-362, (2002) p. 9. Quayle and Taylor, “Problematic Internet Use,” 101. Fathers’ Victimizing Their Children “When I made this video tape [victimizing my daughter] I was copying these [ ] movie clips… that I’d downloaded [ ] … I wanted to be … doing what they were doing.” “It was then that I thought about steps of involving my daughter… [ ] in creating video to actually trade to get the material I wanted.”

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“When I actually started offending [ ] … my aims were to produce a video without necessarily abusing my daughter… that’s how I think I began justifying it to myself.” Ethel Quayle and Max Taylor, “Model of Problematic Internet Use in People with a Sexual Interest in Children,” CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, January 2003, pg 93-106; published: Volume 6, Issue 1, July 5, 2004 “the first thing I do like any drug addict looking for his next fix is I go on the Web for…pedophilia[….] I’d stopped for a while but it was like constantly in my head… I wanted to get back to it.” Quayle, E., and Taylor, M., “Child Seduction and Self Representation on the Internet,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(5), 597, 606 (2001). The subject’s access to child pornography “intensified his levels of sexual arousal and behavior and fueled his desire to engage in a relationship with a child.” The subject progressed from viewing images, to entering chat rooms, to attempting to access children offline. Progression from Viewing to Enticing The subject’s access to child pornography “intensified his levels of sexual arousal and behavior and fueled his desire to engage in a relationship with a child.” The subject progressed from viewing images, to entering chat rooms, to attempting to access children offline. Quayle and Taylor , “Child pornography,” 23 (4), 331-362, (2002). Validation from Online Communities, p. 5. “For paedophiles, on-line communities show strong evidence of group dynamics, expressed through issues of status, expertise and apprenticeship. Child pornography played a role in that status within the community was achieved through amassing a large organized collection, through distributing parts of missing series of photographs and through providing new pictures via postings. Used in this way, child pornography both validated and justified paedophile behaviour and acted as a medium of exchange within a community.” p. 23 “Certainly it appears that for some respondents, pornography was used as a substitute for actual offending, whereas for others, it acted as both blueprint and stimulus for a contact offence.” Quayle, E., and Taylor, M., Image Analysis paper (2003), p. 3. In more recent times, the advent of technology such as the Internet clearly lowered the cost of the production of these images, dramatically increased their availability, and, in addition, reduced the risk of detection that was associated with the criminalization of production and possession. Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., and Mitchell, K.J., Child Pornography Possessors Arrested in Internet-Related Crimes: Findings from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (2005) http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/jvq/CV81.pdf p.2 “As individuals they were quite diverse. They ranged in age from 15 to 70. Some were well educated, and some had not finished high school. Some were wealthy. Some were poor. Some were middle class. Some were well known and well thought of in their communities. Some had C-8

high-profile jobs. Some seemed isolated and obsessed with the Internet. Some had long criminal histories. They came from cities, suburbs, small towns, and rural areas.” p. 5 The National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV) study looked at data from July 2000 through June 2001 and found that 21 percent of child pornography offenders had images that depicted violence “such as bondage, rape or torture,” and explained further that most of these images involved children who were “gagged, bound, blindfolded, or otherwise enduring sadistic sex.” pp. 17-18 A 2005 study—based on a survey of 2,574 local, county, and state and 2 federal law enforcement agencies involving arrests between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2001—revealed that one in six cases that began as a child pornography investigation with no knowledge by law enforcement of possible contact offending by the target resulted in the discovery that the target had committed a hands-on offense against a child. Report to LEPSG [Law Enforcement Products Subgroup] on the “Global Symposium for Examining the Relationship Between Online and Offline Offenses and Preventing the Sexual Exploitation of Children,” May 2009 http://www.governo.it/GovernoInforma/Dossier/G8_interno_giustizia/LEPSG_Child_Exploitatio n_Symposium.pdf This report provides a synopsis of what transpired at the G8 sponsored “Global Symposium for Examining the Relationship Between Online and Offline Offenses and Preventing the Sexual Exploitation of Children.” The symposium took place between April 5-7, 2009, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States. As described in further detail below, the symposium originated from a project proposal to the Law Enforcement Projects Subgroup from the U.S. delegation, specifically Andrew Oosterbaan, Section Chief of the U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, together with Anitha Ibrahim. Thriving Market Promotes Fresh Abuse p. 7 “The greater availability of child sexual exploitation materials has stimulated the demand and production of even more extreme, sadistic, and violent images of children and infants.” Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., and Mitchell, K.J., Child Pornography Possessors Arrested in Internet-Related Crimes: Findings from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study,. (2005). “It is likely that most CP [child pornography] possessors never come to the attention of law enforcement, because the Internet allows them to commit their crimes privately and anonymously.”

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APPENDIX D THREAT ASSESSMENT: GOVERNMENTAL, NGO, AND OTHER AGENCY REPORTS AND DATA ECPAT International (End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes) http://www.ecpat.net/EI/index.asp

Regional overview on child sexual abuse images through the use of information and Communication technologies in Belarus, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine (2008).

Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/index.html Legal Information Office Network System (LIONS) Database Table 1. Suspects Referred to U.S. Attorneys with Sex Exploitation Offense as Lead Charge, 1994 and 2006 Lead Charge 2006 1994 Percent Growth Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 3,661 100.0% 774 100.0% 2,887 100.0% Total 2,539 69.4% 169 21.8% 2,370 82.1% Child Pornography 601 16.4% 568 73.4% 33 1.1% Sex Abuse 521 14.2% 37 4.8% 484 16.8% Sex Transportation Source: Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys, National LIONS database, fiscal year 2006, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Federal Prosecution of Child Sex Exploitation Offenders, 2006, December 2007, NCJ 219412. Notes: • Percent growth is the distribution of the increase in referrals from 1994 to 2006. • For the offenses sex abuse and illegal sex transportation, data limitations did not permit sub setting statutes pertaining only to child victims. Statistics on these categories are over counted to the extent persons 18 years and older were victims of the offense.

Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) http://www.iwf.org.uk/

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Trends 2008, http://www.iwf.org.uk/media/page.70.554.htm An NGO in the United Kingdom Those running commercial child sexual abuse web sites use increasingly sophisticated methods to host images, to obscure their domains, hide the payment mechanisms involved, and often splinter their content across sub-domains and remote servers to increase the sites longevity and evade removal. The IWF reports identifying 1,536 domains that carry child pornographic content. According to the IWF, 74 percent of those domains are commercial purveyors of child pornography.

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) http://www.missingkids.com

Child Victim Identification Program Of the 2,172 victims identified by law enforcement, from 2002 through March 2009, 69 percent were abused by people familiar to them (parents, other relatives, neighbors, family friends, babysitters, coaches, and guardians’ partners). Only a small number of identified victims—4 percent—were victimized by individuals with whom the child had no relationship. Table 2. Relationships of Abusers to Children in Identified Child Pornography Images Relationship of Abuser to Child Percentage of Identified Victims Parent 27% Other Relative 10% Neighbor/Family Friend 24% Babysitter/Coach 4% Guardian’s Partner 4% Online Enticement 14% Self-produced 11% Victims of Prostitution 2% Unknown to Child 4% Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children Child Victim Identification Program Notes: • Abuser data based upon victim information submitted to NCMEC by law enforcement as of March 31, 2009. The data represent 2,172 identified victims from 1,500 series. • Online enticement includes either (1) victims who met a perpetrator online and transmitted self-produced images, or (2) victims or offenders who met online and then met offline, producing images. • Self-produced includes those victims who have produced and distributed images of themselves. • Victims of prostitution include victims of commercial trafficking. • Unknown to child includes unestablished relationships; that is, photographers, child sex tourism, runaways, etc. D-2

CyberTipline Reports From 1998 through 2008, the number of child pornography incidents reported to the CyberTipline by citizens and by ISPs increased 33 percent from 64,250 in 2005 to 85,301 in 2008 (see Figure 3). Much of the increase in child pornography production and distribution has occurred more recently, evidenced by a rapid increase in the number of child pornography images and videos submitted to the NCMEC CVIP from 2003 (449,434) through 2008 (8,603,432).

Table 3. Child Sexual Exploitation Incidents Reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline, 1998 and 2004-2008 Type of Count Incident 1998 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 3,267 106,119 64,250 62,480 83,959 85,301 Child Pornography 142 559 553 1,098 1,821 1,117 Child Prostitution Child Sex 79 248 205 566 655 392 Tourism Child 365 1,466 1,641 2,156 2,523 1,945 Sexual Molestation (not by family) 707 2,605 2,664 6,384 11,422 8,787 Online Enticement of Children for Sexual Acts Unsolicited --533 613 1,799 1,920 1,306 Obscene Material Sent to a Child Misleading --487 842 2,101 2,961 2,456 Domain Names Misleading ----------725 Words or Digital Images on the Internet 4,560 112,017 70,768 76,584 105,261 102,029 Grand Total D-3

Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children CyberTipline Notes: • Child pornography includes possession, manufacture, and distribution. • Unsolicited obscene material sent to a child was added in 2002. • Misleading domain names was added in 2004. • Misleading words or digital images on the Internet was added October 24, 2008. Child Pornography Incidents Reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline 2005-2008

120,000 100,000 80,000

Child  Pornography

60,000 40,000

Total  Incidents

20,000 0 2005

2006

2007

2008

Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Note: Child pornography includes possession, manufacture, and distribution. Number of Online Enticement Incidents Reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline, 2004-2008

11,422

12,000 10,000

8,787

8,000

6,384

6,000 4,000

2,605

2,664

2004

2005

2,000 0 2006

2007

Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. D-4

2008

Number of Child Prostitution Incidents Reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline, 2004-2008

2,000

1,821

1,500 1,117

1,098 1,000 559

553

2004

2005

500 0 2006

2007

2008

Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Number of Child Sex Tourism Incidents Reported to the NCMEC CyberTipline, 2004-2008 655 700 566

600 500

392

400 300

248

205

200 100 0

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Source: National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) www.fbi.gov

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (U.S. Law Enforcement Data) http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/

Documented Online Enticement Complaints Processed by ICAC Task Forces, 2004-2008*

10,000 8,313

8,000

7,128 6,079

6,000 4,000

3,572

3,349

2004

2005

2,000 0 2006

2007

2008

Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs. *In 2006, Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) task forces began processing reactive complaints received by the NCMEC CyberTipline in addition to processing ICAC proactive complaints. Reactive complaints usually are processed in response to a NCMEC CyberTipline report or other referral and are timesensitive because they often involve an actual victim. Proactive complaints are the result of law enforcement investigations in which officers control the encounter and pose as minors. ICAC’s have been receiving CyberTipline reports since 1998, the inception of the CyberTipline.

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Number of Child Prostitution Complaints Processed by ICAC Task Forces, 2004-2008

400

345

300

245

200 100

155 34

54

2004

2005

0 2006

2007

2008

Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs. Interpol http://www.interpol.int/

Child Abuse Image Database (ICAID) is a global database for the forensic analysis of digital images of child abuse. It currently contains more than 520,000 images submitted by 36 member countries. This database has helped police identify and rescue almost 600 victims from 31 different countries to date. The ICAID also enables Interpol to assist ongoing investigations by providing a mechanism for alerting authorities when new images of sexual abuse are found.

International Child Sexual Exploitation Database (ICSE) is an Interpol database, replacing ICAID, activated in 2009 containing an estimated 200,000 to 250,000 images of child victims of sexual abuse. These images are viewed and analyzed by specially trained personnel in support of ongoing investigations in an effort to identify and rescue these victims. As of March 1, 2010 the review of ICSE images have resulted in the identification of 1, 617 victims worldwide, of this total 701 were identified as victims located in the United States.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) www.ice.gov

National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) http://www.justice.gov/ndic/ In support of this Threat Assessment, NDIC intelligence analysts, field intelligence officers, and strategic debriefers interviewed 168 child exploitation experts from 26 federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and task forces, as well as NGOs involved in supporting victims of such crimes. While the data is too voluminous to publish within this appendix, the findings stemming from them are summarized below and described appropriately when referenced within the body of the Assessment. The percentages assigned to response results are not totaled from a D-7

scientific survey process, but rather are the result of analyses of responses. Some respondents provided multiple answers to single questions, but not all questions were answered by each respondent. Numerous subject matter experts were interviewed regarding child exploitation offenses; their answers often were based on experience and individual knowledge of the crimes and trends. There is no standard methodology across the numerous law enforcement, prosecutorial, and nongovernmental agencies for collecting and analyzing statistical data to compare with the interview responses. The reader should not compare the percentages below with data presented in scientific studies found elsewhere. The percentages below are given to illustrate the trends that interviewees encounter during their investigations and work. The percentages below sometimes reflect that not all questions were answered by each interviewee. Individuals answered questions related to their areas of expertise.

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CHILD PORNOGRAPHY Nature of Child Pornography Problem Among NDIC interviewees: • 69 percent of respondents reported that child pornography is growing exponentially or there has been an overwhelming increase in the volume of child pornography images available (or both). Threat of Child Pornography Over the Last 10 Years Among NDIC interviewees: • 96 percent of respondents reported that the threat posed by child pornography has increased in the last 10 years • 41 percent of respondents reported that the increasing sophistication and integration of technology into society has made it easier to commit child pornography offenses. Child Pornography Trends Over the Last 10 Years Among NDIC interviewees: • 60 percent of respondents reported a decrease in the use of the U.S. mail to transport and receive child pornography and an increase in the use of the Internet and other technologies to transport and receive child pornography. Respondents further elaborated that the internet has exacerbated the child pornography problem by making it easier and more anonymous to acquire child pornography and subsequently creating more situational child pornography offenders. • 29 percent of respondents reported increased use of chat rooms and P2P by offenders communicating among themselves as opposed to the use of e-mail and instant messaging. • 25 percent of respondents reported the age of victims is decreasing. • 25 percent of respondents reported an increase in the number of images portraying sadistic behavior, bondage, and bestiality. Some agencies have also reported that the more professional offenders are reverting to ICQs (instant messaging programs), Internet Relay Chats (IRC), and face-to-face meetings to trade material. The rationale provided for this is that law enforcement seems to be giving more priority to high-tech investigations involving web sites, bulletin boards, chat rooms, etc., and are not monitoring ICQs or IRCs as closely.

Age of Child Pornography Victims Among NDIC interviewees: • 82 percent of respondents reported victims, all minors under 18. • 51 percent of respondents reported most investigations involved prepubescent children. • 67 percent of respondents reported that victims are getting younger.

Violence Depicted in Child Pornography Images Among NDIC interviewees: • 63 percent of respondents reported increased violence toward child pornography victims. D-9

• 42 percent of respondents reported more bondage. • 38 percent of respondents reported more sadism and masochism. • 15 percent of respondents reported more bestiality. • 21 percent of respondents reported no change in violence. • No respondents reported decreased violence. One agency representative reported occasionally discovering child pornography images that appear to represent autopsies.

Financial Component to Child Pornography Among NDIC interviewees: • 68 percent of respondents reported that offenders pay subscription or membership fees to child pornography web sites to obtain access to the images. • 72 percent of respondents reported no financial component—that images are traded or bartered for other images. • 46 percent of respondents reported no real financial component for web sites based in the United States but often a financial component for web sites based in Eastern European countries. Disparity between State and Federal Sentences for Child Pornography Offenses Among NDIC interviewees: • 86 percent of respondents reported that there is a disparity between state and federal sentences for child pornography offenses. • 80 percent of respondents reported that the disparity between state and federal child pornography sentences is substantial, with federal sentences being much more severe than state sentences. Some agencies stated that the disparity between federal and state sentences for child pornography offenses in Florida and New York is minimal due to recent state sentencing reforms.

The Effects of Technology on Child Pornography Among NDIC interviewees: • 64 percent of respondents reported that technology, particularly the Internet, has allowed easier access to child pornography. • 64 percent of respondents reported that technology, particularly the Internet, has increased the amount of child pornography available. • 50 percent of respondents reported that greater storage capacities of technological devices and increased Internet speed make it easier to acquire and share larger collections of child pornography. • 43 percent of respondents reported that the Internet has created greater anonymity through wireless Internet connections, encryption, etc. making it easier and less risky to view or collect child pornography. One agency reported an offender who owned a refrigerator with a built-in microprocessor capable of placing online food orders. The hard drive of the microprocessor was being used to store child pornography. D-10

The Effects of Technology on Law Enforcement’s Ability to Investigate Child Pornography Among NDIC interviewees: • 52 percent of respondents reported that encryption and secure password technology hampers the ability of law enforcement to investigate and prosecute child pornography offenders. • 46 percent of respondents reported that wireless Internet connections create anonymity, which makes it difficult for law enforcement to locate child pornography offenders. • 42 percent of respondents reported that proxy servers and IP spoofing create anonymity, which makes it difficult for law enforcement to locate child pornography offenders. • 31 percent reported that the large and seemingly limitless storage capabilities, such as online image storage and wireless external storage devices (external hard drives, thumb/USB drives, CDs, etc.), make it difficult for law enforcement to investigate and appropriately prosecute offenders.

The Effect of Technology on the Number of Child Pornography Offenders Among NDIC interviewees: • 73 percent of respondents reported that the Internet has made it easier for offenders to acquire and distribute child pornography. • 24 percent of respondents reported that digital cameras make it easier to produce and distribute child pornography because offenders can bypass print shops and upload photos from their cameras directly to the Internet. • 22 percent of respondents reported that the Internet has created situational offenders who would not have otherwise viewed or sought out child pornography if it were not for the Internet making it so prevalent and easily accessible.

Methods Used by Child Pornography Offenders to Avoid Detection and Identification by Law Enforcement Among NDIC interviewees: • 53 percent of respondents reported that child pornography offenders use proxy servers to avoid identification. • 26 percent of respondents reported the use of encryption and secure password technology to avoid detection. • 23 percent of respondents reported the use of software programs designed to delete data or “clean” or “wipe” a hard drive to eliminate evidence to avoid detection. • 21 percent of respondents reported the use of wireless Internet connections to avoid detection.

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The Effect of the Lack of Internet Regulation on Law Enforcement Investigations Among NDIC interviewees: • 95 percent of respondents reported that the lack of Internet regulation has restricted law enforcement investigations and assisted offenders in committing child pornography offenses. • 70 percent of respondents reported that the lack of Internet Service Provider (ISP) regulations, including but not limited to, reporting child pornography, responding to law enforcement inquiries, and retaining customer IP addresses, IP logs, and other subscriber information, have hampered law enforcement investigations. Some agencies cite the Wiretap Statute, which strictly prohibits the interception of international electronic communications, including online communications regarding child pornography, without a specific court order. This is in contrast to U.S. Customs laws, which, in an effort to safeguard the United States from the unlawful importation or smuggling of contraband, imposes fewer restrictions on searches of packages entering the country. Consistent with those laws, airports, border crossings, and ports of entry have established rules and regulations for the conduct of inspections by Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and ICE. However, because of the restrictions imposed by the Wiretap Statute, there is no comparable authority available to the agencies charged with intercepting the international electronic communications of suspected child pornography offenders. Some agencies suggest exempting, in a manner consistent with applicable constitutional limits, the international electronic communications of such offenders from at least some of the restrictions imposed by the Wiretap Statute. Transnational Organized Crime Element of Child Pornography Among NDIC interviewees: • 85 percent of respondents reported that there are international and transnational groups that operate pay sites of child pornography. These sites are lucrative and operate strictly for profit. • 68 percent of respondents reported that web sites, ISPs, and governments in other countries are not cooperative in child pornography investigations and often ignore the problem of child pornography. They also responded that serving subpoenas in other countries is often difficult if not impossible. Many agencies reported Russia as having the most significant transnational organized crime role in child pornography.

Psychological Impact to a Child Pornography Victim Among NDIC interviewees: • 95 percent of respondents reported that a child suffers lifelong psychological damage and may never overcome his or her trauma from being a child pornography victim. • 75 percent of respondents reported that children suffer from knowing that their images exist in perpetuity and that even if their abuser is convicted, there are still other child pornography offenders out there viewing their images, offenders that the victims may run into in social settings.

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The Link between Child Pornography and Contact Offenses Among NDIC interviewees: • 93 percent of respondents reported that child pornography creates a market for new images of an increasingly graphic and violent nature. • 83 percent of respondents reported that stimulation from child pornography images drive some child pornography offenders to engage in contact offenses with children. • 64 percent of respondents reported that child pornography desensitizes viewers and makes them more likely to engage in contact offenses or they become more curious and develop a desire for more than just images, which drives them to engage in contact offenses. • 36 percent of respondents cited the Butner study and agreed that contact offenses and child pornography are linked but that the relationship is more correlation that causation.

The Number of Identified Victims Compared to the Number of Unidentified Victims Among NDIC interviewees: • 69 percent of respondents referred NDIC to statistics from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC). Approximately 1,500 images from a countless number of images have identified victims. • 33 percent of respondents reported that most victims in child pornography images are unidentified. • 27 percent of respondents reported that the number of child victims is very high.

Offender Characteristics Among NDIC interviewees: • 100 percent of respondents reported that the two most important characteristics in prioritizing child pornography cases are the number of images an offender possesses and an offender’s access to children or their occupying a position of trust with children (teacher, doctor, day-care provider, etc.).

Recidivism of Child Pornography Offenders Among NDIC interviewees: • 85 percent of respondents reported that, based on case experience, the recidivism rate of child pornography offenders is high; although there are no definite statistics. • 82 percent of respondents reported having no concrete recidivism statistics on child pornography offenders.

Deterring Child Pornography Offenders Among NDIC interviewees: • 56 percent of respondents reported that the best deterrent to child pornography offenders would be tougher penalties such as longer sentences, larger fines, and stricter supervision while on probation and parole. D-13



44 percent of respondents reported that forbidding access to computers, the Internet, and Internet-enabled devices is an effective deterrent. Some agencies justified the forbidden Internet access by comparing child pornography to drug addiction. In drug treatment, one of the basic strategies used is to remove the stimulus, settings, and situations that contributed to the addiction. A drug addict could move to a new neighborhood, change social settings, avoid drug users, and avoid the settings which trigger the desire to use drugs. Child pornography offenders don’t have those options, short of going into seclusion. As offenders participate in the daily routine of shopping, going to work, and going out to eat, they encounter children and are thrown back into situations that can stimulate their addiction. Access to computers in their homes again provides the means to fall back into offending. Incapacitating Child Pornography Offenders (examples: chemical castration, longer incarcerations, and more restrictive movement methods while on parole) Among NDIC interviewees: • 67 percent of respondents reported that it is unknown what effect incapacitation has on child pornography offenders and their recidivism. • 14 percent of respondents reported that chemical castration is not effective. • 14 percent of respondents reported that longer incarcerations may be effective incapacitation. Treatment of Child Pornography Offenders Among NDIC interviewees: • 94 percent of respondents reported that treatment is available for child pornography offenders. • 48 percent of respondents reported that they are uncertain about the effectiveness of treatment. • 33 percent of respondents reported that they believe treatment is ineffective. Agencies stated that successful treatment depends on a myriad of factors, including the age of the offender, length of treatment, type of treatment, the self-control of the offender, and the availability of a support network to supervise the offender. Polygraphs are recommended to supplement the treatment program and possibly increase its effectiveness. Cook County, Illinois, was reported to have a “vibrant” sex offender treatment program. Recommendations The top three recommendations among NDIC interviewees are the following: • Enact longer mandatory minimum sentences for child pornography offenders. • Require a federal law that mandates all ISPs to establish child pornography filters, regulates their recordkeeping, and obligates them to report child pornography to law enforcement. • Increase law enforcement capability by allocating more funding, training, and personnel dedicated specifically to child pornography investigations.

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CHILD VICTIMS OF PROSTITUTION Nature and Extent of Child Prostitution Among NDIC interviewees: • 35 percent of respondents reported that child prostitution is a minor problem in their jurisdiction and that they only occasionally investigate child prostitution cases. • 22 percent of respondents reported that they have not investigated any children who were victims of prostitution cases and could only provide limited information on the topic. • 67 percent of respondents reported that the number of children under age 18 within the United States who are involved in child prostitution is unknown. • 21 percent of respondents reported that approximately 293,000 are at risk for child prostitution. (They quoted pages11-12 of the executive summary of The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico produced in 2001 by the University of Pennsylvania). Profile of Child Victims of Prostitution and Traffickers Among NDIC interviewees: • 44 percent of respondents reported that children become involved in child prostitution by being recruited, groomed, emotionally and psychologically manipulated, and controlled by various forms of abuse by a trafficker who will target areas frequented by vulnerable or troubled youth (bus station, halfway house, schools, etc.). • 24 percent of respondents reported that children become involved in prostitution after being trafficked by a parent or family member. • 20 percent of respondents reported that traffickers manipulate children by using charm at first and gaining the children’s trust and love and then resorting to violence to control the children and force them into prostitution. • 84 percent of respondents reported that child victims of prostitution are runaways. • 64 percent of respondents reported that child victims of prostitution are victims of neglect or abuse (or both) at home. • 28 percent of respondents reported that child victims of prostitution are typically African American. • 20 percent of respondents reported that child victims of prostitution are typically between 14 and 17 years old. • 24 percent of respondents reported that traffickers are typically African American males. • 16 percent of respondents reported that traffickers typically range in age from their mid20s to mid-30s. Studies from the Dallas, Texas, Police Department indicate that 80 percent of all chronic female runaways eventually become involved in prostitution. Most prostitutes have low self-esteem. Several sources also mentioned that traffickers typically are former or current street-level drug dealers who traffic children for greater security and protection from law enforcement.

Geographic Locations of Child Prostitution Among NDIC interviewees: • 52 percent of respondents reported that most child prostitution occurs in large metropolitan areas. D-15



24 percent of respondents reported that they have no data regarding this and that the locations of child prostitution are unknown. • 14 percent of respondents reported that child prostitution frequently occurs at local truck stops. • 14 percent of respondents reported that child prostitution frequently occurs at illegal brothels. Respondents specifically reported child prostitution in the following cities: Bridgeport, Hartford, and New Haven, Connecticut; Washington, D.C.; Miami and Orlando, Florida; Atlanta, Georgia; New York, New York; and Arlington, Dallas, Fort Worth, Garland, Houston, and Mesquite, Texas.

Child Prostitution and Organized Crime Among NDIC interviewees: • 50 percent of respondents reported that traffickers network with one another and operate loose, semiformal networks. • 23 percent of respondents reported that traffickers run large and organized child prostitution operations. • 14 percent of respondents reported that child prostitution traffickers have connections to or are members of street gangs. Many agencies reported that the organized element is untraditional and informal, not the typical organized crime element that most people think of.

Disparity Between State and Federal Child Prostitution Sentences Among NDIC interviewees: • 78 percent of respondents reported that they have no concrete data on state and federal investigations, prosecutions, or sentences. • 26 percent of respondents reported that in their opinion, there is a disparity and federal child prostitution sentences are more severe than state sentences. • 22 percent of respondents reported that in their opinion state sentences for child prostitution offenses are not long enough. Child Prostitution Profits Among NDIC interviewees: • 15 percent of respondents reported that female child victims of prostitution make approximately $1,000-$3,000 per night, but do not get to keep their profit. • 75 percent of respondents reported that traffickers take the profits from child victims of prostitution and leave the child victims of prostitution nothing. • 20 percent of respondents reported that the traffickers take all of the profits and use them to live lavish lifestyles (numerous expensive cars, clothes, jewelry, and drugs) and give the child victims of prostitution nothing aside from the bare minimum required for them to survive.

D-16

Methods Used to Launder Child Prostitution Profits Among NDIC interviewees: • 42 percent of respondents reported that the methods used to launder child prostitution profits are unknown. • 37 percent of respondents reported that traffickers launder the money by living lavish lifestyles. • 16 percent of respondents reported that traffickers launder money by buying houses or other real estate and funding recording and rap music studios.

Law Enforcement Challenges Among NDIC interviewees: • 40 percent of respondents reported that the lack of appropriate treatment and secure placement facilities for child victims of prostitution is a challenge to law enforcement. Without these facilities, children often run away again and return to their trafficker. This wastes the time law enforcement has already put into the case and makes prosecutions difficult. • 35 percent of respondents reported that the lack of law enforcement personnel dedicated solely to the investigation of child prostitution is a challenge to law enforcement. • 25 percent of respondents reported that the lack of victim cooperation is a challenge to law enforcement because victims will lie to protect traffickers, and are reluctant or refuse to testify against traffickers.

Vulnerabilities Among NDIC interviewees: • 30 percent of respondents reported that the vulnerabilities are unknown because they do not have any data from which vulnerabilities can be determined. • 20 percent of respondents reported that there are not enough secure treatment facilities in which to place victims prior to and after the completion of a case. More facilities are needed for victims, places where they are not incarcerated and treated as offenders but are held securely so that they do not run back to their traffickers. • 20 percent of respondents reported that there is not enough community awareness or education on the fact that the children are victims, not offenders, and that they were manipulated into prostitution unknowingly and involuntarily. • 20 percent of respondents reported that there are not enough law enforcement resources (personnel, budget, etc.) to investigate child prostitution cases. Recommendations Among NDIC interviewees: • Child victims of prostitution need security, education, care, and counseling when removed from prostitution in order to aid in the successful prosecution of their traffickers. However, there are little to no resources to give this attention to victims. There is a need for a national program to develop programs, resources, and facilities to care for these victims. D-17

ONLINE ENTICEMENT Extent of Online Enticement Among NDIC interviewees: • 40 percent of respondents reported that online enticement is prevalent and has become very easy to commit through venues such as chat rooms and social networking sites. • 14 percent of respondents reported that most of their online enticement investigations involve undercover officers posing as children. Risk to Children Among NDIC interviewees: • 75 percent of respondents reported that online enticement poses a high risk to children. • 48 percent of respondents reported that online enticement poses the risk of sexual abuse to children. • 27 percent of respondents reported that online enticement poses the risk of murder to children. • 23 percent of respondents reported that online enticement poses the risk of abduction to children. • 18 percent of respondents reported that online enticement poses the risk of physical abuse to children. • 14 percent of respondents reported that online enticement poses the risk of indecent selfexposure via webcam or digital camera. In other words, the offender will entice the child to take pictures or streaming video of his or her sexual activity or nudity and then save it, use it to blackmail the child into sending more or meeting, or distribute it to child pornography offenders. Interviewees strongly suggested forbidding children to have access to computers in a private place such as their bedroom. They advise keeping computers in a high traffic area of the house and monitoring their activity to decrease the likelihood of child users becoming online enticement victims. Online Enticement Process Among NDIC interviewees: • 88 percent of respondents reported grooming as the most common online enticement method. The offender will usually meet a child in a public chat room geared toward teens or sexual subjects, move their conversation to a private chat room or instant message, and exchange pictures and conversation, building rapport and trust; determine the child’s vulnerabilities (lack of self-esteem, problems at home, etc.) and decide if the child would be an appropriate victim and the chances of being caught; blackmail the child to produce sexual pictures of themselves; talk on the telephone; and finally progress to face-to-face meetings where sexual abuse occurs. • 14 percent of respondents reported a “quick hookup” method is also commonly used in online enticement cases. In this method, the offender almost immediately attempts to discuss sex with the child or coerce the child into sending sexual images. • 47 percent of respondents reported that offenders often use chat rooms and social networking sites geared toward teens to identify potential victims. D-18

Some interviewees reported a decrease in the use of the grooming process and a subsequent increase in the use of the “quick hookup” method. Vulnerabilities Among NDIC interviewees: • 76 percent of respondents reported that children are not educated enough on the subject of online enticement and do not realize that their “friend” is actually an abuser. • 47 percent of respondents reported that parents, schools, and communities are not educated enough on the subject to adequately establish rules to protect their children. • 29 percent of respondents reported that parents are not regulating their children’s Internet access and are not tracking what their children are participating in online. Recommendations • Educate children, parents, schools, and communities on the subject and steps to prevent their children from becoming victims. Some suggested initiating a nationwide schoolbased program on online enticement starting in third grade and continuing throughout high school for all children and finding a way to incorporate parents’ participation in such a program. • Have parents place home computers in a common space in the house and not to allow Internet access when they are not available to monitor their children’s activity. • Install tracking software to monitor children’s activity. • Develop better online enticement reporting and regulation practices for ISPs. Online Enticement Statistics Among NDIC interviewees: • 75 percent of respondents reported that they do not produce a written report or statistics other than what their area’s ICAC Task Force produces. • 13 percent of respondents reported that NDIC should contact the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) for statistics and reports. • 13 percent of respondents reported that the only statistics produced are statistics reported internally to each ICAC Task Force commander. Most Common Technique Used by Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 88 percent of respondents reported that solicitors most commonly use friendship to gain control of potential victims and earn their trust. • 22 percent of respondents reported that solicitors frequently use gifts to gain control of potential victims. • 12 percent of respondents reported that solicitors frequently act as a mentor or confident and feign sympathy and concern for a troubled child to earn trust and gain control of potential victims. Most interviewees reported that solicitors usually begin grooming by offering friendship, attention, and sympathy or concern, which is then reinforced through gifts. Trends and Patterns of Online Enticement Among NDIC interviewees: D-19



37 percent of respondents reported solicitors are increasingly using webcams in the solicitation process to ensure they are not talking to law enforcement or to induce the child to produce pornographic images of themselves. • 24 percent of respondents reported that solicitors usually begin conversations by inquiring about the child’s age, sex, and location. They will chat with the child for a while, send explicit photos of themselves to the child, and then ask the child to reciprocate with pornographic images of themselves. • 21 percent of respondents reported that solicitors are increasingly requesting photos from the child to verify that they are not conversing with law enforcement. Interviewees expressed concern that Twitter may be the next most popular tool used by online solicitors to locate potential victims. Most Unique Technologies Used by Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 74 percent of respondents reported that webcams are the most unique technological advancement used by solicitors. • 53 percent of respondents reported that cell phones and smart phones are commonly used unique technological advancements used by online solicitors. In most cases, those devices allow the offender to contact the victim in relative privacy by note having to call a home telephone and risk interception by a parent, text, and sext. • 26 percent of respondents reported that wireless Internet access are commonly used unique technological advancements exploited by online solicitors. • 21 percent of respondents reported that social networking sites constitute a commonly used technological advancement used by online solicitors. Online solicitors are now able to locate victims via cell phones equipped with GPS capabilities. Solicitors are often able to identify where the victim lives through social networking sites (which can also be accessed through cell phones equipped with Internet capabilities) and then use their GPS function to physically locate the child. Technologies used by Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 77 percent of respondents reported that solicitors are using social networking sites to identify and contact potential victims. • 59 percent of respondents reported that solicitors are using chat rooms to identify and contact potential victims. • 54 percent of respondents reported that solicitors are using gaming sites and programs to identify and contact potential victims. • 24 percent of respondents reported that solicitors are using the online capabilities of gaming consoles, such as X-Box Live, to identify and contact potential victims. Technology Most Problematic to Law Enforcement Among NDIC interviewees: • 25 percent of respondents reported that wireless Internet access are problematic in online enticement investigations. • 25 percent of respondents reported that social networking sites are problematic in online enticement investigations. D-20

• • • •

20 percent of respondents reported that proxy servers are problematic in online enticement investigations. 18 percent of respondents reported that chat rooms are problematic in online enticement investigations. 15 percent of respondents reported that webcams are problematic in online enticement investigations. 13 percent of respondents reported that the inability of ISPs to identify subscriber information for offenders is problematic in online enticement investigations.

Sophistication of Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 43 percent of respondents reported that offenders encountered through their online enticement investigations are in the low- to mid-level sophistication range. • 18 percent of respondents reported that offenders encountered through their online enticement investigations are low-level in sophistication. • 13 percent of respondents reported that they encounter solicitors with a wide range of sophistication, from low to high. Organized Groups of Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 86 percent of respondents reported that they typically do not encounter organized groups of solicitors in enticement investigations, although there have been a few instances. • 39 percent of respondents reported that they have occasionally encountered investigations that involve solicitors who share the information or images of victims so that others may also victimize the children. This practice is reported to be rare. Online Solicitor Profile Among NDIC interviewees: • 65 percent of respondents reported that offenders are Caucasian males. • 48 percent of respondents reported that offenders usually range in age from middle-aged to septuagenarian. • 45 percent of respondents reported that offender profiles vary widely and there is no “typical” profile of a solicitor. • 28 percent of respondents reported that offenders have no prior offenses. Time between Online Contact and Physical Contact Among NDIC interviewees: • 29 percent of respondents reported that the time between online contact and physical contact depends on the sophistication level of the offender. Novices usually take less time and often use the “quick hookup” method. Experts take their time to sufficiently groom a child and ensure that they are not conversing with law enforcement. • 24 percent of respondents reported that the time between online and physical contact varied widely depending on various offender characteristics. • 16 percent of respondents reported 1 to 2 weeks between online and physical contact. • 11 percent of respondents reported 3 to 4 weeks between online and physical contact. D-21

• 8 percent of respondents reported 1 to 2 months between online and physical contact. Interviewees reported that this time span also depends on whether it was an undercover investigation or involved a real child. If it was an undercover investigation, the time span varies depending on the time and resources the agency has to devote to it but they try to prolong the time span to build a stronger case and prevent accusations of entrapment. Use of Drugs, Violence, or Weapons in Online Enticement Among NDIC interviewees: • 64 percent of respondents reported that violence and weapons are rarely used in online enticement cases. • 48 percent of respondents reported that alcohol is commonly used in online enticement cases. • 43 percent of respondents reported that marijuana (cannabis) is commonly used in online enticement cases. • 29 percent of respondents reported that drugs are rarely used in online enticement cases. International Threat of Online Enticement Among NDIC interviewees: • 84 percent of respondents reported that most online solicitors reside in the same area or state as their victim. • 11 percent of respondents reported that online solicitors come from all distances—they have encountered local, in-state, out-of-state, and international solicitors. One agency reported that the Orlando, Florida, area is a major recruiting area for national and international abusers of children. Average Federal and State Sentences for Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 44 percent of respondents reported that the average federal sentence for online solicitors is between 10 and 15 years of incarceration. • 16 percent of respondents reported that the average state sentence for online solicitors is a period of probation. Interviewees reported that sentences can vary widely, particularly at the state level. Sentences depend on many factors, such as any prior offenses and any other charges running concurrently with the solicitation offense (such as molestation, transportation of a minor for sexual purposes, child pornography offenses, etc.). Most Effective Technology used by Law Enforcement in Online Enticement Investigations Among NDIC interviewees: • 90 percent of respondents reported that undercover investigations are the most effective method to target and convict online solicitors. How are Investigations Initiated by ICACs? Among NDIC interviewees: • 63 percent of respondents reported that they frequently initiate online enticement investigations through undercover operations. D-22

• •

34 percent of respondents reported that they frequently initiate online enticement investigations through tips from parents who are concerned about their children’s online activity. 23 percent of respondents reported that they frequently initiate online enticement investigations through tips from concerned citizens via the NCMEC CyberTipline or personal call-ins to the agency.

Time Between Case Initiation and Arrest Among NDIC interviewees: • 41 percent of respondents reported that a case takes approximately 4 to 6 months. • 19 percent of respondents reported that a case takes approximately 1 to 3 months. Number of Suspects per Investigation Among NDIC interviewees: • 100 percent of respondents reported that an investigation usually involves only one suspect. • 23 percent of respondents reported that occasionally an investigation involves two suspects but that is rare.

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SEX TOURISM Nature and Extent Among NDIC interviewees: • 50 percent of respondents reported that their agency has not investigated or prosecuted any sex tourism cases. • 25 percent of respondents reported that they encounter sex tourism cases very infrequently. • 15 percent of respondents reported that sex tourism is a major vulnerability and there is potential for it to become a huge industry. The area deserves more attention than it has received. U.S. Citizen and Resident Alien (RA) Involvement in Sex Tourism Among NDIC interviewees: • 35 percent of respondents reported that it is believed that the extent to which U.S. citizens and RAs are engaging in sex tourism is significant. • 35 percent of respondents reported that the extent to which U.S. citizens and RAs are engaging in sex tourism is unknown because there is no data available on the topic. One agency reported that it is believed that an entire hotel in Mexico City is closed to normal occupancy and used exclusively for sex with children. In undercover operations where officers posed as sex tourism trip coordinators, numerous suspects told the officers that they could do the trip cheaper themselves than if they went through a coordinator. This leads law enforcement to believe that sex tourism occurs more than we are currently aware of. Locations where U.S. Citizens and RAs are Engaging in Sex Tourism Among NDIC interviewees: • 67 percent of respondents reported that Thailand is a popular sex tourism destination. • 56 percent of respondents reported that Mexico is a popular sex tourism destination. • 44 percent of respondents reported that the Philippines are a popular sex tourism destination. • 44 percent of respondents reported that Asian countries are popular sex tourism destinations. • 33 percent of respondents reported that Cambodia is a popular sex tourism destination. • 22 percent of respondents reported that third world impoverished countries and developing countries are popular sex tourism destinations.

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Characteristics of a Sex Tourist Among NDIC interviewees: • 42 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists usually have higher than average socioeconomic status. This gives them the opportunity to travel internationally on a regular basis. • 37 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists are usually adult Caucasian males. • 32 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists are usually professionals employed in white collar occupations. • 21 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists are usually middle-aged. Criminal Conduct of Sex Tourists Among NDIC interviewees: • 64 percent of respondents reported that the extent of a sex tourist’s criminal conduct involves the sexual abuse of minors in foreign countries. • 21 percent of respondents reported that the extent of a sex tourist’s criminal conduct involves producing child pornography and transporting the images back to the United States. • 7 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists are usually more violent toward their victims in foreign countries because the offender feels that poorer foreign children have less worth than American children and that he is shielded from law enforcement action in another country. Link between Child Pornography and Sex Tourism Among NDIC interviewees: • 100 percent of respondents reported that the link between child pornography and sex tourism is that the tourist produces images of the abuse in foreign countries and transports it back to the United States. • Zero percent of respondents reported that there is no link between child pornography and sex tourism. Threat Posed by Sex Tourists in the U.S. and Abroad Among NDIC interviewees: • 79 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists commit contact offenses abroad and engage in physical, sexual, emotional, and psychological abuse abroad. • 43 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists commit contact offenses and sexual abuse in the U.S. • 21 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists may spread sexually transmitted diseases abroad. • 14 percent of respondents reported that sex tourists may become desensitized and more brazen after abusing abroad leading them to start abusing children in the United States. • 14 percent of respondents reported that sex tourism may make it appear acceptable for parents in the United States and abroad to sell their children’s sex for money. Challenges to Law Enforcement Among NDIC interviewees: D-25

• • • •

50 percent of respondents reported that the biggest challenge they face is obtaining cooperation from foreign countries and law enforcement agencies for assistance in investigations. 43 percent of respondents reported that identifying offenders is the biggest challenge to law enforcement. 29 percent of respondents reported that evidence collection from foreign countries is a significant challenge to law enforcement. 29 percent of respondents reported that the difference in regulations between the United States and foreign sex offender laws is a significant problem to law enforcement. Some foreign countries lack laws criminalizing any type of sexual activity with children.

Difficulties in Identifying, Investigating, and Prosecuting Sex Tourists Among NDIC interviewees: • 57 percent of respondents reported that locating victims and witnesses and flying them to the United States for testimony is a significant difficulty in sex tourism cases. • 43 percent of respondents reported that collecting evidence is a significant difficulty in sex tourism cases. • 36 percent of respondents reported that dealing with foreign government red tape is a significant difficulty in sex tourism cases. • 29 percent of respondents reported that the failure of foreign countries to recognize child pornography as a chargeable offense is a difficulty in sex tourism cases. There is also a lack of applicable laws on sex tourism and other related offenses in foreign countries. Vulnerabilities and Recommendations Among NDIC interviewees: • Aside from the geographical difficulties, a lack of actionable intelligence on sex tourism and its extent is a major difficulty to investigating it. All countries need to be made aware of sex tourism and its extent. Also, establishing a mechanism to encourage information sharing on sex tourism among all countries is necessary. ICAC INTERVIEWS Written Reports and Statistics: Among NDIC interviewees: • 76 percent of respondents reported that they do not produce a written report other than what they provide to the OJJDP. • 12 percent of respondents reported that they do produce written reports and statistics other than what they provide to the OJJDP. • 6 percent of respondents reported that they produce only internal reports. Most Common Technique Used by Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 53 percent of respondents report that solicitors commonly use chat rooms to identify potential victims.

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• • •

53 percent of respondents reported that solicitors often use wireless Internet, and wireless-enabled devices (cell phones, laptops, etc.) to access the Internet and identify potential victims. 34 percent of respondents reported that solicitors are using social networking sites to identify potential victims. 31 percent reported that solicitors are asking the victim to use a webcam to ensure that they are not conversing with law enforcement.

International Threat of Online Enticement Among NDIC interviewees: • 71 percent of respondents reported that most offenders are local or regional. • 35 percent of respondents report that they have encountered some international solicitors. Sophistication of Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 47 percent of respondents reported most offenders were low-to mid-level in their sophistication. • 29 percent of respondents reported that most offenders were mid-level in their sophistication. • 18 percent of respondents reported that most offenders were low-level in their sophistication. Online Solicitor Profile Among NDIC interviewees: • 53 percent of respondents reported that online solicitors could be any age. • 44 percent of respondents reported that most offenders are Caucasian males. • 29 percent of respondents reported that that is no typical offender profile. How are Investigations Initiated by ICACs? Among NDIC interviewees: • 88 percent of respondents reported that most investigations are initiated through the NCMEC CyberTipline. • 44 percent of respondents reported that investigations are commonly initiated through undercover operations. • 41 percent of respondents reported that investigations are commonly initiated through P2P investigations. • 41 percent of respondents reported that investigations are commonly initiated through tips from concerned parents or citizens.

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Average Federal and State Sentences for Online Solicitors Among NDIC interviewees: • 20 percent of respondents reported that the sentence depends on the exact offense, offender history, and any accompanying offenses. • 20 percent of respondents reported that the typical state sentence is a period of probation. • 20 percent of respondents reported that the typical state sentence is 1 to 5 years of incarceration. • 20 percent of respondents reported that the typical federal sentence is 10-15 years. Use of Drugs, Violence, or Weapons in Online Enticement Among NDIC interviewees: • 34 percent of respondents reported that drugs, weapons, and violence are rarely encountered in investigations. • 25 percent of respondents reported that alcohol is commonly encountered in investigations. • 19 percent of respondents reported that drugs, violence, and weapons are encountered on rare occasions. • 16 percent of respondents reported that marijuana is commonly encountered in investigations. Lessons Learned in Conducting Investigations Among NDIC interviewees: • There is no stereotypical offender profile. Offenders include a myriad of different people. • There are not enough law enforcement resources, such as investigators, analysts, time, and funding. • Law enforcement, prosecutors, and judges involved in these types of cases need to stay up-to-date and trained on current technologies. • Collaborative investigations between state and federal agencies in which resources and abilities are shared are often most successful. Failure to delegate duties can lead to an unsuccessful investigation and employee burnout. • There should be web-based or school-based programs developed to teach minors and their parents about the dangers of the Internet. This activity needs to be mandatory for both children and parents. • Peer-to-peer investigations seem to be more successful than undercover chat room investigations. • Be organized, patient, persistent, and thorough in investigations. What Information Would Your Agencies Like to See in the National Child Exploitation Threat Assessment? Among NDIC interviewees: • 30 percent of respondents reported that they wanted to see statistics that would support their argument for increased funding and training of law enforcement personnel dedicated to this subject area.

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20 percent of respondents reported that they wanted to see support for having ICAC personnel assigned to ICAC duties full-time, instead of detailed from another agency. ICACs need a staff specifically dedicated to focus only these types of crime.

U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) http://postalinspectors.uspis.gov/ The USPIS arrested 2,893 child pornography offenders from January 1997 through the end of 2008, of which 931 (32%) were found to have committed contact offenses against children— either through an admission by the offender, a prior criminal record for sexual molestation, evidence uncovered during the child pornography investigation, or the discovery of overt acts by the offender to procure children for sexual purposes. U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC) http://www.ussc.gov/ According to USSC data, 50.8 percent of offenders sentenced for child pornography production in 2002 received an upward adjustment because the production involved a child under the age of 12 years. In 2008, 46.7 percent of sentences had that adjustment, a slight decrease from the 2002 figure. In the intervening years, between 2003 and 2007, the number of defendants receiving that upward adjustment fluctuated between a low of 38.8 percent and a high of 69.3 percent. According to USSC data, 42.3 percent of the sentences for trafficking of child pornography in 2002 warranted an upward adjustment because the material depicted some form of sadistic or masochistic conduct or other forms of violence. In 2008, 70 percent of those sentences warranted such an adjustment, a 65 percent increase since 2002.

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SOURCES Numerous federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and NGOs throughout the United States provided valuable input to this report through their participation in the National Child Exploitation Threat Assessment Survey and interviews with NDIC field intelligence officers and analysts. These agencies are too numerous to thank individually. FEDERAL U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Maternal and Child Health Bureau U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Cyber Crimes Center (C3) Field Offices California Los Angeles Sacramento Connecticut New Haven Florida Orlando Pensacola Tallahassee Georgia Atlanta Illinois Chicago Springfield Indiana Indianapolis Louisiana New Orleans Oregon Portland Mississippi Gulfport Missouri Kansas City St. Louis New York New York Pennsylvania Philadelphia Texas Dallas D-30

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section U.S. Attorneys Offices Alaska California Central District Eastern District Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Middle District Northern District Southern District Maryland Georgia Northern District Illinois Central District Indiana Southern District Louisiana Eastern District Western District Michigan Eastern District Missouri Eastern District Western District Montana New York Eastern District Southern District North Carolina Eastern District Oregon Pennsylvania Eastern District Western District Texas Northern District Washington Eastern District D-31

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Crimes Against Children Unit (CACU) Innocent Images National Initiative (IINI) Innocence Lost Task Forces (ILTF) California Los Angeles Field Office (IINI) Sacramento Field Office (IINI) Santa Ana Field Office (ILTF) Connecticut New Haven Field Office (IINI) Florida Miami Field Office (IINI) Georgia Atlanta Field Office (IINI and ILTF) Illinois Chicago Field Office (IINI) Peoria Field Office (IINI) Indiana Indianapolis Field Office (IINI) Louisiana New Orleans Field Office (IINI) Maryland Baltimore Field Office (IINI) Beltsville Operations Office (IINI) Massachusetts Boston Field Office (ILTF) Michigan Detroit Field Office (ILTF) New York New York Field Office (IINI) Oklahoma Oklahoma City Field Office (IINI) Oregon Portland Field Office (IINI and ILTF) Pennsylvania Philadelphia Field Office (IINI) Pittsburgh Field Office (IINI) Texas Dallas Field Office (IINI) Houston Field Office (ILTF) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Forces Alabama Alaska D-32

Arizona Arkansas California Los Angeles Sacramento San Diego Colorado Connecticut Florida Fort Lauderdale Gainesville Polk County Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Cook County Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Dallas D-33

Southern Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Bedford Northern Virginia and District of Columbia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. POSTAL SERVICE U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) California Los Angeles Division Illinois Chicago Division Pennsylvania Philadelphia Division Pittsburgh Division Washington Seattle Division U.S. SENTENCING COMMISSION (USSC) U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT STATE & LOCAL ATTORNEY GENERALS OFFICES California Georgia Florida Illinois Indiana Texas CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, POLICE DEPARTMENT Youth Investigations Section NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS) Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitations (CAASE) Children of the Night Crimes Against Children Research Center Girls Education & Mentoring Services (GEMS) Love146 Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting and Serving Sexually Exploited Youth (MISSSEY) National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) D-34

Polaris Project Shared Hope International

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APPENDIX E DEPARTMENT-FUNDED RESEARCH As noted in the body of the Report, the Act requested that the Department provide a review of relevant research in the child exploitation field. A listing of Department-funded research is below. It is important to note that the inclusion of any study or research project in this Report is not intended to convey support for the findings of any of such study or research project. A synthesis of major studies, and an accompanying annotated bibliography, can be found in Appendix F. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is currently funding the following studies / research projects related to child exploitation. The projects are on varying timelines and will have results / research reports available at varying times. A National Study of Internet-Facilitated Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (IF-CSEC) in the Criminal Justice System is a project designed by the awardee, the University of New Hampshire. The award has a start date of 1/1/2007 and end date of 12/31/2009. This study of Internet-facilitated CSEC (IF-CSEC) crimes focuses on the future directions of commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth by looking at how offenders use the Internet to facilitate CSEC in a broad range of cases handled by law enforcement agencies, including child prostitution, trafficking, sex tourism, child pornography and other CSEC crimes. It brings together an experienced research partner with a strong research background in child sexual exploitation, the Crimes against Children Research Center, and a law enforcement partner with a high degree of expertise in the use of Internet technology in sexual exploitation crimes, the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces. Research into the Scope, Investigation, and Prosecution of Technology-Facilitated Child Exploitation: the 3rd National Online Victimization Study is a project designed by the awardee, University of New Hampshire. The award has a start date of 7/1/2009 and an end date of 6/30/2012. This study is designed to help law enforcement combat technology-facilitated child exploitation crimes. It will gather detailed national data on a number of policy and practice relevant topics including: 1) new developments and numerical trends in cases coming to law enforcement attention; 2) what investigative strategies are associated with more favorable outcomes; 3) what challenges and dilemmas confront prosecutors; 4) what indicators and investigative procedures are more likely to identify child pornography offenders who have also committed crimes against or endangered children in their environments; and 5) how investigators are managing and responding to cases of sexual images produced and disseminated by youth. The data will be gathered using a proven, successful methodology, a 2-stage survey of a national sample of law enforcement agencies that will include interviews with investigators and prosecutors involved in a representative sample of more than 1000 technology-facilitated crimes. National Study of Internet and Technology-Facilitated Risks to Youth is a project designed by the awardee, University of New Hampshire. The award has a start date of 7/1/2009 and an end date of 6/30/2012. This project aims to help reduce youth risk of victimization through technology use (i.e., Internet, text messaging, webcams). It will survey a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth to: 1) continue to track existing trends in the number and E-1

types of threats youth encounter using technology; 2) assess risks to youth of new behaviors and activities, including youth creating and distributing explicit images of themselves and/or peers; 3) assess benefits and utilization of safety programs and technologies, and 4) identify activities and behaviors most closely associated with risk. This study builds on a highly successful, decade-long research initiative at the Crimes against Children Research Center. Using a design refined in two previous Youth Internet Safety Surveys, a national probability sample of youth ages 10 through 17 will be interviewed by telephone about experiences with technology during the last 12 months. The design will allow direct comparison to findings from two previous surveys, providing valuable information on trends and new developments. Multimedia Juvenile Victimization (MJV): Insights into Youth Behavior to Help Law Enforcement is a project designed by awardee, University of Hawaii. The award has a start date of 7/1/2009 and an end date of 6/30/2011. The Multimedia Juvenile Victimization (MJV): Insights into Youth Behavior to Help Law Enforcement project is a two-year study whose goal and purpose is to contribute to the understanding of Internet and technology-facilitated crimes against juveniles and assist law enforcement in their efforts to emulate youth behavior online, gather evidence, and prosecute violators, thereby addressing priority research area IV: Investigation of Internet Crimes and area VI: Prevention Strategies. Major objectives are to determine prevalence and awareness of solicitous texting (“sexting”) using cell phone text messaging, frequency of solicitation and distribution of explicit images using online social networks, and types of technologies used for cyberbullying. Participants are from three school districts—Hawaii, California, and Wyoming—with a fourth (Virginia) to be determined for the school year 2009-2010. Data will be gathered via questionnaires distributed to a stratified random sample of each school district’s student population, parents, and teachers. Multi-Prong Approaches to Strengthening Internet Child Safety is a project designed by the awardee, Justice Resource Institute. The award has a start date of 10/1/2006 and an end date of 3/31/2010.The primary goal of this proposed research project is to reduce online sexual victimization of children and adolescents. A secondary goal of this project is to study the evolution and impact of adult and child pornography on Internet sexual offenders. This two-year project proposes to build on work supported by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in three important ways: (1) by conducting in-depth structured interviews of a large, diverse sample of Internet sexual offenders, (2) by examining the age spectrum of exposure to, use of, and technical familiarity with Internet pornography in high school students, college students and offenders, and (3) by reviewing the efficacy of existing child protection software with recommendations for the next “generation” of such filters. The purpose of this project is to advance the much-needed empirical research required to combat online sexual victimization of children and adolescents and improve Internet safety strategies. Pathways to Commercial Sexual Victimization of Children-A Life Course Perspective is a project designed by the awardee, University of Massachusetts Lowell. The award has a start date of 9/1/2006 and an end date of 6/30/2009. The research will be an in-depth field-based study of CSEC taking a life course perspective in examining the lives of female and male victims, with a focus on prostituted teens. There will be a utilization of mixed-method and collaborative design to collect data that will uncover the dynamics of the sexual victimization and learn from the teens themselves more about the individual, family, peer, school, and community contexts of their E-2

victimization. The project has four specific aims: identify an appropriate group of adolescent girls and boys from whom we can directly elicit information to map out pathways into CSEC over this early but critical portion of the life course; refine an interview protocol that is currently in development based on FAIR und’s pilot youth-led program.; interview 40 sexually victimized girls (prostituted girls), 20 boys sexually victimized via CSEC, and 40 run away youth (20 boys and 20 girls); facilitate utilization of findings beyond the Boston and Washington, D.C., by researchers, service providers and policy makers.

Victims No Longer: Research on Child Survivors of Trafficking for Sexual and Labor Exploitation in the United States, Final Report NCJ 221891, Elzbieta Gozdziak Ph.D.; Micah N. Bump M.A., 2008, NIJ-Sponsored, (159 pages). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in New York City, Executive Summary NCJ 225082, Ric Curtis; Karen Terry; Meredith Dank,; Kirk Dombrowski; Bilal Khan; Amy Muslim; Melissa Labriola; Michael Rempel, September 2008, NIJ-Sponsored, (14 pages). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in New York City, Volume Two: Formative Evaluation: The New York City Demonstration NCJ 225084, Amy Muslim; Melissa Labriola; Michael Rempel, September 2008, NIJSponsored, (107 pages). Evaluation of the Demonstration Project To Address Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Atlanta-Fulton County NCJ 226610, Mary Finn; Brenda Sims Blackwell; Leslie C. Jackson; James L. Wolk; M. Brooke Oakley, March 2009, NIJ-Sponsored, (301 pages). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It? NCJ 215733, Jay Albanese, December 2007, Report, NIJ, (20 pages). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in New York City, Volume One: The CSEC Population in New York City: Size, Characteristics, and Needs NCJ 225083, Ric Curtis; Karen Terry; Meredith Dank; Kirk Dombrowski; Bilal Khan, September 2008, NIJ-Sponsored, (126 pages). The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the U.S. Department of Justice and is dedicated to researching crime control and justice issues. NIJ provides objective, independent, evidence-based knowledge and tools to meet the challenges of crime and justice, particularly at the state and local levels. NIJ's principal authorities are derived from the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as amended (see 42 USC § 37213723) and Title II of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. NIJ is currently supporting the following research projects related to child exploitation.

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Identifying Situational and Individual Risk Factors for Child Sexual Abuse in Institutional Settings: Implications for Public Safety and Primary Prevention awarded to John Jay College and supported jointly with the United States Conference on Catholic Bishops. A major barrier to prevention efforts has been the lack of information about the causes of child sexual abuse perpetration, specifically the interplay of individual, interpersonal, and situational factors that increase risk for the perpetration of sexual violence, especially when perpetrated by professionals in institutional contexts. The aims of this project are to (a) identify individual, relational, and situational risk and protective markers for sexual abuse perpetration in institutional settings, (b) build a taxonomic structure of clergy who sexually abuse children based upon these risk factors, and (c) develop a summary of best practices summarizing major research findings that can be distributed to faith based institutions and youth serving organizations. Randomized Controlled Trial Study of a Parenting Intervention to Enhance Post-Release Adjustment and Reduce Recidivism for Reentering Fathers and their Children awarded to Child Trends and ICF International. This grant will examine the impact of adding an evidence-based parenting program to re-entry services for parents leaving prison. Among other factors the study will test whether the Strengthening Family Program (SFP) intervention improves family functioning, and reduces child maltreatment among this vulnerable population of re-entering fathers of children ages 6-21. ARRA Process Evaluation of Current Internet Child Safety Activities by ICAC Task Forces awarded the University of New Hampshire. The investigators will conduct a multi-site evaluation of internet child safety materials used by Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) task forces in school- and community-based prevention and awareness programs. Evaluation of OVC FY 09 Services to Domestic Minor Victims of Human Trafficking awarded to the Research Triangle Institute. The investigators will conduct a participatory process evaluation of three OVC demonstration programs that were chosen based on their promising strategies to deliver a comprehensive array of services to child victims (i.e., under age 18) of human trafficking who are U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents. Adolescent Sexual Assault Victims' Experiences with SANE-SARTS and the Criminal Justice System awarded to Michigan State University. This study uses a multi method approach to learn about adolescent sexual assault survivors experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE). The study seeks to shed light on 1) Which cases make it through the system and why? 2) What role do SANE-SARTs play in encouraging victims to participate in prosecution? And 3) What are teen victim’s concerns about seeking formal help initially?

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APPENDIX F SYNTHESIS OF MAJOR STUDIES In 2009, the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress prepared a synthesis of major studies surrounding Internet crimes against children using funding from the National Institute of Justice. As previously noted, the inclusion of any study or project does not indicate that the Department supports the conclusions of such study or project. Research conducted relative to Internet crimes against children can be grouped into several subtopics: unwanted solicitation for sexual contact or pictures; pornography (children as the subject); harassment and bullying; and unwanted exposure to sexually explicit material. Many of the studies described in this document have been conducted by researchers affiliated with the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire who extrapolated data from the First (2000) and Second (2005) Youth Internet Safety Survey. These surveys canvassed a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth ages 10 to 17 to determine the incidence and risk factors of youth exposure to sexual material on the Internet. Researchers also extrapolated data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, which was intended to estimate the incidence of Internet sex crimes against minors occurring during a one-year period (2000–2001) that were known to law enforcement officials. This bibliography reviews the findings of the studies conducted using these surveys, as well as other surveys conducted for the purpose of identifying the patterns and frequency of criminal use of the Internet involving children. The bibliography also reviews the results of focus-group studies, literature reviews, and reports commissioned by the U.S. Congress. The purpose of the studies, surveys, and reports reviewed herein was multifaceted. Researchers primarily sought to determine how frequently children view sexually explicit material online and are approached for sexual activity online, as well as the demographics of the vulnerable populations. They also wanted to identify what specific crimes were being committed, and by whom, the role law enforcement plays in curtailing and preventing these activities, and what influence pornography and sexualized material have on the moral values and sexual attitudes of children and youth. They looked at broader issues as well: how children use the Internet generally (as compared with adults) and what role family dynamics and the parent–child relationship play in the prevention of Internet crime. Some of the studies examine a particular aspect of Internet crimes against children. For example, Patricia M. Greenfield, in testimony before Congress, addressed the role of peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. She concludes that the networks are part of a pervasive, sexualized media environment that leads to inadvertent exposure of children and youth to pornography and other adult sexual content. In 2003 the U.S. General Accounting Office reported that child pornography is easily found and downloaded from peer-to-peer networks, confirming observations of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Other researchers looked at one aspect of online sexual exploitation —the grooming of children by adult predators. Ilene R. Berson and Duncan Brown, in their articles, describe how online predators use deceptive techniques to gain a young child’s trust and manipulate him or her into viewing pornography and agreeing to a personal meeting. Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, and Kimberly J. Mitchell, in “Internet-Initiated Sex Crimes Against Minors,” describe characteristics F-1

of interactions between Internet predators and their juvenile victims. A year-long survey conducted in 2001 of 129 Internet-initiated sex crimes involving victims age 17 or younger found that face-to-face meetings had occurred in 74 percent of the cases, and 93 percent of those encounters had included sexual contact. Seventy-five percent of the victims were girls. The same authors, writing in “Trends in Youth Reports of Sexual Solicitations, Harassment and Unwanted Exposure to Pornography on the Internet,” report survey results indicating that predators use less deception to befriend their online victims than experts had thought. A large majority of the victims who responded to the survey had willingly met and had sexual encounters with the predators. Communication technologies, such as computers and cell phones, and social-networking sites like My Space enable the rapid creation and dissemination of harassing and pornographic text, pictures, and video. Paris S. and Robert D. Strom note that whereas adults generally use technology only as a tool, adolescents consider technology, including text messaging and chat rooms, to be an essential part of their social life. The results of a 2007 online survey of more than 40,000 students ranging from kindergarten through twelfth grade (Samuel C. McQuade and Neel Sampat) indicate that children begin using the Internet at kindergarten age or younger and that online activities of children in the grades covered by this study include inappropriate behavior and exposure to inappropriate content. Wolak, Mitchell, and Finkelhor note that Internet use by youth age 12 to 17 increased from 73 percent in 2000 to 87 percent in 2005. Cyberbullying (bullying by means of electronic communication, such as instant messaging, e-mail, chat rooms, and cell phones) and victimization begin as early as second grade for some children, and by middle school, students as a group experience or engage in all known forms of cyber abuse and online aggression. Online exchange of sexually explicit content typically begins in middle school. Researchers (Wilson Huang, Matthew Earl Leopard, and Andrea Brockman) have concluded that the rapid growth of online sexual exploitation of children can be linked to increased Internet accessibility and anonymity, commercialization of exploitative media, and digitization in the production and dissemination of images. These researchers found that, despite legislative initiatives intended to keep pace with the incidence of this type of crime against children, the nature and distribution of child pornography, as well as the characteristics of offenders and victims alike, have remained similar over time and across a wide sample of studies. A 2007 staff report of the U.S. House Energy and Commerce Committee placed the issue of Internet crimes against children in perspective. The committee found that the number of sexually explicit images of children on the Internet was increasing, and that victims were typically younger and the images more violent than in previous years. At the time the report was written, it was estimated that Web sites hosted in the United States accounted for more than half of the child pornography on the Internet, and that commercially available child pornography on the Internet comprised a multibillion-dollar per year industry. Incidence of Internet Activity Researchers studied the frequency of exposure to sexually explicit material by boys and girls, how often the youths posted this material, and the frequency of online bullying and harassment activity. Kenzie A. Cameron and Laura F. Salazar found in their study of adolescents ages 14 to F-2

17 that among the participants who reported incidences of exposure to sexually explicit Web sites, most occurred accidentally or unintentionally, via unsolicited e-mails (10 to 20 per day) containing explicit content or links to explicit material. Chiara Sabina, Wolak, and Finkelhor, using data compiled from an online survey of more than 500 college students, found that 72.8 percent (93.2 percent of the male students and 62.1 percent of the female students) of the sample group reported that they had viewed online pornography before the age of 18. Males were found to be more likely to view pornography frequently and to view a variety of images, while females were more likely to be involuntarily exposed to pornography. Wolak, Mitchell, and Finkelhor, in “Unwanted and Wanted Exposure to Online Pornography in a National Sample of Youth Internet Users” reported findings of data taken from the Second (2005) Youth Internet Safety Survey regarding exposure to online pornography. They found that 42 percent of a sample of 10- to 17year-old Internet users had viewed online pornography during the previous year. Of that 42 percent, 66 percent reported that they had not sought or desired the exposure to pornography. A survey of more than 1,000 teens and young adults conducted in 2008 and reported by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy revealed that 20 percent of the teens had sent or posted nude or seminude pictures or video of themselves, and 11 percent of young adolescent girls (ages 13 to 16) had done so. Thirty-nine percent of teens reported sending sexually suggestive text messages (“sexting”), and 48 percent of teens reported having received such messages. Mitchell, Finkelhor, and Wolak, in “Online Requests for Sexual Pictures from Youth,” used data from the 2005 youth survey to assess the incidence of soliciting youth to produce sexually explicit images and post or transmit them online. The authors found that 13 percent of the youth in the study population had received unwanted sexual solicitations over the Internet, and although 4 percent of the youth had received an online request to send a sexual picture of themselves, only one complied. Thirteen percent of the overall survey group received unwanted sexual solicitations that included requests for pictures. Social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, My Space, and You Tube, are often used by young persons to harass their peers. Michele L. Ybarra and Mitchell, in “Prevalence and Frequency of Internet Harassment Instigation,” extrapolated data from the 2005 youth survey to identify the frequency with which youth ages 10 to 17 engaged in online harassment activity. They found that almost 30 percent of youth had harassed others online during the previous year: 6 percent had frequently harassed others via the Internet; 6 percent had occasionally harassed others online; and 17 percent had harassed others a limited number of times. Amanda Lenhart reports the results of a Parents and Teens 2006 Survey tabulating the incidence of cyberbullying. Researchers found that 32 percent of more than 900 youth (ages 12 to 17) Internet users surveyed had been harassed online. Of this group, 38 percent of the girls and 41 percent of the girls ages 15 to 17 had experienced online harassment, as compared with 26 percent of the boys. Thirtynine percent of teenagers who provided personal information on a social networking site were the target of harassment. Robin M. Kowalski and Susan P. Limber studied the prevalence of electronic bullying (defined as bullying that takes place through Internet chat rooms, e-mail, instant messaging, or Web sites) among middle school students. Their research found that 11 percent of the students reported being electronically bullied one or more times in the previous two months; 7 percent stated that they had bullied others electronically and had been the victims of electronic bullying; and 4 percent reported that they had bullied others electronically but had not been victims. Chris Moessner reported the results of a national survey of more than 800 F-3

children ages 13 to 17 measuring adolescent reaction to cyberbullying, which is defined as the use of the Internet, cell phones, or other technology to send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person. More than 43 percent of the teenagers in the survey reported that they had experienced cyberbullying in the previous year, with the most common occurrence among those 15 and 16 years old. Role of the Family and Other Caregivers Researchers looked at the role parents and other caregivers can play in preventing children from becoming victims of Internet crime, emphasizing that better education programs are needed and that strong communication between adults and children is critical. The study by Chang-Hoan Cho and Hongsik John Cheon found that parents generally underestimate their children’s exposure to negative material on the Internet, when in fact children encounter negative content frequently. McQuade and Sampat found that 66 percent of high school students reported that their parents provided no supervision of Internet activities. Cho and Cheon confirm the findings of earlier studies that parents of families exhibiting high levels of cohesion perceive greater control and understanding of their children’s Internet use. Similarly, Greenfield found that a warm, communicative parent–child relationship, appropriate sex education, and parental participation in children’s Internet activities are critical factors in protecting children from adverse effects of exposure to explicit sexual material. Moessner, in his study of a national survey of cyberbullying by those 13 to 17 years old, suggests that parents can help their children avoid cyberbullies by setting expectations for online behavior and monitoring children’s Internet activities. Stefan C. Dombrowski, Karen L. Gischlar, and Theo Durst note that caregivers can access various software tools such as firewall security barriers to monitor a child’s online activity and help protect him or her from accessing unsafe Web sites. In addition, they recommend that parents discuss Internet dangers, monitor Internet usage, supervise Internet friendships, and establish an Internet-use contract with their child. Whitney Roban, reporting a 2001 study of more than 1,000 girls ages 13 to 18, concluded that not all girls are receiving pertinent Internet-safety information from their parents, and that half the girls in the study reported breaking Internet rules set by their parents. The study concludes that parents should try to be more proactive in their relationship with their daughters; if they develop a greater understanding of their daughters’ online lives, they can better help them navigate negative Internet experiences. The Internet Safety Technical Task Force, in its final report, concludes that in order to address the problem of online safety for minors, adults must use the numerous technologies intended to enhance Internet safety, together with parental oversight, education, social services, and law enforcement. Demographics and Social Characteristics Some researchers categorized the incidence of sexual solicitation, unwanted exposure to pornography, and bullying/harassment according to demographic and gender indicators. According to Mitchell, Finkelhor and Wolak, in their evaluation of the second youth survey (“Online Requests for Sexual Pictures from Youth”), youth who are female, black, have close online relationships, or engage in online sexual behavior are more likely than others to receive solicitations for sexual pictures. In another study (“Trends in Youth Reports”), these same F-4

authors, extrapolating survey data, found that black youth and low-income families had experienced an increased incidence of sexual solicitation. Unwanted exposure to pornography had increased among those 10 to 12 years old and 16 to 17 years old, boys, and white, nonHispanic youth. These authors found in another study (“Victimization of Youths on the Internet”) that predators had targeted girls for sexual solicitation at almost twice the rate of boys, and youth who were at least 15 years old accounted for nearly two-thirds of incidents of unwanted exposure. They also found that young people at risk for unwanted sexual solicitation, harassment, and exposure to sexual content on the Internet tend to be troubled, older adolescents who use the Internet frequently and engage in high-risk online behavior, although those youth not falling into these categories are at risk as well. Ybarra and Mitchell studied the social characteristics of offline and online aggressors. Analyzing the results of the first youth survey (2000), they found that although boys commit most incidents of offline harassment, the number of boys and girls who use the Internet to harass their peers is almost equal. Both offline bullies and youth who harass others online often have multiple psychosocial issues: 51 percent of all bullies had been victims of traditional bullying, 44 percent had a poor relationship with their caregiver, 37 percent showed a pattern of delinquency, and 32 percent were frequent substance abusers. These same authors, in “Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents,” found that the majority of youth who reported seeking pornography online and offline were male; only 5 percent of females reported having looked for pornography. The majority (87 percent) of those who reported having sought sexual images were older than 14. Law Enforcement Researchers studied the role that law enforcement can play in prosecuting online predators and evaluated the effectiveness of their investigations. Brown, in his guide for prosecutors seeking to prosecute online predators, recommends that law enforcement officers acquire probative evidence against the perpetrator, collecting and preserving all evidence of grooming (preparing children for sexual exploitation), such as pornography, Web cameras, and other electronic equipment, in order that prosecutors can present the evidence at trial to show the perpetrator’s motivation. Mitchell, Wolak, and Finkelhor, in “Police Posing as Juveniles Online to Catch Sex Offenders,” used data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV) Study to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive online investigations, in which police investigators use the Internet—posing as minors and often assuming a different gender—to communicate via chat rooms, e-mail, and instant messaging, to interdict youth enticement and child pornography. These investigations were used in 25 percent of all arrests for Internet crimes against children, and resulted in offenders entering pleas in 91 percent of cases. Melissa Wells, along with Finkelhor, Wolak, and Mitchell, used the results of the NJOV Study to highlight two problems faced by law enforcement agencies in making arrests for child pornography: the nature of the child pornography portrayed in the confiscated images may not fit the definitions of existing statutes, and investigators may not be able to determine the age of the children in the images with certainty.

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Other problems in law enforcement are discussed in the U.S. House Energy and Commerce Committee staff report. Researchers found that although law enforcement agencies at the state level prosecute 70 percent of all cases involving sexual exploitation of children over the Internet, there is a wide discrepancy among state criminal codes in their treatment of these offenses and in their sentencing practices. Encryption methods, such as anonymizers, significantly interfere with law enforcement’s ability to investigate and bring charges against offenders. Impact of Internet Crimes Most of the research on Internet crimes against children has focused on quantifying the prevalence of illegal activities and identifying ways of preventing future activities. However, a few researchers have attempted to assess the psychological impact these activities have on young persons, as well the implications for other criminal activity. For example, Cameron and Salazar, in their study of adolescents ages 14 to 17 who regularly use the Internet, determined that both boys and girls reported their perception that exposure to sexually explicit material had no effect on their personal views of either gender or of relationships. Similarly, Sabina, Wolak, and Finkelhor found in their study of college students that only a minority reported that viewing online pornography before the age of 18 had strongly affected their attitudes or emotions about sexuality. On the other hand, Greenfield, who studied the unintended exposure of young people to pornography through peer-to-peer file-sharing networks, concludes that evidence supports the thesis that pornography and sexualized material can influence the moral values, sexual activity, and sexual attitudes of children and youth, including their attitudes toward sexual violence. Neil Malamuth and Mark Huppin studied the relationship between pornography and child molestation. They found that although child molesters (individuals who commit sexual acts against children) use pornography to groom potential victims, pedophiles (individuals who are sexually aroused by children) are less likely to molest a child after viewing pornography. The researchers conclude that whether exposure to a real or virtual child affects a person’s behavior depends on a number of risk factors, and that, therefore, no strong cause and effect exists between viewing child pornography and committing sexual molestation of a child. Michael Bourke and Andres Hernandez, in a very recent study on the relationship between the viewing and collection of child pornography and the commission of a sexual contact crime against a child, reach a different conclusion. The results of their research indicated that following participation in a treatment program, child pornography offenders admitted to a significantly greater number of sexual abuse crimes than before they were sentenced. Persons in this study group who had used the Internet to access child pornography were also significantly more likely to have committed a sexual contact crime. The authors conclude that persons using the Internet to commit child pornography offenses may also be undetected child molesters. Need for Further Research and Changes in Approach to the Problem Based on research conducted using various surveys, focus-group studies, and other data compilations, the authors of the studies reviewed in this bibliography made several recommendations regarding the need for additional research in the area of Internet crimes against children. In addition, they suggest ways in which parents, educators, and law enforcement F-6

officials can gain greater awareness of the magnitude of this problem, and consequently be better able to stem the proliferation of sexually explicit material through the Internet. Many of the recommendations specifically directed to parents are discussed above in the section “Role of the Family and Other Caregivers.” Ybarra and Mitchell, analyzing data from the first (2000) youth survey, identified several areas warranting further research: the small group of females intentionally seeking pornography; the link between purposeful exposure to pornography and emotional challenges, such as major depression or a poor emotional bond with a caregiver; the role of alcohol in delinquent behavior involving intentional seeking of pornography; and whether or not the Internet has become a more common mode of intentional exposure to pornography among adolescents than the viewing of sexually explicit material offline. Mitchell, Finkelhor, and Wolak, in “Online Requests for Sexual Pictures from Youth,” recommend that pediatric and adolescent health professionals be aware of the incidence of online requests for sexual pictures of youths and of the Internet’s role in expanding the production of child pornography. These same authors, in their study “Trends in Youth Reports of Sexual Solicitations, Harassment and Unwanted Exposure to Pornography on the Internet,” recommend that caregivers, social service providers, and law enforcement agents target minority and less affluent populations for prevention programs, to protect them from online harassment and from predators. In their study of Internet-initiated sex crimes against minors, these authors acknowledge that Internet victim-prevention programs have emphasized the dangers of predator deception but find that educators fail to address the problems of young persons who are befriended by adult predators online and willingly meet with them to have voluntary sexual relationships. In another study using data extrapolated from the first (2000) youth survey, these authors concluded that a major flaw in the 2000 study—the lack of standardized, validated procedures for collecting data on children exposed to sexual material on the Internet—indicated the urgent need to collect further evidence to inform public policy aimed at protecting youth from unwanted exposure to Internet pornography.

Sources for Synthesis of Major Studies Berson, Ilene R. “Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychological Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.” Journal of School Violence 2, no. 1 (2003): 9–18. http://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/ ~john/NetSafe/I.Berson.pdf (accessed March 20, 2009). Bourke, Michael L., and Andres E. Hernandez. “The ‘Butner Study’ Redux: A Report of the Incidence of Hands-on Child Victimization by Child Pornography Offenders.” Journal of Family Violence 24, no. 3 (April 2009): 183–93. Brown, Duncan. “Developing Strategies for Collecting and Presenting Grooming Evidence in a High Tech World.” Update (National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse), 2001, 1. http:www.ndaa.org/publications/newsletters/update_volume_14_number_11_2001.html (accessed March 24, 2009). F-7

Cameron, Kenzie A., and Laura F. Salazar. “Adolescents’ Experience with Sex on the Web: Results from Online Focus Groups.” Journal of Adolescence 28, no. 4 (2005): 535–40. Cho, Chang-Hoan, and Hongsik John Cheon. “Children’s Exposure to Negative Internet Content: Effects of Family Context.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 49, no. 4 (December 2005). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6836/is_4_49/ai_n25120984/ (accessed May 2009). Dombrowski, Stefan C., Karen L. Gischlar, and Theo Durst. “Safeguarding Young People from Cyber Pornography and Cyber Sexual Predation: A Major Dilemma of the Internet.” Child Abuse Review 16, no. 3 (2007): 153–70. Greenfield, Patricia M. “Inadvertent Exposure to Pornography on the Internet: Implications of Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Networks for Child Development and Families.” Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2004): 741–50. Huang, Wilson, Mathew Earl Leopard, and Andrea Brockman. “Internet Child Sexual Exploitation: Offenses, Offenders, and Victims.” In Crimes of the Internet, edited by Frank Schmalleger and Michael Pittaro, 43–65. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Internet Safety Technical Task Force. “Enhancing Child Safety and Online Technologies: Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States.” Report, Internet Safety Technical Task Force, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, December 31, 2008. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/ pubrelease/isttf/ (accessed January 5, 2009). Kowalski, Robin M., and Susan P. Limber. “Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41, no. 6 (2007): S22–S30. http://www.wctlaw.com/CM/Custom/Electronic%20Bullying%20Among%20Middle%20School% 20Students.pdf (accessed March 24, 2009). Lenhart, Amanda. “Cyberbullying and Online Teens.” Research Memo, Pew/Internet and American Life Project, Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, June 27, 2007. http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2007/PIP%20Cyberbullying% 20Memo.pdf.pdf (accessed March 23, 2009). Malamuth, Neil, and Mark Huppin. “Drawing the Line on Virtual Child Pornography: Bringing the Law in Line with the Research Evidence.” New York University Review of Law and Social Change 31 (2006–2007): 773–827. McQuade, Samuel C., III, and Neel Sampat. “Survey of Internet and At-Risk Behaviors: Undertaken by School Districts of Monroe County, New York, May 2007 to June 2008 and October 2007 to January 2008.” Report, Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, June 18, 2008.

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Moessner, Chris. “Cyberbullying.” Trends and Tudes, April 2007, 1–4. http://www. harrisinteractive.com/news/newsletters/k12news/HI_TrendsTudes_2007_v06_i04.pdf (accessed March 23, 2009). Mitchell, Kimberly J., David Finkelhor, and Janis Wolak. “Online Requests for Sexual Pictures from Youth: Risk Factors and Incident Characteristics.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41, no. 2 (2007): 196–203. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV155.pdf (accessed March 27, 2009). Mitchell, Kimberly J., David Finkelhor, and Janis Wolak. “Victimization of Youths on the Internet.” Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma 8, nos. 1–2 (May 2003): 1–39. Mitchell, Kimberly J., Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor. “Police Posing as Juveniles Online to Catch Sex Offenders: Is It Working?” Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 17, no. 3 (July 2005): 241–67. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV82.pdf (accessed March 28, 2009). Mitchell, Kimberly J., Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor. “Trends in Youth Reports of Sexual Solicitations, Harassment and Unwanted Exposure to Pornography on the Internet.” Journal of Adolescent Health 40, no. 2 (2007): 116–26. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/ CV135.pdf (accessed March 24, 2009). Roban, Whitney. “The Net Effect: Girls and New Media.” Executive Summary, Girl Scout Research Institute, Girl Scouts of the United States of America, New York, 2002. http://www.girlscouts.org/research/pdf/net_effect.pdf (accessed March 20, 2009). Sabina, Chiara, Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor. “Rapid Communication: The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth.” CyberPsychology and Behavior 11, no. 6 (2008): 691–93. Strom, Paris S., and Robert D. Strom. “Cyberbullying by Adolescents: A Preliminary Assessment.” Educational Forum 70, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 21–36. U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations. “Sexual Exploitation of Children over the Internet.” 109th Cong., 2d sess., January 2007. Staff Report. http://republicans.energycommerce. house.gove/108/News/01032007_Report.pdf (accessed May 2009). U. S. General Accounting Office. “File-Sharing Programs: Peer-to-Peer Networks Provide Ready Access to Child Pornography.” Report to the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, no. GAO–03–351, Washington, DC, 2003. Wells, Melissa, David Finkelhor, Janis Wolak, and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Defining Child Pornography: Law Enforcement Dilemmas in Investigations of Internet Child Pornography Possession.” Police Practice and Research 8, no. 3 (July 2007): 269–82.

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Wolak, Janis, David Finkelhor, and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Internet-Initiated Sex Crimes Against Minors: Implications for Prevention Based on Findings from a National Study.” Journal of Adolescent Health 35, no. 5 (2004): 11–20. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV71.pdf (accessed March 23, 2009). Wolak, Janis, Kimberly J. Mitchell, and David Finkelhor. “Unwanted and Wanted Exposure to Online Pornography in a National Sample of Youth Internet Users.” Pediatrics 119, no. 2 (2007): 247–57. Ybarra, Michele L., and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey.” CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, no. 5 (2005): 473–86. Ybarra, Michele L., and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Prevalence and Frequency of Internet Harassment Instigation: Implications for Adolescent Health.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41, no. 2 (2007): 189–95. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV157.pdf (accessed March 20, 2009).

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Child Pornography/Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material Bourke, Michael L., and Andres E. Hernandez. “The ‘Butner Study’ Redux: A Report of the Incidence of Hands-on Child Victimization by Child Pornography Offenders.” Journal of Family Violence 24, no. 3 (April 2009): 183–93. The study sought to determine whether a person who viewed and/or collected child pornography was at low risk of committing a sexual contact crime against a child, or if such a person is a contact sex offender whose crimes have gone undetected. The study consisted of two analyses. In the first analysis, the authors examined information about offenders’ criminal sexual histories collected prior to and following participation in a treatment program. Following treatment, offenders admitting to contact crimes increased from 26 percent to 85 percent, and the average number of victims per offender increased from 1.88 to 13.56. The second analysis examined only the subset of offenders acknowledging at the end of treatment that they had committed at least one contact crime against a child. The results showed an increase across all categories compared to what was known at the time of sentencing: the number of offenders acknowledging abuse of both pre- and post-pubescent victims increased 47 percent; those admitting to have victimized both males and females increased from 15 to 40 percent; and among offenders without any known victims at the time of sentencing, 24 percent acknowledged victims of both genders, and 48 percent admitted to contact crimes against pre- and post-pubescent victims. The authors also found that persons in this sample group who had used the Internet to access child pornography were significantly more likely to have committed a contact crime. From this result, they concluded that this population of offenders may also be undetected child molesters. Huang, Wilson, Mathew Earl Leopard, and Andrea Brockman. “Internet Child Sexual Exploitation: Offenses, Offenders, and Victims.” In Crimes of the Internet, edited by Frank Schmalleger and Michael Pittaro, 43–65. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. F-10

The authors of this chapter in a book about various Internet crimes discuss factors contributing to the rapid growth of online sexual exploitation of children, linking it to increased Internet accessibility and anonymity, commercialization of exploitative media, and digitization in the production and dissemination of images. The authors found that, despite legislative initiatives intended to keep pace with the incidence of this type of crime against children, the nature and distribution of child pornography, as well as the characteristics of offenders and victims alike, have remained similar over time and across a wide sample of studies. The chapter includes an overview of legislative developments and case law in this area, including the various legal definitions of what constitutes child pornography. The authors discuss types of images of child abuse, distinguishing between images, pornography, and erotica produced commercially and those that are homemade. Homemade images, although never produced for commercial profit, circulate repeatedly in the pedophile community, forming a substantial portion of currently circulating images. The authors compare the findings of numerous recent studies, discussing the behavior of perpetrators, the reasons they collect images of child abuse, the personal characteristics of individuals who produce and collect child pornography, and the personal characteristics of their victims. Finally, the authors highlight new federal legislation, as well as new Internet developments, noting problems that have arisen with the use of social-networking sites like My Space and the use of webcams and similar technologies that blend the roles of the producer and the victim of child pornography. Internet Safety Technical Task Force. “Enhancing Child Safety and Online Technologies: Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States.” Report, Internet Safety Technical Task Force, Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, December 31, 2008. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/ pubrelease/isttf/ (accessed January 5, 2009). In this final report, the Internet Safety Technical Task Force summarizes and analyzes two previous documents produced by the Task Force—a literature review of relevant research about the online safety of youth in the United States and a review of 40 technologies intended to increase online safety. The Task Force also analyzes the efforts of eight leading socialnetworking sites to enhance the online safety of minors and makes recommendations concerning the best methods of ensuring the online safety of youth. The Task Force’s literature review revealed that, although the risks facing youth online are complex, they are not significantly different from the risks facing youth offline. Moreover, the Task Force found that, as minors get older, they themselves contribute to the problem of online safety. Regarding the 40 technologies intended to enhance Internet safety, the Task Force recommends that caregivers and law enforcement agencies should carefully weigh the privacy and security issues associated with these technologies against their potential benefits. Overall, the Task Force concludes that no single technological solution or specific combination of technological solutions can solve the problem of online safety for minors; rather, adults must employ these technologies in concert with other methods, including parental oversight, education, social services, and law enforcement. In addition, the Task Force recommends that social-networking sites and service providers should enact sound policies to protect minors from online predators. F-11

McQuade, Samuel C., III, and Neel Sampat. “Survey of Internet and At-Risk Behaviors: Undertaken by School Districts of Monroe County, New York, May 2007 to June 2008 and October 2007 to January 2008.” Report, Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, June 18, 2008. In partnership with 14 school districts, the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) carried out a major study in 2007, which included an online survey of more than 40,000 students. The study measured the nature and extent of online experiences, as offender or as victim, of students in kindergarten through twelfth grade; determined levels and types of parental supervision over children’s use of computers and portable electronic devices; and obtained information from teachers regarding their perceptions of school-related cyber abuse and crime. The surveys targeted students in developmentally distinct age and grade levels, as well as the parents of the students and the teachers and staff of their schools. The results of the study indicate that children begin using the Internet at kindergarten age or younger and that online activities of children in grades K–12 include inappropriate behavior and exposure to inappropriate content. Cyberbullying and victimization begins as early as second grade for some children, and by middle school, students as a group experience or engage in all known forms of cyber abuse and online aggression. Online exchange of sexually explicit content typically begins in middle school. The study results also report that students consistently say that they are less supervised than their parents say that they are: 66 percent of high school students reported that their parents provide no supervision of Internet activities, but only 7 percent of parents reported that they do not provide any supervision. Sabina, Chiara, Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor. “Rapid Communication: The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth.” CyberPsychology and Behavior 11, no. 6 (2008): 691–93. The article reports the results of a 2006 online survey in which researchers questioned a sample of college students about their exposure to online pornography before the age of 18, comparing the responses of male and female students. In the final sample of 563 students, 72.8 percent (93.2 percent of the male students and 62.1 percent of the female students) reported that they had viewed online pornography before the age of 18. Most initial exposure had occurred between the ages of 14 and 17, with boys significantly more likely to view pornography frequently and to view a variety of images and girls significantly more likely to expose themselves to pornography involuntarily. Specifically, 6.8 percent of males reported that they had never purposely sought exposure to pornography, whereas 42.3 percent of females reported that they had never looked for pornography on purpose. A small minority of the students reported that viewing online pornography before the age of 18 had strongly affected their attitudes or emotions about sexuality. Of this group, boys were more likely to report feeling excitement, whereas girls were more likely to experience embarrassment and disgust. However, the researchers found considerable diversity in the extent of and reactions to online pornography, and, therefore, suggested that relying on gender stereotypes might obscure the full picture of how youth respond to exposure.

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Wells, Melissa, David Finkelhor, Janis Wolak, and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Defining Child Pornography: Law Enforcement Dilemmas in Investigations of Internet Child Pornography Possession.” Police Practice and Research 8, no. 3 (July 2007): 269–82. The authors examine law enforcement agencies’ difficulty defining child pornography, using a sample of 34 cases of reported possession of Internet child pornography in which law enforcement officers had made no arrest. Researchers analyzed data collected as part of the National Juvenile Online Victimization (NJOV) Study. NJOV sought to capture estimates of the incidence of Internet sex crimes against minors occurring during the course of one year (2000– 2001), which had come to the attention of law enforcement officials. In addition, NJOV attempted to identify problems in the investigations of those crimes. Analysts’ findings reflected two dilemmas facing law enforcement agencies that can prevent their making an arrest in a child pornography case: 1) the nature of the child pornography portrayed in the confiscated images may not fit the definitions of existing statutes and 2) investigators may not be able to determine the age of the children in the images with certainty. Wolak, Janis, Kimberly J. Mitchell, and David Finkelhor. “Unwanted and Wanted Exposure to Online Pornography in a National Sample of Youth Internet Users.” Pediatrics 119, no. 2 (2007): 247–57. The Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire designed the Youth Internet Safety Survey to determine the incidence of and risk factors for youth exposure to sexual content on the Internet. In the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey, the researchers conducted a telephone survey between March and June 2005, interviewing a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth Internet users ages 10 to 17. In this article, based on the analysis of the data from that survey, the researchers report the extent of both wanted and unwanted exposure to online pornography among regular Internet users in that age-group and assess associated risk factors. The researchers found that 42 percent of youth Internet users (approximately 600) had viewed online pornography during the previous year. Of that 42 percent, 66 percent of the youth (approximately 400) reported that they had not sought or desired the exposure to pornography. Thirty-four percent of youth Internet users viewing pornography online reported a mixture of intentional exposure only or both wanted and unwanted exposure during 2005, up from 25 percent during 1999 and 2000. The youth reported that unwanted exposure had occurred only during a single Internet activity—when they were using file-sharing programs to download images. U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations. “Sexual Exploitation of Children over the Internet.” 109th Cong., 2d sess., January 2007. Staff Report. http://republicans.energycommerce. house.gove/108/News/01032007_Report.pdf (accessed May 2009). Prompted by Kurt Eichenwald’s article, “Through His Webcam, a Boy Joins a Sordid Online World,” which appeared in the New York Times at the end of 2005, the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations studied the United States’ efforts to curb the sexual exploitation of children over the Internet. Committee staff investigated the information Eichenwald had reported; visited federal law enforcement agency offices and F-13

conducted interviews; reviewed and analyzed existing federal law with regard to criminal penalties for possession, creation, and distribution of child pornography; and held hearings from April through September 2006. The subcommittee reports that the ease of trading, selling, and downloading pornographic images of children from the Internet contributes to the increased incidence of sexual exploitation of children in the United States and the world. The number of sexually exploitative images of children on the Internet is increasing, and victims are typically younger and the images more violent than in the past. Commercially available child pornography on the Internet may comprise a multibillion-dollar-per-year industry. Although law enforcement agencies at the state level prosecute 70 percent of all cases involving sexual exploitation of children over the Internet, the subcommittee found a wide discrepancy among state criminal codes in their treatment of these offenses and in their sentencing practices. Investigators also reported that encryption methods, such as anonymizers, significantly interfere with law enforcement’s ability to investigate and bring charges against offenders. The subcommittee also found that Web sites hosted in the United States appear to account for more than half of the child pornography on the Internet. Malamuth, Neil, and Mark Huppin. “Drawing the Line on Virtual Child Pornography: Bringing the Law in Line with the Research Evidence.” New York University Review of Law and Social Change 31 (2006–2007): 773–827. This New York University law review article seeks to determine whether documented incidences of the use of various kinds of child pornography may be used as evidentiary material in child molestation cases. The authors used scientific literature to identify those individuals who might have a risk factor for perpetrating sexually abusive acts after exposure to virtual child pornography and attempted to assess the degree of risk such exposure might create for persons with this predisposition. Drawing a clear distinction between pedophiles (individuals who are sexually aroused by children) and child molesters (individuals who commit sexual acts against children), the authors reviewed various case studies and found that, whereas child molesters use pornography to groom potential victims, as well as to self-stimulate before committing a sex crime against a child, pedophiles are less likely to molest a child after viewing pornography. A minority reported that pedophiles are more likely to molest a child after viewing pornography. The authors also analyzed scientific literature on aggression and on pornography that portrays nonconsenting adults, attempting to draw links among risk factors, exposure to child pornography, and the likelihood of a person committing a contact crime against a child. The authors conclude that whether exposure to real or virtual child pornography affects a person’s behavior depends on a number of risk factors, and that, therefore, no strong causal relationship exists between viewing child pornography and committing sexual molestation of a child. Cho, Chang-Hoan, and Hongsik John Cheon. “Children’s Exposure to Negative Internet Content: Effects of Family Context.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 49, no. 4 (December 2005). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6836/is_4_49/ai_n25120984/ (accessed May 2009).

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The article reports the results of an extensive review of the literature and a survey of 190 families, which the researchers conducted to study the extent of children’s exposure to negative Internet content including pornography, violence, and sexual solicitation. The researchers simultaneously examined the discrepancy between parents’ perception of their children’s Internet use and their children’s actual activities. The primary focus of this study was the social context of children’s Internet use, particularly the relationship of their Internet use to family dynamics. The researchers believe that, rather than merely reporting the children’s visits to Web sites or their general online activities, this study contributes new data concerning the content that children actually encounter on the Internet. In addition, the study provides new information regarding the role that the family environment and parent–child relationship play in a child’s exposure to negative Internet content. Moreover, the authors believe that their research contributes a theoretical framework that encompasses both the incidence of children’s negative exposure online and parents’ perceived control over their children’s Internet activities. The researchers found that parents generally underestimate their children’s exposure to negative material on the Internet. They suggest that, in fact, children encounter negative content more frequently than their parents believe. The study agrees with research conducted prior to 1995 that examined the effects of family communication patterns on children’s use of mass media— finding that as with earlier studies, parents of families exhibiting high levels of cohesion perceive greater control over and understanding of their children’s Internet use. Ybarra, Michele L., and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey.” CyberPsychology and Behavior 8, no. 5 (2005): 473–86. Analyzing data from the First Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000), which the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire designed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for youth exposure to sexual content on the Internet, this study focuses on youth who intentionally seek pornography. The authors found that the majority of youth who reported seeking pornography online and offline were male; only 5 percent of females reported having looked for pornography. The majority (87 percent) of those who reported having sought sexual images online were older than 14. The authors of the study noted the developmental appropriateness of this curiosity about sexuality in youth over the age of 14. The survey measured the following: pornography seeking, demographic characteristics, Internetusage characteristics, unwanted exposure to sexual material, parental Internet controls, caregiver–child relationships, and psychosocial characteristics. The authors found that, although the majority of youth intentionally seeking pornography online are older than 14, younger children reported exposure to sexual images in magazines or on television. The younger children who were regular Internet users and who reported that they had intentionally sought pornography also reported a significantly higher incidence of delinquent behavior, substance use, or clinical depression, or a combination of these. Analysis of the data identified several areas warranting further research: the small group of females intentionally seeking pornography; the link between purposeful exposure to pornography and emotional challenges, such as major depression or a poor emotional bond with a caregiver; the role of alcohol in delinquent behavior involving intentional seeking of pornography; and F-15

whether or not the Internet has become a more common mode of intentional exposure to pornography among adolescents than the viewing of sexually explicit material offline. Cameron, Kenzie A., and Laura F. Salazar. “Adolescents’ Experience with Sex on the Web: Results from Online Focus Groups.” Journal of Adolescence 28, no. 4 (2005): 535–40. This study fills a gap in the data on the effects of online sexualized material on children and adolescents. The researchers recruited 40 adolescents 18 male and 22 female ages 14 to 17 (in grades 9–11), who regularly used the Internet. The researchers divided the participants according to their age and gender into one of four Web-based focus groups. The focus-group interface among the participants in each group was similar to that in an online chat room, in which the participants are typically anonymous.

Focus-group participants reported having intentionally sought exposure to sexually oriented Web sites while searching for information related to sexual health or relationships. They reported having experienced unintentional exposure through personal e-mail with benign subject lines or when following misleading URLs. The participants reported an incidence of exposure to sexually explicit Web sites ranging from “never” to “daily,” with most exposures occurring accidentally or unintentionally, via unsolicited e-mails containing explicit content or links to explicit material. Some participants reported having received 10 to 20 such e-mails per day. Most girls responded negatively to their exposure to sexually explicit material, and no girls reported intentional exposure. A subgroup of boys reported intentional exposure, whereas some reported that they had not sought to view the sexual content, stating that they considered explicit material “sick.” Both boys and girls reported their perception that exposure to sexually explicit material had no effect on their personal views of either gender or of relationships. The authors of the study suggested further research in this area, noting that this perception contradicts previous research documenting the negative effects of adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit content. Cooper, Sharon, Richard J. Estes, Angelo P. Giardino, Nancy D. Kellog, and Victor I. Vieth, eds. Medical, Legal, and Social Science Aspects of Child Sexual Exploitation: A Comprehensive Review of Pornography, Prostitution, and Internet Crimes. 2 vols. St. Louis, MO: G.W. Medical Publishing, 2005. This two-volume set provides a repository of information for multidisciplinary teams studying Internet crimes against children. Volume 1 offers an overview of the scope of the problem of sexual exploitation of children, covering the subjects of pornography and online solicitation. Survivors, including prostituted children and youth, report their experiences. Chapters in volume 1 discuss abusive images of children on the Internet, the commercial sexual exploitation of children in North America, methods Internet predators use to exploit children sexually, and young people’s remarks about online victimization. Volume 2 addresses the investigation and prosecution of Internet crimes against children and makes recommendations on how to prevent the exploitation of children. Topics in volume 2 include important actors in the investigation process, such as the U.S. Postal Inspection Service and first responders; the investigation process itself; issues concerning prosecution of purveyors of child pornography; the criminal justice

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system including perspectives of victims, juvenile courts, and judges; pedophiles’ activities on the Internet; and computer forensic software. Greenfield, Patricia M. “Inadvertent Exposure to Pornography on the Internet: Implications of Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Networks for Child Development and Families.” Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2004): 741–50. In this article, Patricia M. Greenfield of the Children’s Medical Center and the Department of Psychology of the University of California at Los Angeles reports her March 13, 2003, testimony before the House Committee on Government Reform regarding the risk of children’s and adolescents’ unintended exposure to pornography through peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. In her testimony, Greenfield responded to the committee’s questions concerning the developmental effects on children of exposure to pornography through file-sharing networks; the challenges parents face in limiting children’s access to pornography online; and nontechnical tools available to parents that can help them address these challenges. Greenfield provided overviews of various research studies and their findings. She concluded that evidence supports the thesis that pornography and sexualized material can influence the moral values, sexual activity, and sexual attitudes of children and youth, including their attitudes toward sexual violence; that peer-to-peer file-sharing networks are part of a pervasive, sexualized media environment that leads to inadvertent exposure of children and youth to pornography and other adult sexual content; and that a warm, communicative parent–child relationship, appropriate sex education, and parental participation in children’s Internet activities are critical factors in protecting children from adverse effects of exposure to explicit sexual material. Greenfield also stated that parents of boys at risk for antisocial behavior should monitor their sons’ Internet use carefully and limit their access to online pornography. Mitchell, Kimberly J., David Finkelhor, and Janis Wolak. “Victimization of Youths on the Internet.” Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma 8, nos. 1–2 (May 2003): 1–39. The Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire designed the Youth Internet Safety Survey to determine the incidence of and risk factors for youth exposure to sexual content on the Internet. The First Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000) surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth, examining the dangers that children and adolescents face when communicating, gathering information, or seeking entertainment on the Internet. The survey asked participants about unwanted sexual solicitations, unwanted exposure to sexual material, and online harassment during the previous year. In this article, researchers report their analysis of data from the survey. The authors found that predators had targeted girls for sexual solicitation at almost twice the rate of boys, and youth who were at least 15 years old accounted for nearly two-thirds of incidents of unwanted exposure. In instances of harassment, predators had targeted boys and girls equally. The survey revealed that adults were responsible for 24 percent of solicitations—most of those adults were ages 18 to 25; only 4 percent of those soliciting were older than 25. Juveniles accounted for nearly half of all those targeted and for half of all aggressive solicitations. Harassment caused the young people the most distress—they described 31 percent of the F-17

instances of harassment as extremely upsetting, while 20 percent reported extremely upsetting solicitations, and 23 percent of youth felt extremely upset when exposed to sexual material. The authors found that young people at risk for unwanted solicitation, harassment, and exposure to sexual content on the Internet tend to be troubled, older adolescents who use the Internet frequently and engage in high-risk online behavior. However, they also found that half of the youth reporting unwanted solicitation, harassment, or exposure to sexual materials were not troubled, high-rate Internet users or frequent online risk takers. Mitchell, Kimberly J., David Finkelhor, and Janis Wolak. “The Exposure of Youth to Unwanted Sexual Material on the Internet: A National Survey of Risk, Impact, and Prevention.” Youth and Society 34, no. 3 (March 2003): 330–58. Analyzing data from the First Youth Internet Safety Survey (2000), which the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire designed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for youth exposure to sexual material on the Internet, the researchers sought to identify a subset of unwanted exposure described as very or extremely distressing. Twenty-four percent of the 1,500 youth surveyed in this nationally representative sample reported feeling very or extremely upset about exposure to sexually explicit material, 21 percent reported feeling very or extremely embarrassed, and 19 percent reported experiencing at least one stress symptom related to the episode. Youth reporting symptoms of stress said that they had stayed away from the Internet after the incident, could not stop thinking about the episode, felt jumpy or irritable, or had lost interest in their usual pursuits. In 43 percent of the episodes, the youth had not disclosed their exposure to anybody. Those that did report it usually told a parent, friend, or sibling. When the youth or their family reported the incident to an authority, they most frequently told a teacher or school official or the Internet service provider, but they had never reported the incident to police. The authors of the study discussed the survey’s flaws, such as the lack of standardized, validated procedures for collecting data on children exposed to sexual material on the Internet. They conclude that the study indicates the urgent need to collect further evidence to inform public policy aimed at protecting youth from unsought exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet. U. S. General Accounting Office. “File-Sharing Programs: Peer-to-Peer Networks Provide Ready Access to Child Pornography.” Report to the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, no. GAO–03–351, Washington, DC, 2003. The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) produced this report in response to a request from the House Committee on Government Reform that GAO investigate the ease of access to child pornography on peer-to-peer networks; the risk of inadvertent exposure of juvenile users of peerto-peer networks to pornography (including child pornography); and the extent of federal law enforcement resources for combating child pornography on peer-to-peer networks. Agents at the Customs Cyber-Smuggling Center performed searches, and GAO performed analyses based on keywords and file names only, finding that child pornography is easily found and downloaded from peer-to-peer networks. Depending on the keywords used, child pornography comprised F-18

between 42 and 44 percent of pornographic images found in a search of KaZaA (a popular peerto-peer, file-sharing program). The results were consistent with the observations of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Agents classified nearly half of the images downloaded from keyword searches using celebrity names and cartoon characters as pornography, indicating that youth face a significant risk of inadvertent exposure to pornography while using networks like KaZaA. GAO also analyzed data on the allocation of resources at four agencies, as well as resources that the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children had allocated to combat child pornography. GAO found that these agencies had not devoted significant resources to combating child exploitation and child pornography in 2003. GAO was unable to quantify the resources dedicated to child pornography investigations involving peer-topeer networks. Thornburgh, Dick, and Herbert S. Lin, eds. Youth, Pornography and the Internet. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. This 450-page volume (including a bibliography and an index) is the product of a 1998 mandate of the U.S. Congress charging the National Research Council (NRC) to carry out a study of pornography on the Internet. In response, the NRC Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and the NRC Board on Children, Youth, and Families formed a committee to conduct the study. The committee members comprised a diverse group of people with expertise in constitutional law, law enforcement, libraries and library science, developmental and social psychology, information technologies, ethics, and education. Chapters in this volume cover relevant technologies, such as filtering, age verification software, and anonymizers; the adult online entertainment industry and its practices related to minors; legal and regulatory issues, particularly issues related to the First Amendment, to federal and state laws and regulatory efforts, and to law enforcement; children’s exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet; research concerning the effects on individuals of exposure to sexually explicit material; public debate concerning the effects of such exposure; and legal and regulatory tools for protecting children from obscene material on the Internet. Jenkins, Philip. Beyond Tolerance: Child Pornography on the Internet. New York: New York University Press, 2001. Over the course of nine chapters, Jenkins, a professor of history and religion who has written extensively about public perceptions of social problems, examines the issue of Internet regulation through the lens of child pornography. In the unique case of child pornography, Jenkins concludes that the government should impose some form of regulation aimed at drastically reducing the presence of child pornography on the Internet. However, he acknowledges the persistent difficulty of determining what law or laws might successfully achieve this end. Jenkins advocates the transformation of present law enforcement tactics and priorities to meet the goal of controlling child pornography. He explores society’s views of child pornography and examines the new form of technology-driven social organization, which he considers responsible for perpetuating the problem of online child pornography. In his discussion of the social context of online pornography, Jenkins provides an overview of the history of child pornography on the Internet and explains how the business of online child F-19

pornography developed, how it became highly organized and globalized, and why law enforcement officers have such difficulty identifying the participants. He examines the myths and realities of child pornography and discusses efforts to eradicate it, including debates about trade regulations, users’ privacy, and individual rights; the official endeavors of law enforcement agencies; and the work of private activist groups. Unwanted Sexual Solicitation Dombrowski, Stefan C., Karen L. Gischlar, and Theo Durst. “Safeguarding Young People from Cyber Pornography and Cyber Sexual Predation: A Major Dilemma of the Internet.” Child Abuse Review 16, no. 3 (2007): 153–70. This article outlines technological and psychoeducational mechanisms to help caregivers parents or guardians protect children from online pornography and sexual solicitation. With the increased use of Internet technologies, such as e-mail, chat rooms, and peer-to-peer networks, children can easily connect with other people online at all times. Without caregiver supervision and interdiction of online communication, youth are vulnerable to exposure to pornography or to the solicitations of predators. However, the combination of technological methods and the vigilance of caregivers can deter solicitation and protect children from exposure to online pornography, safeguarding their emotional health. Software tools such as firewall security barriers, wireless encryption, antivirus protection, spyware detection and removal, and usage tracking help protect youth from accessing unsafe Web sites and allow the caregiver to review the child’s online activity. However, although technological protections may stop some, determined predators can circumvent most of these methods. Therefore, caregivers also need to use psychoeducational measures, tailored to the child’s developmental level, setting appropriate boundaries for online behavior. Caregivers should discuss Internet dangers, supervise Internet friendships, monitor children’s Internet use, and establish an Internet-use safety contract with the child. The article includes a sample Internet-use contract for the use of caregivers and their children. The authors prescribe a combination of technology-based tools and caregiver vigilance as the best way to defend children from solicitation and pornography. Mitchell, Kimberly J., David Finkelhor, and Janis Wolak. “Online Requests for Sexual Pictures from Youth: Risk Factors and Incident Characteristics.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41, no. 2 (2007): 196–203. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV155.pdf (accessed March 27, 2009). This study is based on data from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey conducted between March and June 2005, in which researchers conducted telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth Internet users ages 10 to 17. The Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire created the survey to examine youth exposure to sexual content on the Internet. The authors focus on one way that the Internet facilitates the production of child pornography: the solicitation of youth to produce sexually explicit images and to post or to transmit them online.

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Reporting the demographic, psychological, and Internet-use characteristics of youth who received online solicitations for sexual pictures within the previous year, the authors found that 13 percent of youth in the study population had received unwanted sexual solicitations over the Internet, and 4 percent of the youth had received an online request to send a sexual picture of themselves. Only one youth out of the 65 who received such a request complied. Of the 1,500 survey respondents, 20 percent (300 youth) reported that they had received unwanted sexual solicitations or harassment, and 45 percent of those solicitations (136 youth 13 percent of the overall survey group) included requests for pictures. Forty-eight percent (65 youth) had received requests for sexual images. The survey found that youth who are female, black, in the presence of friends, have close online relationships, or engage in online sexual behavior are more likely than others to receive solicitations for sexual pictures. The study defined online relationships as relationships with peers and nonsexual relationships with adults, defining online sexual behavior as talking about sex online with someone the youth does not know personally. The authors call for pediatric and adolescent health professionals to be aware of the incidence of online requests for sexual pictures of youth and of the Internet’s role in expanding the production of child pornography. Mitchell, Kimberly J., Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor. “Trends in Youth Reports of Sexual Solicitations, Harassment and Unwanted Exposure to Pornography on the Internet.” Journal of Adolescent Health 40, no. 2 (2007): 116–26. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/ CV135.pdf (accessed March 24, 2009). This 2007 report compares the results of two surveys, designed by the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire and conducted in 2000 and 2005, regarding unwanted sexual solicitation, harassment, and exposure to pornography on the Internet. In the First and Second Youth Internet Safety Surveys, researchers conducted telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of youth Internet users ages 10 to 17. This article differentiates the results of the two surveys according to demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race, and household income, revealing changes that occurred between 2000 and 2005. The surveys defined unwanted sexual solicitations as requests to engage in sexual activities or sexual talk, or as adults’ requests for sexual information from a juvenile; they defined online harassment as threats or other aggressive behavior toward a youth, sent or posted online; and they defined unwanted exposure to pornography as unsought and unexpected exposure to pictures of naked people or of people having sex. In general, the results of the two surveys indicated that, although unwanted sexual solicitations had declined, online harassment and unwanted exposure to pornography had increased between 2000 and 2005. Unwanted sexual solicitations had decreased, overall, from 19 percent to 13 percent. The decline in such activity was most apparent among white youth living in affluent areas. However, the incidence of online harassment had risen from 6 percent to 9 percent overall, and the incidence of unwanted exposure to pornography had risen from 25 percent to 34 percent. Demographic subgroups showed different results for the incidence of sexual solicitation and unwanted exposure to pornography. For example, the 2005 survey showed that black youth and low-income families had experienced an increased incidence of sexual solicitation. Unwanted exposure to pornography had increased among youth 10 to 12 years old, 16- to 17-year olds, F-21

boys, and white, non-Hispanic youth. The authors observe that, despite the decline in certain types of Internet crimes against children, young people continue to experience offensive episodes online. Caregivers, social service providers, and law enforcement agents need to target minority and less affluent populations for prevention programs, to protect them from online harassment and from predators. Mitchell, Kimberly J., Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor. “Police Posing as Juveniles Online to Catch Sex Offenders: Is It Working?” Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 17, no. 3 (July 2005): 241–67. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV82.pdf (accessed March 28, 2009). The article explores the extent and effectiveness of proactive online investigations, in which police investigators use the Internet posing as minors and often assuming a different gender to communicate via chat rooms, e-mail, and instant messaging, to interdict youth enticement and child pornography. The authors used data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV), which reported characteristics of Internet sex crimes against minors, to create a survey for law enforcement agencies. The survey of 2,574 state, county, and local law enforcement agencies found that, through proactive investigations, the agencies had made 124 arrests for Internet sex crimes against children during the year beginning July 1, 2000, and ending June 30, 2001. The authors found that a significant proportion 25 percent of all arrests for Internet crimes against children were the outcome of proactive investigations. Proactive investigations resulted in offenders entering pleas 91 percent of the time and going to trial 15 percent of the time (some offenders had multiple charges, accounting for the discrepancy in the percentages). Investigators most frequently posed as girls of 12 years old or older, meeting targeted predators in chat rooms or through instant messaging. In 87 percent of the cases, investigators conducted their investigations using multiple forms of online communication. The authors point out that, in 63 percent of the cases reviewed, the law enforcement agency had received no federal funding for this kind of investigative work. They conclude that, because of the high rate of arrest and the potential to stop a perpetrator before a child is molested, law enforcement agencies should continue to conduct proactive investigations. Wolak, Janis, David Finkelhor, and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Internet-Initiated Sex Crimes Against Minors: Implications for Prevention Based on Findings from a National Study.” Journal of Adolescent Health 35, no. 5 (2004): 11–20. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV71.pdf (accessed March 23, 2009). This article describes characteristics of interactions between Internet predators and their juvenile victims. Survey results revealed that the majority of victims had met the predator willingly. In a mailed survey and follow-up telephone interview with law enforcement investigators, conducted between October 2001 and July 2002, researchers identified 129 Internet-initiated sex crimes. The cases involved sex-crime victims, ages 17 and younger, who had first met the predator on the Internet. Face-to-face meetings had occurred in 74 percent of the cases, and 93 percent of those encounters had included sexual contact. Most of the victims (73 percent) met with the predators more than once. The majority of victims (67 percent) were children between the ages of 12 and 15, and 75 percent of the victims were girls. The most common first encounter of a F-22

predator with a victim took place in an online chat room (76 percent). In 47 percent of the cases, the predator offered gifts or money during the relationship-building phase. This study found that two widely held beliefs regarding online predation were incorrect. First, the researchers found that predators use less deception to befriend their online victims than experts had thought. Only 5 percent of the predators told their victims that they were in the same age-group as the victim. Most offenders told the victim that they were older males seeking sexual relations. Second, a large majority of the victims who responded to this survey had willingly met and had sexual encounters with the predators. Internet victim-prevention programs have emphasized the dangers of predator deception, but, thus far, educators have not addressed the problems of youth who are willing to meet with adults to have voluntary sexual relationships. The authors conclude that vulnerable youth need further education regarding the negative effects of such relationships. Berson, Ilene R. “Grooming Cybervictims: The Psychological Effects of Online Exploitation for Youth.” Journal of School Violence 2, no. 1 (2003): 9–18. http://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/ ~john/NetSafe/I.Berson.pdf (accessed March 20, 2009). This article describes how online predators prepare potential child victims for abuse. The Internet poses a challenge for young users, because children’s naïveté and trust make them vulnerable targets for predators seeking to groom them for illicit activities. In addition, the Internet permits anonymity, enabling the predator to hide his or her age and gender from the victim. Victims are often too young to interpret cues that would make an older person cautious. Predators manipulate their victims through a process known as grooming, using techniques to lower the child’s inhibitions and build his or her trust in the predator. Young people share personal information in chat rooms or in e-mail, not realizing that predators use such information to develop victim profiles, build an online friendship, and gain trust. The predator preys upon a child’s loneliness and emotional neediness, gradually increasing the intensity of the interaction with the child by offering attention, friendship, and gifts. After building the child’s trust, the perpetrator may gradually expose the child to pornography to lower the child’s inhibitions, desensitize the child to nudity, and validate adult–child sexual relations. Finally, the perpetrator requests a personal meeting with the victim. Parents, schools, and government agencies need to foster awareness of online exploitation, explain to children the lures that predators offer them, and teach them to discriminate among types of online interactions, including ambiguous chat or e-mail content and potentially threatening exchanges. Brown, Duncan. “Developing Strategies for Collecting and Presenting Grooming Evidence in a High Tech World.” Update (National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse), 2001, 1. http:www.ndaa.org/publications/newsletters/update_volume_14_number_11_2001.html (accessed March 24, 2009). In this unique article, a guide for prosecutors seeking to prosecute online predators, the author describes the process that online predators use to prepare children for sexual exploitation, a process known as grooming, explaining the type of evidence against predators that law enforcement officers need to acquire and how to present the evidence at trial. The online predator F-23

follows the same grooming process as predators who do not use the Internet. First, the predator meets the child and builds trust through deception. Once the child develops trust in the perpetrator, the perpetrator often exposes the child to pornography to lower the child’s inhibitions about sex. The Internet offers perpetrators the opportunity to groom multiple victims at the same time, because the technology allows perpetrators to communicate with potential victims without drawing public attention to themselves. The perpetrator may use photographic or other electronic equipment to capture and transmit images of the victim. Law enforcement officers must acquire probative evidence against the perpetrator, collecting and preserving all evidence of grooming, such as pornography, Web cameras, and other electronic equipment, so that prosecutors can present the evidence at trial to show the perpetrator’s motivation. The author describes the online grooming process, details evidence, and shows how to use the evidence in trial. Understanding the typical procedure that online predators follow when committing an offense enables prosecutors to use evidence of the process to build a solid case against online predators. Harassment Chaffin, Stacy M. “The New Playground Bullies of Cyberspace: Online Peer Sexual Harassment.” Howard Law Journal 51, no. 3 (2008): 777–818. Focusing on online sexual harassment among adolescent peers, the author of this study reviews legal cases that limit students’ freedom of speech. Online peer sexual harassment occurs among teenagers when schoolmates, classmates, and friends use e-mail, cell phones, text messaging, instant messaging, personal Web sites, social-networking Web sites, and polling Web sites to make threats against and spread sexual rumors about their adolescent peers. The author argues that, although school administrators are already taking steps to prohibit offline sexual harassment, they also need to prevent online sexual harassment. In support of her call for action, Chaffin cites stories of children who have taken their own lives after experiencing online sexual harassment. Middle school and high school children form online groups, behaving in hurtful ways, such as dehumanizing a classmate, behavior that they are less likely to engage in outside of the group. Both groups and individuals often use social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, My Space, and YouTube, to harass their peers. Court decisions regarding students’ rights to free speech including Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, (1, below) which permits schools to discipline students for harmful speech; Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, (2, below) which finds that students’ expressive rights are not equal to those of adults; and Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, (3, below) which finds that schools need not tolerate students’ speech if it impedes the school’s basic educational mission support the argument that online sexual harassment does not deserve protection under the First Amendment and that schools should regulate such behavior. Nevertheless, even though online sexual harassment is harmful to young people, most schools do not discipline students for engaging in it. The author believes that school administrators should treat online sexual harassment as a threat to adolescent safety and act to protect students from harassment.

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1 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969). 2 Bethel School District V. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675, 678 (1986). 3 Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unwanted Pregnancy and CosmoGirl.com. “Sex and Tech: Results from a Survey of Teen and Young Adults.” Report, Washington, DC, 2008. http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/sextech/PDF/SexTech_Summary.pdf accessed March 26, 2009). This study presents the results, including the questionnaire and responses, of a unique survey on text messaging of sexual content among adolescents and young adults. Sexting is adolescent slang referring to the sending or receiving of sexually suggestive images and text messages, often by cell phone. Participants in the study 653 teenagers, ages 13 to 19, and 627 young adults, ages 20 to 26 completed the online survey between September 25, 2008, and October 3, 2008. The researchers further analyzed some of the survey responses according to gender or age for example, they segregated the responses of young adolescents ages 13 to 16. A considerable number of those 13 to 19 years old in this survey had sent, by electronic means, nude or seminude pictures or sexually suggestive text. Twenty percent of teenagers had sent nude or seminude pictures or videos of themselves, and 11 percent of girls ages 13 to 16 had sent such images. Thirty-nine percent of teenagers reported having sent sexually suggestive text messages, and 48 percent of teenagers reported having received such messages. Of those teenagers who had sent sexually suggestive content, 71 percent of the girls and 67 percent of the boys reported that they had sent the content to their boyfriends or girlfriends. However, 15 percent of those teenagers said that they had sent or posted nude or seminude pictures to people known to them only through online contact. Of those teenagers who had sent sexually suggestive content, 66 percent of the girls and 60 percent of the boys said that they had sent the material for fun or to flirt, and 12 percent of said that they had sent it because they felt pressured to send sexually suggestive messages or images. The study offers points for adolescents to consider before they send sexually suggestive content and suggestions to help parents speak with their children about sex and technology. Lenhart, Amanda. “Cyberbullying and Online Teens.” Research Memo, Pew/Internet and American Life Project, Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, June 27, 2007. http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2007/PIP%20Cyberbullying% 20Memo.pdf.pdf (accessed March 23, 2009). In the national Parents and Teens 2006 Survey, researchers conducted telephone interviews, from October 23, 2006, to November 19, 2006, of 935 youth Internet users ages 12 to 17. Based on the reports of youth identified as victims of cyberbullying in that survey, the author reports the prevalence and pattern of online harassment and bullying among adolescents. The study found that 32 percent of the teenagers interviewed had been harassed online. Girls especially older girls, ages 15 to 17 were more likely to have experienced online harassment than boys: 38 percent of the girls and 41 percent of the older girls had experienced online harassment, as compared to 26 percent of the boys. Sending or forwarding a private e-mail was the most common method of cyberbullying (comprising 15 percent of all cyberbullying incidents), followed by spreading rumors online (13 percent), sending threatening or aggressive messages F-25

(13 percent), and posting an embarrassing picture (6 percent). Older teenage girls, ages 15 to 17, were most likely to receive online threats. Teenagers who provided personal information on a social-networking site were more likely to be the target of harassment (comprising 39 percent of social network users) than those who did not use a social-networking site (23 percent). Fewer than one in three teenagers (29 percent of those interviewed) said that online bullying is more common than offline bullying, but 33 percent of the girls interviewed reported that online bullying is more common. Ybarra, Michele L., and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Prevalence and Frequency of Internet Harassment Instigation: Implications for Adolescent Health.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41, no. 2 (2007): 189–95. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV157.pdf (accessed March 20, 2009). The authors describe the pervasiveness of mental health problems among youth who harass others on the Internet. The study is based on data from the Second Youth Safety Internet Survey, which the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire designed to study youth exposure to sexual content, solicitation, and harassment on the Internet. Between March 2005 and June 2005, researchers conducted telephone interviews of a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth ages 10 to 17 years old. The authors of this article analyzed the survey results to identify the frequency with which the youth engaged in harassment activity, categorizing the offenders as 1) limited harassers who had engaged in harassment one or two times in the past year, 2) occasional harassers who had engaged in harassment three to five times in the past year, and 3) frequent harassers who had engaged in harassment six or more times in the past year. The survey indicated that youth with behavioral and psychological problems were more likely than others to engage in online harassment. Frequent harassers were seven times more likely to have rule-breaking problems and nine times more likely to have aggression problems than those who did not harass others online. Boys were three times more likely to be frequent harassers than girls. Of those youth who harassed other youth online, 82 percent had been harassed online by someone else. Survey results also indicated that almost 30 percent of youth had harassed others online during the past year: 6 percent of youth had frequently harassed others via the Internet; 6 percent had occasionally harassed others online; and 17 percent had harassed others a limited number of times in the previous year. Because harassment events increase as psychological or behavioral problems increase, the frequency with which a youth engages in online harassment may be an indicator that mental health professionals can use to identify young people with psychological and behavioral problems. Ybarra, Michele L., and Kimberly J. Mitchell. “Youth Engaging in Online Harassment: Associations with Caregiver-Child Relationships, Internet Use, and Personal Characteristics.” Journal of Adolescence 27, no 3 (2004): 319–36. http://www.unh.edu/ ccrc/pdf/jvq/CV63.pdf (accessed March 16, 2009). This study examines psychosocial indicators present in preteen and teenage youth who use the Internet to harass their peers. The authors define Internet harassment as an intentional and overt act of aggression toward another person online, citing as examples, rude comments or intentional embarrassment. Researchers based this study on the First Youth Internet Safety Survey, F-26

conducted between September 1999 and February 2000. The Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire designed the survey to study youth exposure to sexual content, solicitation, and harassment on the Internet. Researchers conducted telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,500 youth Internet users between the ages of 10 and 17. Analyzing the results of the survey, the authors of this article attempted to determine whether online bullies differ from traditional, offline bullies. The study found differences and similarities between offline and online aggressors. Although boys commit most incidents of offline harassment, the number of boys and girls who use the Internet to harass their peers is almost equal. Both offline bullies and youth who harass others online often have multiple psychosocial issues: 51 percent of all bullies had been victims of traditional bullying, 44 percent had a poor relationship with their caregiver, 37 percent showed a pattern of delinquency, and 32 percent were frequent substance abusers. The authors suggest that mental-health practitioners, healthcare providers, and educators need to address the mental health issues of those who use the Internet to harass others, as well as the mental health issues of those who are victims of online harassment. Roban, Whitney. “The Net Effect: Girls and New Media.” Executive Summary, Girl Scout Research Institute, Girl Scouts of the United States of America, New York, 2002. http://www.girlscouts.org/research/pdf/net_effect.pdf (accessed March 20, 2009). This article, reporting a 2001 study of 1,246 girls, examines how parents can help their 13- to 18year-old daughters use the Internet safely. Unlike other studies on the topic of adolescent Internet use, this study focused on teenage girls only and used a variety of methodologies, including small-group interviews, journals, written surveys, and an online survey. The study revealed that, although girls in this age-group know a lot about computers and the Internet, they still need and desire adult guidance. Fifty-eight percent of the girls reported that they themselves were the most computer-savvy person in their households. This finding indicates that, more than likely, not all girls are receiving pertinent Internet-safety information from their parents. Most girls said that they use their common sense to behave safely on the Internet. A majority of the girls—75 percent—said that their parents had set Internet rules for them, but 57 percent reported that they had broken those rules. The girls reported that parental rules included time limits on Internet use and prohibitions against online chatting, online shopping, and online romances or face-to-face meetings. Girls had also received prohibitive directives from their parents, such as “Don’t give out personal information.” However, the study suggests that girls need proactive advice as well. The girls reported their perception that their parents are concerned about the wrong things, such as the type of information the girls can access online, the kind of people they might contact, and their online behavior. The girls expressed their desire for their parents to teach them responsibility, to educate them about possible dangers, and to trust them to use the Internet safely. The study concluded that parents should try to be more proactive in their relationship with their daughters. By attempting to understand their daughters’ online lives and by developing trusting relationships with them, parents can learn to communicate better with their daughters and help them navigate positive and negative Internet experiences. F-27

Cyberbullying Kowalski, Robin M. “Cyber Bullying: Recognizing and Treating Victim and Aggressor.” Psychiatric Times 25, no. 11 (October 1, 2008 ): 45–47. In this brief article, the author describes the course of treatment that mental-health professionals offer cyberbullies and their victims. The author defines cyberbullying as bullying by means of electronic communications, such as instant messaging, e-mail, chat rooms, and cell phones, and defines eight specific forms of cyberbullying, such as harassment and exclusion. Therapeutic treatment begins with the psychological assessment of both victim and bully. First, the psychotherapist addresses the victim’s immediate psychological needs, such as treatment for depression and anxiety. The psychotherapist reassures the victim that the bullying is not his or her fault. The psychotherapist follows up by teaching the victim strategies for protecting and asserting himself or herself in the future. However, the therapist provides a different therapeutic treatment to a cyberbully. Bullies need to accept responsibility for what they have done and understand the cost of their actions. Therapists work with cyberbullies to help them develop empathy for the pain they have inflicted, so that they understand the consequences of their behavior. The author reports common warning signs of cyberbullying, such as anxiety, depression, poor health, poor school performance, and social isolation. In addition, the author suggests the need for further research, including case studies of interventions with cyberbullies. Given the frequency of teenagers’ use of technologies to connect with one another, mental health professionals need to be aware of the dangers of cyberbullying. Kowalski, Robin M., and Susan P. Limber. “Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41, no. 6 (2007): S22–S30. http://www.wctlaw.com/CM/Custom/Electronic%20Bullying%20Among%20Middle%20School% 20Students.pdf (accessed March 24, 2009). For this study, which focuses on electronic bullying among middle school students, 1,852 boys and 1,915 girls in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade classes in the southeastern and northwestern United States completed 3,767 questionnaires. The authors chose these grades for the study because of the prevalence of traditional, offline bullying during these school years and the growing use of electronic media by middle school students. The study defined electronic bullying as bullying that takes place through Internet chat rooms, e-mail, instant messaging, text messaging, or Web sites. Eleven percent of the students reported being electronically bullied one or more times in the previous two months; 7 percent stated that they had bullied others electronically and had been the victims of electronic bullying; and 4 percent reported that they had bullied others electronically but had not been victims. Fifteen percent of the girls were the victims of electronic bullying, as compared with 7 percent of the boys, and sixth-grade girls were half as likely as seventh- and eighth-grade girls to be the victims of electronic bullying. The percentage of girl victims rose with each grade level, while the percentage of boy victims declined from seventh to eighth grade. The percentage of girl bullies who were also victims rose

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with each grade level, with the percentage of boy bullies who also were victims declining between seventh and eighth grade. Middle school youth most often experienced electronic bullying via instant messaging (66 percent), followed by chat rooms (25 percent), e-mail (24 percent), Web sites (23 percent), and text messaging (14 percent). The authors conclude that electronic bullying is a significant problem, suggesting that one potential means of preventing it is for schools to enact rules and policies prohibiting electronic bullying, in addition to those already in place to prevent offline bullying. Moessner, Chris. “Cyberbullying.” Trends and Tudes, April 2007, 1–4. http://www. harrisinteractive.com/news/newsletters/k12news/HI_TrendsTudes_2007_v06_i04.pdf (accessed March 23, 2009). This study focuses on adolescents’ reactions to cyberbullying. The National Crime Prevention Council commissioned this 2007 report by Harris Interactive, based on a national survey of 846 children ages 13 to 17. The council chose this age-group because parents tend to give children in this population less supervision than at other ages. The study defines cyberbullying as the use of the Internet, cell phones, or other technology to send or to post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person.The researchers asked young people about the prevalence of cyberbullying and their responses to it. More than four in 10 teenagers (43 percent) in this survey reported that they had experienced cyberbullying in the previous year, with the most common occurrence among those 15 and 16 years old. Although many middle school students (48 percent) and high school students (58 percent) reported that cyberbullying did not bother them, 58 percent of middle school students and 56 percent of high school students commonly responded to cyberbullying with anger. Girls (63 percent) reacted with anger more often than boys (48 percent). Seventy-one percent of teenagers surveyed believe that the most effective means of preventing cyberbullying is software that blocks site access, and 62 percent think that refusing to forward cyberbully messages is most effective. Unique to this survey was a question about the school administration’s role in preventing cyberbullying: only 33 percent of the teenagers felt schools should educate students about cyberbullying. However, 37 percent agreed that schools should have rules prohibiting cyberbullying. The study suggests that parents can help their children avoid cyberbullies by setting expectations for online behavior and monitoring their children’s Internet activities. Patchin, Justin W., and Sameer Hinduja. “Bullies Move Beyond the Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 4, no. 2 (April 2006): 148–69. In this preliminary look at the issue of cyberbullying, the authors describe the negative impact online bullying has on youth, providing the results of a survey conducted to determine the extent and nature of online bullying. The article defines cyberbullying as willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text. Cyberbullying causes public humiliation and embarrassment, which can lead to serious psychological, emotional, and social wounds. Adolescents’ online interaction their cyber life often revolves around school. Events occurring at school are often the topic of cyber conversation, and cyber conversations often continue at school. The interaction between adolescents’ school and cyber life has the potential to cause victims of cyberbullying greater public embarrassment than traditional, offline bullying. F-29

To show the prevalence of cyberbullying among teenagers, the authors linked their Internetbased survey, conducted between May 1, 2004, and May 31, 2004, to a popular musician’s Web site, and the vast majority of respondents were female. Therefore, the survey results may not apply to other populations. More than 47 percent of the 384 teenagers reported that they had observed online bullying, almost 30 percent reported having been bullied online, and 11 percent reported that they had bullied others online. The most common form of cyberbullying was to ignore someone online (accounting for 60 percent of cyberbullying incidents), followed by disrespecting someone (50 percent), calling someone names (30 percent), and threatening someone (21 percent). Telling the online bully to stop was the most common adolescent response (36 percent). The authors suggest that cyberbullying merits further academic inquiry to determine whether cyberbullies or their victims are at risk for future deviant behavior. Strom, Paris S., and Robert D. Strom. “Cyberbullying by Adolescents: A Preliminary Assessment.” Educational Forum 70, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 21–36. This study, which examines cyberbullying in general, is unique in pointing out that cyberbullies threaten students and school staff and in describing steps that schools can take to repel this threat. The authors report an incident in which a student wrote about his hatred for a particular teacher on a Web site, commenting that neither students nor school staff feels safe when the community permits teenagers to cyberbully. The authors suggest a number of ways for parents and school staff to minimize cyberbullying, including educational programs and improved communication with teenagers. The article reports that state departments of education are creating programs to educate teachers and school administrators about the problem of cyberbullying. The authors propose that, in addition, information technology staff in the school districts could design and deliver curriculum to educate students, teachers, and parents about appropriate cyber conduct and how to respond to online persecution. Schools could poll their students to determine whether they have experienced cyberbullying and what the extent of cyberbullying is in the school community. Adults, who generally use technology only as a tool, need to understand that adolescents consider technology, such as computers, text messaging, and chat rooms, an essential part of their social life. Parents need to develop close communication with their children, encouraging their teenagers to tell them if somebody bullies them online. Parents and adolescents need to report cases of cyberbullying to the police. Finally, the authors propose the need for new studies to determine methods of confronting and preventing cyberbullying.

Annotated Bibliography: Child Pornography and Contact Offending This annotated bibliography was prepared by the National Criminal Justice Resource Center in September, 2009. The search was conducted in the professional, peer reviewed literature in psychology, criminology, victimology, child development, and sociology published between 2000 and 2009.

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Understanding Online Child Pornography Use: Applying Sexual Offense Theory to Internet Offenders Elliott, Ian A.; Beech, Anthony R. Aggression and Violent Behavior, May2009, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p180-193, 14p. Abstract: This review outlines the links between contemporary etiological and offense-process theories of child sexual abuse and our current knowledge of individuals who commit offenses related to online child pornography. First, we integrate previous behavioral typologies into a four-category internet offender typology. Second, we summarize development of etiological theory and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these theories in explaining the child pornography offender. Third, we outline the potential situational and ecological factors relating to the online environment that may also be a cause for the development and maintenance of prurient online behavior. Fourth, we review theories of the offense process and apply these to research into the modus operandi of child pornography offenders. Finally, we examine the usefulness of this approach in the assessment of risk and the treatment of online offenders. The 'Butner Study' Redux: A Report of the Incidence of Hands-on Child Victimization by Child Pornography Offenders. Bourke, Michael L.; Hernandez, Andres E. Journal of Family Violence, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 183-191, Apr 2009. Abstract: This study compared two groups of child pornography offenders participating in a voluntary treatment program: men whose known sexual offense history at the time of judicial sentencing involved the possession, receipt, or distribution of child abuse images, but did not include any 'hands-on' sexual abuse; and men convicted of similar offenses who had documented histories of hands-on sexual offending against at least one child victim. The goal was to determine whether the former group of offenders were 'merely' collectors of child pornography at little risk for engaging in hands-on sexual offenses, or if they were contact sex offenders whose criminal sexual behavior involving children, with the exception of Internet crimes, went undetected. Our findings show that the Internet offenders in our sample were significantly more likely than not to have sexually abused a child via a hands-on act. They also indicate that the offenders who abused children were likely to have offended against multiple victims, and that the incidence of 'crossover' by gender and age is high. The Consumption of Internet Child Pornography and Violent and Sex Offending. Endrass J, Urbaniok F, Hammermeister LC, Benz C, Elbert T, Laubacher A, Rossegger A. BMC Psychiatry, 2009; Vol. 9, pp. 43. Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. METHODS: The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. RESULTS: 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual F-31

and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. CONCLUSION: Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. Pedophiles in Wonderland: Censoring the Sinful in Cyberspace. Russell, Gabrielle. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1467-1500, Summer 2008. Abstract: This article describes the constitutional problems with legally proscribing virtual age play under either child pornography or obscenity law. Second Life is a popular virtual world created by Linden Research, Incorporated. While there are many kinds of virtual environments, many of which are text-based, massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) environments are the most real-world environments, in appearance and in the way that users can interact with their surroundings and with each other. A user navigates through these virtual worlds as an avatar that a user can design to look like anything, including a child; avatars are free to do whatever their creators please including having sex. While some adults design avatars that look like monsters or celebrities, others prefer to adopt a childlike appearance. Some adults also favor less socially acceptable activities and use their young counterparts for virtual age play or sexual role play occurring in a virtual world where one avatar appears to be a child and the other an adult; this theme has become a very popular and newsworthy online pastime. This article begins with an explanation of virtual age play and an overview of the laws that bear on its legal standing, followed by a discussion of why regulation of such activity under child pornography law is inappropriate. The article concludes by exploring the potential regulation of virtual age play under obscenity law, ultimately rejecting that strategy as an unconstitutional restriction of free speech and individual liberty. This article notes that not only is there no proof that the man who is stimulated by cybersex with a virtual child is any more likely to seek our real sex with a real child but that there may be some therapeutic value in indulging such fantasies. Pornography Use And Sexual Aggression: The Impact Of Frequency And Type Of Pornography Use On Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders. Kingston, Drew A.; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Curry, Susan; Bradford, John M. Aggressive Behavior, Jul/Aug2008, Vol. 34, Issue 4, p341-351, 11p. Abstract: In this study, we examined the unique contribution of pornography consumption to the longitudinal prediction of criminal recidivism in a sample of 341 child molesters. We specifically tested the hypothesis, based on predictions informed by the confluence model of sexual aggression that pornography will be a risk factor for recidivism only for those individuals classified as relatively high risk for re-offending. Pornography use (frequency and type) was assessed through self-report and recidivism was measured using data from a national database from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Indices of recidivism, which were assessed up to 15 years after release, included an overall criminal recidivism index, as well as subcategories F-32

focusing on violent (including sexual) recidivism and sexual recidivism alone. Results for both frequency and type of pornography use were generally consistent with our predictions. Most importantly, after controlling for general and specific risk factors for sexual aggression, pornography added significantly to the prediction of recidivism. Statistical interactions indicated that frequency of pornography use was primarily a risk factor for higher-risk offenders, when compared with lower-risk offenders, and that content of pornography (i.e., pornography containing deviant content) was a risk factor for all groups. The importance of conceptualizing particular risk factors (e.g., pornography), within the context of other individual characteristics is discussed. The Internet and Child Sexual Offending: A Criminological Review. Beech, Anthony R; Elliott, Ian A; Birgden, Astrid; Findlater, Donald. Aggression and Violent Behavior, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 216-228, June-July 2008. Abstract: This paper outlines the current literature on what is known about the processes by which individuals utilize the Internet for child sexual abuse. First, three ways in which the Internet is utilized are outlined: (1) by dissemination of sexually abusive images of children for personal and/or commercial reasons; (2) by communication with other individuals with a sexual interest in children: and (3) by maintaining and developing online pedophilic networks. Second, content and availability of abusive images are described, and the difficulties faced by criminal justice agencies in both the definition of abusive images and their prohibition is discussed. Third, the potential for offenders to 'cross-over' from online offenses to contact sexual victimization of children is examined and placed within a context of various Internet offender typologies that have been developed. Finally, implications of this body of research for law and public policy are considered. "In My Own World": A Case Study of a Paedophile's Thinking and Doing and His Use of the Internet. Wilson, David; Jones, Timothy. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 107 - 120, May 2008. Abstract: This case study of a convicted pedophile ("James") in England focuses on the links between his "thinking and doing," i.e., the interaction of his fantasy life, his use of the Internet, and his contact offenses against children. For James, his thoughts, sexual desires, impulses, and fantasies were objectified and reinforced by pornographic images and videos viewed on the Internet, which were acted out in sexual contact with children. Thus, he was unrestrained in bringing his thinking, fantasizing, and visualization into the real world of sexual contact with children. The authors note that the proposed model drawn from James' case study does not suggest that every individual who has fantasies of unlawful or deviant sexual acts will inevitably act on them in the real world. For most who engage in such fantasies, they coexist with a conscience conditioned by societal norms, empathy, and histories of conditioned normative behaviors aimed at doing no harm to others in the real world of consensual intimate sexual interactions. The danger comes when individuals, like James, with deviant sexual fantasies do not have a coexisting powerful reservoir of restraints based in social and genetic conditions that keep "thinking" from becoming "doing." The case study of James derived from access granted to a convicted pedophile serving his sentence at HMP Grendon, a facility unique in the penal system of England and Wales in its operation as a therapeutic community. James was

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interviewed on four occasions, with each interview lasting, on average, 2 hours. All four interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed. 1 figure and 28 references Online "Predators" and Their Victims: Myths, Realities, and Implications for Prevention and Treatment. Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., and Ybarra, M. American Psychologist, 63(2), 111-128, 2008. Abstract: The publicity about online “predators” who prey on naïve children using trickery and violence is largely inaccurate. Internet sex crimes involving adults and juveniles more often fit a model of statutory rape—adult offenders who meet, develop relationships with, and openly seduce underage teenagers—than a model of forcible sexual assault or pedophilic child molesting. This is a serious problem, but one that requires approaches different from those in current prevention messages emphasizing parental control and the dangers of divulging personal information. Developmentally appropriate prevention strategies that target youths directly and acknowledge normal adolescent interests in romance and sex are needed. These should provide younger adolescents with awareness and avoidance skills while educating older youths about the pitfalls of sexual relationships with adults and their criminal nature. Particular attention should be paid to higher risk youths, including those with histories of sexual abuse, sexual orientation concerns, and patterns of off- and online risk taking. Mental health practitioners need information about the dynamics of this problem and the characteristics of victims and offenders because they are likely to encounter related issues in a variety of contexts. Sexual Fantasy In Paedophile Offenders: Can Any Model Explain Satisfactorily New Findings From A Study Of Internet And Contact Sexual Offenders? Sheldon, Kerry; Howitt, Dennis. Legal and Criminological Psychology, Feb2008, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p137-158, 22p. Abstract: Purpose. Abstract: There is widespread acceptance that sexual fantasy plays a role in sexual offences but little clarity as the nature of this relationship. This paper seeks to understand better the role of fantasy in offending behaviour through the study of sexual fantasy in Internet child pornography offenders when compared with contact offenders. Differences in the patterns of sexual fantasy associated with the different offender types are explored in order to understand how fantasy content is associated with contact offences with children and desisting from such direct acting out. Methods. Participants were all convicted of child sexual offences and recruited with the help of the probation and prison services. Out of these, 16 were Internet-only offenders, 25 were contact offenders with no history of Internet offending and 10 were offenders with a mixed contact and Internet offending history. A variety of self-completion questionnaires including fantasy were completed on an individual basis together with a detailed interview. Results. The most common sexual fantasies were typical adult-male heterosexual fantasies though a variety of child-oriented and other fantasies were also common. Contact offenders reported fewer girl-oriented sexual fantasies although the groups did not differ in terms of terms of boy-oriented fantasies. There was evidence that confrontational fantasies were commoner among contact offenders than Internet offenders. There are relationships between early sexual experiences and fantasy but peer sexual contacts seemed to be important rather than sexual abuse. Conclusion. Generally, the contact offenders seem to have less sexual fantasy pertinent to

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their offending than did Internet offenders. Fantasy deficit may be involved in contact offending against children A New Playground: Sexual Predators And Pedophiles Online: Criminalizing Cyber Sex Between Adults And Minors. Lovejoy, Tyler Patrick. Saint Thomas Law Review. 20.2 (Winter 2008): 311-357. Abstract: It has been exposed that within the age of the Internet, where forums and imaginative methods for achieving and performing illegal activities have been spawned, additional, and in some instances supplementary, legislation is necessary in order to protect innocent members of society from such crimes. As this comment has elucidated, those innocent persons are children, and are shown to be most susceptible to the approaches and desired fulfillment of the impulses of the sexual predator. Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Offenders: A Comparison with Child Molesters. L Webb, J Craissati, S Keen. Sexual Abuse, 2007 Dec; 19(4):449-65. Abstract: The aim of this exploratory study was to compare internet sex offenders with a matched group of child molesters in the Greater London Area. Over an 8-month period 210 subjects were assessed, of whom 90 were internet sex offenders and 120 were child molesters. A wide range of background data was collected, including a number of psychometric measures to determine risk and personality traits. The research identified a number of similarities between internet sex offenders and child molesters on background variables. Specifically, in comparison to the child molesters, the internet offenders reported more psychological difficulties in adulthood and fewer prior sexual convictions. The socio-affective characteristics of internet offenders and child molesters look similar, but the antisocial variables, such as, ‘acting out’ and breaking social rules underlines their difference. The follow up research was carried out after a short period of time at risk—averaging 18 months—but suggested that internet sex offenders were significantly less likely to fail in the community than child molesters in terms of all types of recidivism. The Role Of Cognitive Distortions In Paedophilic Offending: Internet And Contact Offenders Compared. Howitt, Dennis; Sheldon, Kerry. Psychology, Crime and Law, Oct2007, Vol. 13 Issue 5, p469-486, 18p, 5 charts. Abstract: Cognitive distortions are held to contribute to sexual offending against children in a number of theoretical explanations of such crimes. However, not only is there little or no direct evidence in support of the centrality of cognitive distortions in offending but recent research has questioned whether the concept has explanatory power. Cognitive distortions are variously seen as necessary for the offender to offend against children, as post-offending justifications for the offence, or as reflecting distorted patterns in the offender's upbringing. This paper explores the role of cognitive distortions in sex offending by comparing the distortions of contact sex offenders against children with Internet child pornography offenders without contact offences against children. A new cognitive distortions questionnaire was developed which was suitable for administration to Internet offenders who had no contact offences against children as well as being suitable for contact offenders. It was found F-35

that some cognitive distortions are frequently agreed with by sex offenders against children whereas others were seldom or never agreed with. Little support was found for earlier typological approaches to the cognitive schema of sex offenders against children. Contrary to the expectation that contact offenders would have more cognitive distortions, it was found that Internet offenders had more cognitive distortions that children are sexual beings. Furthermore, there were no differences in cognitive distortions justifying the offence. However, offenders with a previous history of offending were more likely to admit to cognitive distortions which justify their offending. It is accepted that cognitive distortions are readily recognized in interviews with sex offenders against children. Nevertheless, it is argued that there is a need for new research to stimulate a new understanding of the nature and role of cognitive distortions in sex offending. Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors Over the Internet. Malesky Jr., L. Alvin. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 2007, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p23-32, 10p, 1 chart. Abstract: Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998: Hernandez. 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to perpetrate contact sex offenses against minors they communicated with via the Internet, was examined. Threefourths of the participants monitored chat room dialogue and almost one-half reviewed online profiles of minors in an attempt to identify potential victims. Recommendations to increase the online safety of children and adolescents are discussed. Current Responses to Sexual Grooming: Implication for Prevention. Craven, Samantha; Brown, Sarah; Gilchrist, Elizabeth. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 60-71, Feb 2007. Abstract: This article aims to outline current responses to sexual grooming; specific attention will be given to new legislation introduced in England and Wales under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Following an outline of this new legislation, consideration will be given to its effectiveness, including practical difficulties that are likely to restrict its scope. Issues to be discussed include: poor definition and understanding of sexual grooming, scope of legislation in relation to non-Internet grooming, difficulties in identifying sexual grooming, and a failure of the new legislation to be truly preventative. The article concludes by supporting Richard Laws's suggestion that the most effective prevention of child sexual abuse would result from adopting a public health approach. Adapted from the source document. The Evidence Of Harm To Adults Relating To Exposure To Extreme Pornographic Material: A Rapid Evidence Assessment. Catherine Itzin, Ann Taket and Liz Kelly. Ministry of Justice, United Kingdom, 2007. Abstract: This document reports on a rapid evidence assessment (REA) of the evidence of harm to adults relating to exposure to extreme pornographic materials. It was conducted for the Home Office and Department of Health as part of a programme of research being conducted by the Department of Health on the health and mental health effects of prostitution, pornography and

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trafficking, rape and sexual assault, and sexual offending. This REA was commissioned by the Home Office before the Ministry of Justice was formed. Child Pornography Offenses Are a Valid Diagnostic Indicator of Pedophilia. Seto, Michael C.; Blanchard, Ray; Cantor, James M. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Aug2006, Vol. 115 Issue 3, p610-615, 6p, 3 graphs. Abstract: This study investigated whether being charged with a child pornography offense is a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia, as represented by an index of phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to children. The sample of 685 male patients was referred between 1995 and 2004 for a sexological assessment of their sexual interests and behavior. As a group, child pornography offenders showed greater sexual arousal to children than to adults and differed from groups of sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and general sexology patients. The results suggest child pornography offending is a stronger diagnostic indicator of pedophilia than is sexually offending against child victims. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Characteristics and Behaviors of Sexual Compulsives Who Use the Internet for Sexual Purposes. Daneback, Kristian; Ross, Michael W.; Månsson, Sven-Axel. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, Jan2006, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p53-67, 15p, 2 charts. Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of those who engage in online sexual activities and who are sexually compulsive according to the Kalichman sexual compulsivity scale. It also aimed to investigate if online sexual activities had changed the sexually compulsive respondents' offline sexual behaviors, such as reading adult magazines, viewing adult movies, and/or having casual sex partners. Data were collected in 2002 through an online questionnaire in Swedish, which was administered via the Swedish portal Passagen.se. Approximately 6% of the 1458 respondents who answered the 10-item sexual compulsivity scale were defined as sexually compulsive. A multivariate regression analysis showed sexually compulsives more likely to be men, to live in a relationship, to be bisexual, and to have had an STI. The time spent online for sexual purposes was found to be a measure of the kind of sexual activity rather than a measure of online sexual compulsivity. A bivariate analysis of nominal data showed that engagement in online sexual activities made respondents quit, decrease, maintain or increase their offline sexual behaviors. Sexual compulsive respondents were found to increase their offline pornography consumption to a greater extent than did non-sexually compulsives. Paedophilia On The Internet--A Study Of 33 Convicted Offenders In The Canton Of Lucerne. Frei A, Erenay N, Dittmann V, Graf M. Swiss Medical Weekly, 2005 Aug 20; Vol. 135 (33-34), pp. 488-94. Abstract: Background: The connection between the consumption of pornography and “contactcrimes” is unclear. The Internet has facilitated the mass consumption of pornography in general and specifically illegal pornography such as child pornography. In 1999, the owners of “Landslide Production Inc.”, an international provider of child-pornography in the USA were arrested and the credit-card-numbers of their clients were put at the disposal of the law enforcement agencies of the countries concerned. Methods: Roughly 1300 Swiss citizens were subsequently arrested in the course of the nationwide action “Genesis”. In the canton of Lucerne 33 men were identified. The police-files of these men were screened for psychosocial, criminological and psychosexual data. Results: F-37

Most of these middle-aged men held comparatively elevated professional positions, only ten were married, eleven had never had an intimate relationship to a woman, and only thirteen of them had children. Only one of them had a relevant criminal record. The level of abuse depicted in the illegal material was high, all but one consumed pornography from other fields of sexual deviation. The personal statements of the offenders in general were hardly reliable, in three cases, however, the diagnosis of sexual deviation could be established from the files. The estimated time some of the offenders must have spent online in order to retrieve the material allows the diagnosis of Pathological Internet-Use. Conclusions: Deviant sexual fantasies seem to be widespread also among men otherwise not registered for any offences. The consumption of even particularly disgusting material may not be a specific risk factor for “contact” crimes. Internet Offenders: Traders, Travelers, and Combination Trader-Travelers. Alexy, Eileen M.; Burgess, Ann W.; Baker, Timothy. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 804-812, July 2005. Abstract: The Internet opens a vast array of communication, entertainment, and educational resources for children; however, it also opens a gateway to home and school for offenders who wish to exploit children. A convenience sample of 225 cases published in the news media was examined. The cases were classified using law enforcement terminology to describe Internet offenders as traders, travelers, or combination trader-travelers. The media is seen as a critical source of information for the public to be aware of how the Internet is being used to commit sexual exploitation and sex crimes against children. The Criminal Histories And Later Offending Of Child Pornography Offenders. Seto MC, Eke AW. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 2005 Apr; Vol. 17 (2), pp. 201-10. Abstract: The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually. From Fantasy to Reality: The Link Between Viewing Child Pornography and Molesting Children. Kim, Candice. Prosecutor, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 17-18, 20, - 47, March/April 2005. Abstract: This article argues that viewing child pornography is linked to child molestation. Some individuals claim that viewing child pornography is just viewing pictures and does not actually harm children. On the contrary, the author argues that images of child pornography are evidence of past, present, and future child sexual abuse. According to statistics generated by the United F-38

States Postal Inspection Service, 80 percent of child pornography purchasers are active abusers and almost 40 percent of the child pornographers investigated during the past several years have sexually molested children in the past. Moreover, a study completed in 2000 by the Director of the Sex Offender Treatment Program at the Butner Federal Correctional Complex in North Carolina revealed that of 54 inmates convicted of child pornography offenses, 79.6% of them admitted that they had also molested significant numbers of children. Child sexual abusers frequently use pornographic images to groom child victims prior to committing sexual abuse. Repeated exposure to pornographic images involving children serves to normalize child sexual abuse and desensitize the child to such behaviors. Evidence gathered from law enforcement investigations has indicated that offenders who have collections of child pornography are often also actively engaged in child sexual abuse with the children depicted in the pictures. As such, it is clear that owning and viewing child pornographic pictures extends beyond merely looking at pictures and most often involves the actual sexual abuse of children in the past, present, and future of the offender. Therefore, perpetrators who possess child pornography should be vigilantly pursued by law enforcement as likely child sexual abusers. The Internet and Family and Acquaintance Sexual Abuse. Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis. Child Maltreatment, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 49-60, Feb 2005. Abstract: This article explores the dynamics of cases involving family and acquaintance sexual offenders who used the Internet to commit sex crimes against minors. Although the stereotype of Internet crimes involves unknown adults meeting juvenile victims online, Internet use can also play a role in sexual crimes against minors by family members and acquaintances. Data were collected from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about arrests for Internet-related sex crimes against minors. Family and acquaintance offenders were nearly as numerous as offenders who used the Internet to meet victims online. They used the Internet in various ways to further their crimes including as a tool to seduce or groom, store or disseminate sexual images of victims, arrange meetings and communicate, reward victims, or advertise or sell victims. Prevention messages and investigation approaches should be revised to incorporate awareness of such cases and their dynamics. Commercial And Sexual Exploitation Of of Children And Young People(CSEC) in the UK—A Review. Chase, Elaine; Statham, June. Child Abuse Review, Jan/Feb2005, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p4-25, 22p. Abstract: This paper reviews recent information and data relevant to the commercial sexual exploitation of children and young people in the UK. Three main aspects of exploitation are addressed: abuse through prostitution; abuse through pornography; and the trafficking of children and young people to and through the UK for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Most published research in this area relates to young people exploited through prostitution. The review explores the range of vulnerability factors, the processes used to engage young people in prostitution and the types of support strategies for those being exploited. Rather less information is currently available on the scale of child pornography, or the links between the use of pornography and other forms of sexual abuse. The internet as a modern technology for proliferating child pornography is discussed, alongside its role in providing opportunities for paedophiles to access and ‘groom’ children for sexual purposes. Finally, the review provides a F-39

summary of research on trafficking of children to and through the UK for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and demonstrates the limited knowledge about this topic. The Varieties of Child Pornography Production. Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., and Mitchell, K.J. In Quayle, E. and Taylor, M. (Eds.), Viewing Child Pornography on the Internet: Understanding the Offense, Managing the Offender, Helping the Victims (pgs. 31-48). Dorset, UK: Russell House Publishing, 2005. URL: http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/jvq/CV100.pdf Abstract: Examines a sample of U.S. criminal cases in which offenders arrested for Internetrelated crimes against minors took pictures of victims. Child Pornography Possessors Arrested in Internet-Related Crimes: Findings from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study. Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., and Mitchell, K.J. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Alexandria: VA, 2005. URL: http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/jvq/CV81.pdf Abstract: The goals of the National Juvenile Online Victimization (N-JOV) Study were to survey law-enforcement agencies within the United States (U.S.) to count arrests for Internet-related sex crimes committed against minors and describe the characteristics of the offenders, the crimes they committed, and their victims. This report focuses on a representative national sample of arrested offenders who possessed child pornography. Use of Pornography during the Commission of Sexual Offenses. Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 572 - 586, October 2004. Abstract: This study investigated any links between sex offenders' use of pornography (materials that are sexually arousing) and their sex offenses. An overview of the literature on this topic focuses on sex offenders' use of pornography for self-stimulation, to groom the victims, and for later self-gratification and monetary gain. The current study involved a sample of 124 cases (Sample 1) from the authors' private practice; in every case, the offenders were asked about their use of pornography and its role in their sex offenses. Police reports were also available in the majority of cases and were used in interviews with the offenders. In order to examine whether trends in the use of pornography by sex offenders has changed over the past 30 years, a historical sample of 437 cases was drawn from a database of 2,125 sex-offender cases collected from 1970 to 1991 at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry (Sample 2). Of the 561 cases studied, only 17 percent involved the use of pornography immediately prior to or during the offense. These findings suggest that the mere possession of pornography does not in itself lead to the commission of a sexual crime. Although 47 percent of the offenders had pornography in their possession prior to their crimes, only 17 percent used it for self-stimulation either immediately prior to the crime or during the crime. Offenders against children used pornography more than offenders against adults (42 percent compared with 19 percent). There was no indication of a change in patterns of pornography over time in Sample 2; however, the increased availability of pornography through the Internet may change this pattern in the foreseeable future.

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Getting to Grips with Sexual Grooming? The New Offence under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Ost, Suzanne. The Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, vol. 26, no. 2, pp.147-159, 2004. Abstract: In recent years, there has been increased societal concern regarding the dangers posed to children by sexual abuse and other related acts. For the main part, this article examines the new UK offense of meeting a child following sexual grooming under Section 15 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. I will address the question of whether the introduction of this offense is likely to meet the government's aim of providing greater protection for children against behavior associated with sexual abuse. In particular, I will consider how difficult it will be to prove the existence of a harmful ulterior intent in order to make out the offense and why the government has opted to create this specific offense rather than utilize the existing law of criminal attempt. I will argue that the new offense is a step in the right direction and that the current protection offered to children will be significantly extended by its introduction. 17 References. Adapted from the source document. Pedophilia and Sexual Offenses Against Children. Seto, Michael C. Annual Review of Sex Research, 2004, Vol. 15, p329-369, 41p. Abstract: Investigates pedophilia and sexual offenses against children. Role of neurodevelopmental problems and childhood sexual abuse in the etiology of pedophilia; Selfidentification pedophiles; Methods for assessing pedophilia; Possession of child pornography as a behavioral indicator of pedophilic interests. Model of Problematic Internet Use in People with a Sexual Interest in Children. Ethel Quayle, Max Taylor. CyberPsychology and Behavior. January 2003, 6(1): 93-106. Abstract: Agencies working with sex offenders are starting to see the emergence of people with a sexual interest in children who meet some of their needs through the use of child pornography, or the seduction of children, through the Internet. While CBT models dominate our understanding of sex offenders, there has been little research into the role that such new technologies may play in offending behavior. Data from the COPINE project has been used to generate a model of such offending behavior that emphasizes the role of cognitions in both the etiology, engagement with and problematic use of the Internet for those with a sexual interest in children. Such a model seeks to incorporate contemporary thinking about the role of cognitions in Pathological Internet Use, but applies this from a nonpathological perspective. This model is a first step towards providing a conceptual framework for such offending that will help inform both assessment and therapy. Pedophilia on the Internet. Deirmenjian, John M. Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1090 - 1092, September 2002. Abstract: In analyzing cases of pedophiles' use of the Internet to exploit child victims, this paper discusses two models of pedophilia: a trust-based seductive model and a direct sexual model; it also explores the role that mental health professionals can play in the assessment of pedophilia manifested through the Internet. Under the trust-based seductive model of pedophilia manifested on the Internet, a pedophile seeks to gain the attention of a targeted child user of the Internet. The F-41

pedophile's goal is to obtain a child's trust through an escalation of attention intended to result in the seduction of a child into sexual acts through a face-to-face meeting. The predator can claim to be of the same sex as an intended victim in order to gain the potential victim's trust. Similarly, by pretending to be in the same age group, an unsuspecting child will consider the pedophile a peer. As conversations develop, a pedophile informs the child that he shares similar interests and common experiences. This paper summarizes four cases in which such a model of seduction was used on the Internet. Under the direct sexual model, a pedophile uses Internet communications in taking a relatively short time to introduce the subject of sex with a potential victim. There may be a trade of images of child or adult pornography. Pedophiles use Internet bulletin boards to trade child pornography or to obtain lists of children who have had a prior association with pedophiles. As in the trust-based model, the ultimate goal is usually to arrange a meeting in person. Two cases of this type of use of the Internet are presented. If parents observe disturbing changes in their child's behavior, they may seek the assistance of a child psychologist or psychiatrist.: A mental health professional who is sufficiently informed about the Internet exploitation of children may detect victimization from subtle clues. Also, an awareness of the phenomenon of "cyberstalking" and pedophilia on the Internet can facilitate a thorough evaluation of a pedophile in a forensic setting. Further, government intervention can help prevent child sexual exploitation through the Internet. The Federal Trade Commission is currently seeking legislation that requires Internet companies to get parental consent before permitting children under the age of 13 to enter Internet sites that solicit addresses, phone numbers, and personal information. In addition, the FBI is involved in training State and local law enforcement officials in how to establish cyber police units to patrol the Internet. The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children has established a "cyber-tipline" for the public to use in reporting any suspicious or illicit activity that involves children on the Internet. 12 references. Child Pornography And The Internet: Perpetuating A Cycle Of Abuse. Quayle, Ethel; Taylor, Max. Deviant Behavior, Jul2002, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p331-361, 31p. Abstract: Thirteen men convicted of downloading child pornography were interviewed with a view to understanding how these men talked about the photographs and the function such talk played in their accounts. The interviews were informed by earlier work with defended subjects and were analyzed within a discursive framework. Quotations are used from the interviews to illustrate the analysis. Six principal discourses emerged within these accounts in relation to child pornography: sexual arousal; as collectibles; facilitating social relationships; as a way of avoiding real life; as therapy; and in relation to the Internet. These are discussed in the context of previous research. The analysis illustrates the important role that the Internet plays in increasing sexual arousal to child pornography and highlights individual differences in whether this serves as a substitute or as a blueprint for contact offenses. It also draws our attention to the important role that community plays in the Internet and how collecting facilitates the objectification of children and increases the likelihood that in the quest for new images children continue to be sexually abused. Discourses focusing on both therapy and addiction serve to distance the respondent from personal agency and allow for continued engagement with child pornography.

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Child Seduction and Self-Representation on the Internet. Quayle, Ethel; Taylor, Max. CyberPsychology and Behavior, Oct2001, Vol. 4 Issue 5, p597-608, 12p. Abstract: This paper presents a case study of a man charged with the offense of downloading child pornography from the Internet. He had used the Internet to traffic child pornography, and, in addition, to locate children to abuse, to engage in inappropriate sexual communication with children, and to communicate with other pedophiles. Such offenses were facilitated by selfrepresenting in Chat rooms as both a child and an adult. The case study illustrates how such offenders move through a repertoire of offending behavior and discusses the role that the Internet can play in supporting inappropriate and disinhibited sexual behavior that victimizes children through the trading of child pornography and possible child seduction. The Internet is seen to play a unique role in allowing individuals to self-represent aspects that might otherwise remain hidden or dormant. The Internet and Offending Behaviour: A Case Study. Quayle, E.; Linehan, C.; Holland, G.; Taylor, M. The Journal of Sexual Aggression, 2000, Vol. 6 Issue 1/2, p78-96, 19p. Abstract: The COPINE Project at the Department of Applied Psychology, seeks to address children's vulnerability in relation to the Internet and child pornography. As part of the project, offenders convicted of downloading such images have been interviewed. This paper considers existing models of offender behaviour alongside literature relating to Internet use. A single case study is used to illustrate a process-focused model of offending, using interview material to demonstrate how the offender represented and accounted for his behaviour. The offender in question had no history of engaging in sexual behaviour with actual children, but his case illustrated many of the stages described by offenders in their involvement with pornography, including: setting events, engagement, collecting behaviour, and the emergence of relationships. Cybersex Users, Abuse, and Compulsives: New Findings and Implications. Cooper, A.; Delmonico, D.L.; Buro, R. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity; January 2000 Vol. 7, p5-29, 25p. Abstract: Literature regarding sexual use of the Internet has primarily focused on anecdotal data of clinical cases. This study empirically examines the characteristics and usage patterns of individuals who use the Internet for sexual purposes. The Kalichman Sexual Compulsivity Scale was the primary tool used to divide the sample (n = 9,265) into four groups: nonsexually compulsive (n = 7,738), moderately sexually compulsive (n = 1,007), sexually compulsive (n = 424), and cybersex compulsive (n = 96); 17% of the entire sample scored in the problematic range for sexual compulsivity. Data analysis of the four groups indicated statistically significant differences on descriptive characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, and occupation. In addition, patterns of use differed across groups including the primary method of pursuing sexual materials, primary location of accessing sexual material, and the extent to which cybersex has interfered with a respondent's life. This study is one of the few quantitative examinations of the patterns of problematic and compulsive use of the Internet for sexual purposes. Implications and suggestions for research, public education, and professional trainings are presented. Revisiting the Use of Pornography by Sexual Offenders: Implications for Theory and Practice. F-43

W. L. Marshall. Journal of Sexual Aggression, Volume 6, Issue 1 and 2 January 2000, pages 67 – 77. Abstract: This article examines the extant research on the use of pornography by sexual offenders and some of the debates engendered by such use. The analyses should assist in clarifying a number of issues of concern for all who work in the field of sexual offending. Relationship between Child Pornography and the Commission of Sexual Offences against Children: A Review of the Literature. Rettinger, L Jill. Canada Dept of Justice, 2000. URL: http://canada.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2000/rr00_5.pdf Abstract: This paper describes the current state of knowledge of the role pornography plays in sexual offenses against children. Two main research questions are addressed: (1) to what extent do pedophiles consume pornography, particularly child pornography, and (2) how is pornography used by pedophiles? A review of clinical and retrospective studies from the social science literature, as well as published anecdotal reports and expert opinions, is undertaken in order to probe the link between adult and child pornography and child sexual abuse. The literature review revealed very little empirical research on the topic, making it difficult to draw conclusions. Research concerning the use of child pornography by pedophiles has been mostly anecdotal, and the few empirical studies on the topic have been plagued by inconsistencies in definitions and problems involving sampling methods and procedures. Although anecdotal evidence suggests that some pedophiles use child pornography, there is no indication of the proportion of child molesters who use this type of material. Retrospective studies of pornography use by sex offenders suggest that a large percentage of sex offenders do use adult pornography, but comparative studies have failed to find a difference in the pornography consumption rates of sex offenders versus non-sex offenders, especially concerning the use of soft-core materials. The author recommends further research on the use of hard-core pornography before conclusions are drawn. Furthermore retrospective clinical studies have found that most sex offenders, including child sexual offenders, report minimal or no exposure to child pornography, which is a departure from the findings of anecdotal reports. However, these differences may be a function of discrepancies in the definition of child pornography. Seven main motivations were found in the literature for how pedophiles use child pornography; they include the motivations of justification, arousal, profit, preservation of victim s youth, lower victim s inhibition, blackmail, and medium of exchange. Most anecdotal reports on the use of pornography describe the use of these materials to disinhibit victims of abuse and as items of trade with other pedophiles. In conclusion, a direct causal link between pornography and child sexual abuse is not supported by the current state of knowledge.

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Annotated Bibliography: Child Exploitation

The Never-Ending Limits of § 230: Extending ISP Immunity to the Sexual Exploitation of Children. Noeth, Katy. Federal Communications Law Journal, May2009, Vol. 61 Issue 3, p765-784, 20p. Abstract: In 2006, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas extended civil liability to Yahoo! under § 230 of the Communications Decency Act so that it could not be sued for knowingly profiting from a Web site where members exchanged sexually explicit pictures of minors. The court found that the reasoning of the seminal § 230 case, Zeran v. AOL, was analogous and that policy considerations mandated its holding. This Note argues that a multifaceted approach is needed to prevent future courts from following that decision, including an amendment to § 230 that would impose civil liability upon ISPs that knowingly allow the sexual exploitation of children on their Web sites. In the meantime, however, future courts should distinguish Zeran and refuse to apply its defamation rationale to child sexual exploitation claims. Future courts should also refuse to extend the Immunity to child sexual exploitation claims because doing so does not further the congressional intent behind § 230. Courts should recognize an exception to immunity under § 230(e)(1) in order to protect minors on the Internet. Identifying and Managing Stress in Child Pornography and Child Exploitation Investigators. Krause, Meredith. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 22-29, Apr 2009. Abstract: In the last decade, law enforcement personnel have increasingly been tasked to police the internet in an effort to staunch the production and distribution of child pornography and to investigate computer-facilitated child exploitation. These investigative personnel have encountered a range of assignment-specific challenges and strains as a result of their involvement in this taxing and novel investigative activity. In some cases, the cumulative effects of these strains, together with repeated exposure to highly disturbing images of abused children, have resulted in stress reactions that have commanded the attention of police managers and police psychologists alike. The present article is intended to provide an overview of the stresses unique to child exploitation and pornography investigations, common reactions to these stressors, procedural safeguards to mitigate the impact of this high-risk assignment, and two model programs designed to meet the needs of the current generation of 'cyber cops'. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities. Wurtele, Sandy K. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1 - 18, January-February 2009. Abstract: This paper describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) and critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. CSA is an extremely complex social problem that will require comprehensive solutions to eradicate. Prevention of CSA is best conceptualized as a process of reducing risk factors and building protective factors in the potential perpetrator, potential victim and his or her family, and in the environment in which they all exist. Major health and social problems will be eradicated only when all sectors of society, not just the individual, share responsibility for F-45

solutions. An effective prevention program for youth emphasized the need to target an array of settings, including schools, homes, and communities. Consistent with these ecological models, four populations that need to be targeted for a comprehensive approach to CSA prevention are: children/youth, parents, professionals, and the public. For each target, suggestions for primary prevention efforts are offered, and opportunities and challenges are described. Although tertiary prevention efforts, such as treating offenders and victims, are crucial for eradicating the problem, one section describes population-focused interventions that occur with essentially well people with the aim of reducing the number of new incidences in the population. Results suggest that currently not enough is being done to prevent the sexual exploitation of children. Changing Contexts of Deference to Elders, Children's Rights and Sexual Exploitation of Children in Tanzania Bali, Theodora Axweso Luxuma. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 4013, 2009. Abstract: Regardless of the centrality of political and economic resources in the constructions of power, this research argues that the notions of power are contested. Exploration of the relationship between deference to elders and the vulnerability to childhood sexual exploitation with 105 young women has shown that certain actions like sexual intercourse may transmit symbolic power. Ironically, the growing poverty and increasing inaccessibility to income earning opportunities that affect Tanzanian men and women equally also provide alternative routes for women to create their new roles. Unlike in traditional communities where elders monopolized hegemonic power due to their control of ancestral rituals and clan resources, today women can turn to formal education, technology and the media for examples of alternative survival routes including unconventional ones like survival sex. This research employed informal and structured interviews to test the hypothesis that continued deference to elders within the changing context of increased urbanization, nuclear family system and paid childrearing, increases children's vulnerability to sexual exploitation. Elder interaction, understanding of child sexual exploitation, access to support network, perception of self-esteem, importance of filial respect, rural/urban background, education levels and family types, were among the examined childhood experiences. The data were analyzed for emergent themes of understanding and prevalence of child sexual exploitation, power and control, and sexual exploitation vulnerability. The results supported the hypothesis by showing that conditions of deprivation increase children's vulnerable to sexual exploitation and the model explains 39.6% of the shared variance. The contribution of this research is twofold: taking the primary step to explore the role of childrearing contexts in predicting vulnerability to sexual exploitation and ascertaining that Tanzanian children are vulnerable to sexual predation regardless of where they grow up. This is because the cultural practices that subordinate women and children have remained strong in both rural and urban areas. This dissertation is presented in seven chapters: introduction, review of relevant literature, social and cultural background of Tanzania, methods and goals, analysis and results, discussion, and conclusion. “Little Italian Slaves”: Lessons Learned from the Padrone Boys. Jalongo, Mary. Early Childhood Education Journal, Dec2008, Vol. 36 Issue 3, p209-212, 4p.

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Abstract The author discusses teaching about the padrone system, a form of child exploitation practiced in the U.S. In the padrone system, sponsors offered to educate European children in America but employed them as indentured servants. The author notes the difficulties faced by immigrant children in schools and how human trafficking operations employ people of the same nationality as those being exploited. She suggests studying exploitation of children can illustrate progress in child welfare. Human Trafficking: Sketchy Data and Policy Responses. Goodey, Jo. Criminology and Criminal Justice, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 421 - 442, November 2008. Abstract: This article examines trafficking in human beings and provides an overview of legislative and policy responses to the trafficking phenomenon. With increase recognition of the problem of inadequate data on trafficking, there appears to be a renewed focus on the need for better data on which to build policy responses. The developments reflect a general trend at the level of governments and international inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) to collect more robust data for policy developments, particularly in the area of crime and criminal justice. The focus of trafficking has been, since the late 1980s, predominantly on sex trafficking, with less attention paid to other areas that are equally significant in terms of magnitude and impact, though the data cannot prove this assertion one way or another. Trafficking appears to be witnessing a subtle shift with respect to its focus of attention; trafficking for labor exploitation and child trafficking are increasingly receiving more attention. While many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and academic commentators would dispute the idea that trafficking is being responded to as a victim-centered crime, this article suggests that a shift can be noted in this direction, at the same time as trafficking continues to be responded to as part of the migration-crime-security nexus. Further, although researchers, the international community, and NGOs have recorded data on victims who experience trafficking, there is a paucity of data concerning traffickers. The other area that remains under-researched is information on the demand side of trafficking. Confronting Sex Trafficking: Lessons From History. Cree, Viviene E. International Social Work, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 763-776, Nov. 2008. Abstract: English Sex trafficking, the trafficking of women and children for the purposes of sexual exploitation, is recognized today as a worldwide problem, affecting hundreds of thousands each year. It is not, however, a new phenomenon. This paper will discuss the lessons raised by the National Vigilance Association's response to this problem. The Sexual Exploitation of Children and Young People in Northern Ireland: Overview from the Barnardo's Beyond the Shadows Service. Montgomery-Devlin, Jacqui. Child Care in Practice, Oct2008, Vol. 14 Issue 4, p381-400, 20p, 2 diagrams, 1 color. Abstract: The present paper provides an overview of child sexual exploitation in Northern Ireland and related issues. It focuses on Barnardo's response to the problem of sexual exploitation and sets it in both a historical and a contemporary context. The paper considers the importance of recognising exploitation as child abuse and addresses specific myths associated with this. It makes use of recent research and campaigning by Barnardo's to challenge and F-47

change public perception. The paper presents a range of risk factors and indicators that are used to identify children and young people who are most likely to experience or be at risk from sexual exploitation. It examines the who, what and why of sexual exploitation of children in Northern Ireland, presenting local research and anecdotal evidence to demonstrate the extent and range of the problem, while acknowledging the often hidden nature of this activity. As well as focusing on young people abused through prostitution, the paper also makes reference to the issue of human trafficking and the increasing problems of abuse via the Internet and mobile phone technology. The paper draws on international human rights standards and domestic legislation in relation to child sexual exploitation and explores the existing legislative context in Northern Ireland. Included is a summary of the Barnardo's Beyond the Shadows Service established to respond to this issue. The paper lays out the four main aims of the service and provides an overview of its work. It concludes by challenging the audience, legislators, policy-makers and service providers to respond strategically and operationally to the experiences and needs of children and young people who are sexually exploited or at risk of this. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration. Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila. Child Abuse and Neglect, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 941 - 948, October 2008. Abstract: This study identifies the issues and patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children. Findings identify the role of family poverty especially as set within a context of societal poverty and membership in a marginalized group (Gypsy), in increasing the risk of children being trafficked. Severe family dysfunction combined with ignorance of the reality of trafficking further increased the risk of being trafficked. Albanian children experienced extremely harsh conditions during trafficking. The reintegration process was difficult because of stigma, lack of community resources, ongoing family problems, and their own trauma. Social policies that do not protect victims and allow traffickers to operate without fear of punishment further support trafficking. Results identified community and family poverty, family dysfunction, ignorance regarding trafficking, inadequate legal policies and implementation, and membership in a disadvantaged group as key factors placing children at risk for the harsh world of trafficking. Prevention and protection require domestic and international partnerships to provide legal protection and the resources to address poverty, inform parents, and ameliorate family problems. Reintegration requires treatment for trauma as well as alternative educational and vocational opportunities. Data were collected from 61 children who had escaped from trafficking, 22 children from similar at-risk groups who had not been trafficked, 15 parents of currently or previously trafficked children, 10 parents had not been trafficked, 15 parents of currently or previously trafficked children, 10 parents from a similar groups whose children had not been trafficked, and 8 key informants. Table, references Cyber Child Sexual Exploitation. Burgess AW; Mahoney M; Visk J; Morgenbesser L. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 2008 Sep; 46 (9): 38-45. Abstract: A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the F-48

implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders. Adolescents Accessing Indecent Images of Children. Gillespie, Alisdair A. Journal of Sexual Aggression, Jul2008, Vol. 14 Issue 2, p111-122, 12p. Abstract: This paper considers the legal consequences of adolescents accessing indecent images of children. It challenges the current default position that such behaviour is illegal and worthy of punishment. The paper seeks to understand the circumstances in which adolescents may seek age-appropriate material and considers whether this is more blameworthy than those who engage in physical sexual contact with other adolescents. By examining the legal frameworks of indecent images and contact offending the paper concludes that there is unfair disparity within the criminal justice system. The Emotional Impact on and Coping Strategies Employed by Police Teams Investigating Internet Child Exploitation. Burns, Carolyn M; Morley, Jeff; Bradshaw, Richard; Domene, José. Traumatology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 20-31, June 2008. Abstract: Work on Internet child exploitation (ICE) teams require individuals to perform a number of investigative tasks, including viewing graphic images and videos of young children being sexually assaulted and tortured, to identify victims and locate perpetrators. Individuals involved in this work may be at higher risk for experiencing secondary traumatic stress because of the graphic images and sounds to which they are exposed. The impact of ICE investigations and what helps and hinders coping with the work was explored using the Critical Incident Technique with 14 members of a Royal Canadian Mounted Police integrated ICE team. Results suggest that there are a number of organizational and personal strategies that can assist those who work in this field to cope more effectively.

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What Human Rights Law Obscures: Global Sex Trafficking And The Demand For Children. Dillon, Sara. UCLA Women's Law Journal, Winter2008, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p121-186, 66p. Abstract: The article focuses on human rights law and its implication to child sex trafficking. The demand for children to be used in a global sex industry has increased, which triggered concern among the international community. The commercial sexual exploitation of children is recognized as one of the most heinous forms of human rights violations and abuses. Moreover, the nature of the demand for trafficked children is also discussed. Cybering, Online Grooming And Ageplay. Kierkegaard, Sylvia. Computer Law and Security Report, Jan2008, Vol. 24 Issue 1, p41-55, 15p. Abstract: Abstract: Recent advances in computer technology have been aiding sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers, child traffickers, and others with the intent of exploiting children. Internet bulletin boards, chat rooms, private websites, and peer-to-peer networks are being used daily by paedophiles to meet unsuspecting children. Compounding the problem is the lack of direct governance by an international body, which will curb the illegal content and activity. Most countries already have laws protecting children, but what is needed is a concerted law enforcement and international legislation to combat child sex abuse. With the enactment of the Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, this may soon become a reality in Europe. This current article will discuss some of the recent legal developments concerning online child protection, including the new Convention. Victims No Longer: Research on Child Survivors of Trafficking for Sexual and Labor Exploitation in the United States, Final Report. Gozdziak, Elzbieta; Bump, Micah N. National Institute of Justice, 2008. URL: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/221891.pdf Abstract: In an attempt to improve the understanding of child trafficking and enhance the system of care, this federally supported study examined the patterns of abuse of child victims of trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation, analyzed the challenges service providers face in assisting child victims, and assessed prospects for integration of child survivors into the wider society. Several emerging themes within the realm of solutions and resolutions are identified; however, the ultimate solution is related to prevention and eradication of child trafficking. Recommendations presented in working toward solutions and resolutions include: (1) the need to earmark development resources to establish high quality educational programs in order to reduce child labor and prevent child trafficking; (2) the need for continued monitoring and assessments of both national and international initiatives to reduce child labor; (3) the need to shift away from monitoring industries and workplaces employing children to the monitoring of children removed from work; and (4) the need to enhance collaboration between actors in source and destination countries interested in reducing child labor and preventing child trafficking. Human trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labor is one of the fastest growing areas of criminal activity. Supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice (NIJ), this report is based on findings from a 12-month study undertaken by the Institute for the Study of International Migration (ISIM) and the Migration and Refugee Services (MRS) to examine patterns of abuse of child victims of trafficking, explore the challenges faced by service F-50

providers assisting child victims, and examine ways to integrate child survivors of trafficking into society. The research focuses on the cohort of child victims receiving services through foster care and unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) programs. By analyzing patterns of victimization before emancipation as well as post-emancipation experiences of child survivors within the United States Federal system of care, this research project attempts to expand the knowledge base of the special service needs of child victims of trafficking, enhance treatment modalities, provide an understanding of repeat victimization, and take steps to prevent it in the future. Does the World of International Aid Need a Watchdog? Naik, Asmita. Forced Migration Review, no. 29, pp. 62-63, Dec 2007. Abstract: Five years on from the scandal of sexual exploitation of West African refugee children by humanitarians, has enough been done to ensure that the system of international humanitarian assistance really does the good it is intended for? Adapted from the source document. Interpreting the Intentions of Internet Predators: An Examination of Online Predatory Behavior. Marcum, Catherine D. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 99 - 114, 2007. Abstract: This study examined three chat room transcripts between adult predators and adult volunteers of the group Perverted Justice who posed as children on the internet in order to provide insight on child sexual abuse on the internet. The findings of the study indicated that of the three men whose transcripts were analyzed, all used manipulation to lure their victims; the predators bluntly indicated their sexual intentions to the adolescent females. Only one man vocalized any sort of reservation about his wrongdoing while aggressively attempting to arrange a sexual encounter. The purpose of the study was to provide an understanding of the speed and aggressive nature of online solicitation of minors for sex. Few studies have actually taken place regarding behaviors and characteristics of Internet predators. The study had several limitations that could be improved in later research. It would be beneficial to review the communications between not only female adolescents and male adults, but also combinations of different genders of adolescents and adults as the type of conversations and deceptions techniques may be quite different between two males than between two females. A greater number of case studies should be examined to allow for a better representation of the population of Internet predators. Analysis of the lifestyles and past experiences of these predators would allow for a better understanding of their choices and activities. Perverted Justice (PeeJ) is a civilian watch group that is dedicated to exposing adult predators searching for children in chat rooms. Volunteers for PeeJ enter chat rooms and pose as children ranging in age from 10 to 15 years old and wait for predators to approach them for conversation. PeeJ methods are supported by the Department of Justice as well as local law enforcement agencies. This line of research proves valuable as it exposes tactics used by predators, helps policymakers counter predators with appropriate preventative courses of action, educates the public regarding the manipulation techniques used to lure children on and offline, and helps children understand how to protect themselves. References

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The Effects of Organizational and Community Context on Local of CSEC Prevalence, Prosecution of Computer Child Pornography Cases., and Services is a project designed by awardee, Fund for the City of New York. The award has a start date of 9/1/2009 and an end date of 2/28/2012. The Center for Court Innovation proposes to collaborate with Richard Curtis, Kirk Dombrowski, and Bilal Khan to conduct a national study that would: (1) estimate the size and scope of the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC); (2) describe the characteristics and needs of CSEC victims; (3) explore available services; and (4) analyze prosecution outcomes for victims and exploiters. The populations of interest would include youth under 18 who are engaged in prostitution, child pornography, or related CSEC activities and those who are controlling or profiting from them. Buzzell, T. Criminal Justice Studies, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 391-405, 2007. Abstract: This study examines how U.S. prosecutors deal with the problem of child pornography as a facet of computer crime. Results from the 2001 National Prosecutors Survey reveal that the likelihood of prosecuting this form of crime increases with having a budget for experts, using alternatives to prosecution, and working in districts with higher crime rates and higher levels of income. Context therefore matters in the prosecution of computer child pornography cases. Further research is necessary, however, to understand how prosecutors handle advanced forms of child sexual exploitation. Mandatory Reporting of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Israel: What Happens After the Report? Oz, Sheri; Balshan, Dorit. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1 - 22, 2007. Abstract: This study outlined issues of mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse, and the inconsistency of post-report interventions in Israel on children and their families. This paper suggests amendments to the mandatory reporting laws in Israel to better protect all children from sexual exploitation while providing consistent and expert professional intervention. Although studies have been conducted regarding the impact of mandated reporting laws on professionals, there is a scarcity of research exploring the impact on families and children affected by mandated reporting. There are several problems regarding mandatory reporting of suspected child abuse in Israel, namely the differences between sexual abuse and other forms of abuse that need to be addressed; far fewer allegations of sexual abuse are substantiated in a court of law than physical abuse or neglect. The tendency of some countries to advocate legal interventions for sexual abuse and therapeutic interventions for other forms of abuse may stem from emotional reactions to sexual abuse rather than the effectiveness of the legal approach. Therefore, sexual abuse should be dealt with using a separate law geared to handle the special nature of sexual abuse that warrants unique expertise on the part of the professional involved, namely an amendment to the law that requires reporting of all cases of suspected sexual abuse regardless of the age of the abuser and the relationship with the victim. So that the mandatory reporting can be an instrument of change, the separate law should clearly stipulate the procedures to be followed after the report has been made and should state the minimal qualifications of an expert in the field of sexual abuse. Future research should include two major issues: the factors associated with disclosure of abuse and the child s expectations, and the consequences of the disclosure for both the child and family members upon implementation of the ensuing legal and/or clinical interventions, including possible differential effects over the long and short terms. Figure, references F-52

Problematic Internet Experiences: Primary Or Secondary Presenting Problems In Persons Seeking Mental Health Care? Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wells, Melissa. Social Science and Medicine, vol. 65, pp. 1136-1141, Sept. 2007. Abstract: This study utilizes data from clinical reports of 1441 youth and adults in the USA to examine the types of problematic Internet experiences mental health professionals report as clients' primary or secondary presenting problems. Overall, clients who present in treatment with an Internet problem are more likely to have problems related to overuse of the Internet; use of adult pornography; use of child pornography; sexual exploitation perpetration; and gaming, gambling, or role-playing. Other Internet-related problems, such as isolative-avoidant use, sexual exploitation victimization, harassment perpetration, and online infidelity were equally likely to present in treatment as a primary problem or secondary to other mental health concerns. Some differences between youth and adult clients were also identified. Findings suggest some initial support for the importance of including Internet use, experiences, and behavior as part of an initial clinical assessment. Youth Sexual Exploitation on the Internet: DSM-IV Diagnoses and Gender Differences in CoOccurring Mental Health Issues. Wells, M. and Mitchell, K. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24(3), pp. 235-260, 2007. Abstract: This paper explores conventional (non-Internet-related) mental health issues and DSMIV diagnoses seen among a sample of 512 youth receiving mental health services for an Internetrelated problem, with particular attention to victims of online sexual exploitation. Youth victims of online sexual exploitation were more likely to have a post-traumatic stress disorder than youth with other Internet-related problems. Specific attention was given to differences among subgroups of female and male youth victims of online sexual exploitation as compared with same-gender youth with other Internet-related problems. Findings suggest the importance of including Internet use and victimization as part of a standard clinical assessment.

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Gender-Based Violence Against Children In Emergencies: Save the Children UK's Response. Hyder, Tina; Veigh, Johanna Mac. Gender and Development, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 81-93, Mar 2007. Abstract: Violence against children is a global phenomenon. During humanitarian crises, and armed conflict in particular, the potential for gender-based violence (GBV), including sexual exploitation, increases. Children, particularly adolescent girls, are vulnerable. This article traces the impact of an expose of sexual abuse by humanitarian workers on the wider protection policies and practices of Save the Children UK. The article concludes that awareness of gender discrimination must underpin the implementation of protection policies for all children and their carers. Furthermore, it proposes that comprehensive responses to GBV must be devised, alongside prevention strategies, if children are to be effectively protected. Adapted from the source document. Are We Protecting Our Youth Online? An Examination of Programs Keeping Youth Safe and Analysis of Policy Vacuum. Marcum, Catherine. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 198 - 212, 2007. Abstract: After reviewing some of the risks of criminal victimization confronting youth who use the Internet, this paper describes the theoretical basis and effectiveness of strategies to prevent the online victimization of youth, and the author suggests some situational-based crime prevention strategies based on empirical evidence. Youth who use the Internet regularly risk being exposed to sexual solicitation, unwanted harassment, and unwanted exposure to sexual material. The Federal Government has made numerous attempts to pass legislation and initiate protective programs that will prevent the online victimization of youth. This paper briefly reviews those Federal statutes that have targeted various harmful online activities but that have been overturned by Federal courts as unconstitutional. Recently, the U.S. Congress has had some success in passing legislation that protects adolescents from online victimization while they are at school. There have also been efforts to mount proactive law enforcement efforts aimed at reducing online victimization. In addition to legislation, the Federal Government has developed various programs that assist law enforcement and parents in protecting children online. The Internet Crimes against Children (ICAC) Task Force Program, developed by the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) in 1998, aimed to help State and local law enforcement agencies create programs that target online enticement and child pornography. One of the more successful programs, CyberTipline and CyberTipline II provide for citizens to report suspicious activity on the Internet. Based on such citizen reports, more than 550 individuals have been arrested for child sexual exploitation, and 627 search warrants have been served. Programs that increase guardianship for youth in their online activities while decreasing their risk of exposure to predators (i.e. digital locks and protections), as well as deter the motivated offender from approaching youth online, should decrease the likelihood of victimization. 62 references.

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Online Requests for Sexual Pictures from Youth: Risk factors and Incident Characteristics. Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., and Wolak, J. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, pp. 196-203, 2007. Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of youth who receive requests to make and send sexual pictures of themselves over the Internet. Methods: Data were collected as part of the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10–17 years, in the United States. Results: Among Internet-using youth 4% reported an online request to send a sexual picture of themselves during the previous year. Only one youth of 65 sample case subjects actually complied. Being female, being of Black ethnicity, having a close online relationship, engaging in sexual behavior online, and experiencing physical or sexual abuse offline were risk factors for receiving a request for a sexual picture. Incidents that involved requests for sexual pictures were more likely to occur when youth were in the presence of friends, communicating with an adult, someone they met online, who had sent a sexual picture to the youth, and who attempted or made some form of offline contact with the youth. Assisting Children Born of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse. Rumble, Lauren; Mehta, Swati B. Forced Migration Review, Mar2007, Issue 27, pp. 20-21, 1 color. Abstract The article deals with the strategy issued by the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General to support victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UN staff. The strategy includes a controversial proposal to introduce DNA sampling for all UN staff. A Task Force on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises was established by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee and a report was published setting out the principles of a code of conduct for humanitarian workers. Factors Vitiating Against the Effectiveness of the Nigeria Police in Combating the Criminal Exploitation of Children and Women. Elechi, O. O.; Okosun, T. Y.; Ngwe, J. E. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-49, 2007. Abstract: This article examines the challenges facing Nigeria's law enforcement in the effort to limit criminal exploitation of children and women. Nigeria is considered a major source and destination for the trafficking of persons for the purposes of sexual work, adoption, labor, and sale of body parts. The present article argues that several factors lead to limited effectiveness for the Nigeria police. These factors include inadequate policing, corruption, deprivation of freedoms, social injustices, few social opportunities, conflicting social values, gender imbalance in education and work, and weak social institutions. In order to address this complex problem, global and local combating strategies are discussed. At the international level, there should be improvements in framework and knowledge regarding trafficking. Locally, the six primary issues that must be addressed are corruption, inadequate social control, poverty, gender inequality, the plight of globalization, and labor opportunities. Short-term goals should focus on education about the problem of trafficking, whereas long-term policy must address the fundamental social and economic conditions that permit trafficking to occur. The Health and Well-Being of Neglected, Abused and Exploited Children: The Kyiv Street Children Project. F-55

Kerfoot, Michael; Koshyl, Vira; Roganov, Oleksandr; Mikhailichenko, Kateryna; Gorbova, Irina; Pottage, David. Child Abuse and Neglect, Jan. 2007, Vol. 31 Issue 1, pp. 27-37. Abstract: Objective: To report on the backgrounds and physical and emotional well-being of street children using two street shelters in Kyiv, Ukraine. This study is important because personal accounts of street children may highlight individual or family factors that are associated with vulnerability for and risk of poor mental health, and these could have serious repercussions for the future. This study also poses a challenge to research because street children are a highly elusive population that services find hard to reach. Methods: Ninety-seven children were recruited and interviewed using a semistructured, psychosocial interview schedule; psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Results: Seventy percent of street children scored for behavioral and emotional difficulties on the SDQ, and 74% scored for depression on the MFQ. Current health problems were reported by 78%, with 43% described as persistent or severe. Two thirds of the children in this sample were not homeless but had chosen life on the streets in preference to permanent residence with their families. Their “survival” history on the streets contributed to the development of three different profiles of vulnerability. Conclusions: High rates of physical and emotional problems in a population of street children, many of whom were still connected to their families, emphasize the importance of developing different approaches for children with different vulnerabilities. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of embedding on-going field research into the service dimension of “front-line” social care agencies. Cyberspace and Child Abuse Images: A Feminist Perspective. Harrison, C. Affilia, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 365-379, 2006. Abstract: This article approaches cyberspace as a socially constructed space in which gendered power relations are replicated and examines how cyberspace has been expropriated to escalate child sexual abuse and other sexual offenses. Making connections between different forms of abuse of women and children demonstrates that feminist perspectives provide an essential framework for understanding how new information and communication technologies are reinforcing attitudes that degrade and dehumanize women and children. Analyzing the relationship between gender and other oppressions challenges the hegemony of discourses that emphasize freedom and the democratizing potential of cyberspace and shows how cyberspace is a site for increased violence and exploitation of women and children. Children in Sex, Adults in Crime: Constructing and Confining Teens. Raby, Rebecca. Resources for Feminist Research/Documentation sur la Recherche Feministe, vol. 31, no. 3-4, pp. 9-28, 2006. Abstract: This paper explores two pieces of legislation proposed in Ontario in 2001, the Rescuing Children from Sexual Exploitation Act and the No-More-Free-Ride for Young Offenders Act, in order to examine how young people are alternatively defined as children and as adults due to current constructs of childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and victimhood. Adapted from the source document.

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Sheldon Kennedy and a Canadian Tragedy Revisited: A Comparative Look at U.S. and Canadian Jurisprudence on Youth Sports Organizations' Civil Liability for Child Sexual Exploitation. Preston, M. Bradford. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Oct. 2006, Vol. 39 Issue 4, pp. 1333-1372. Abstract: National Hockey League player Sheldon Kennedy's 1997 revelation that his awardwinning junior hockey coach had molested him for years created a national outcry in Canada. It resulted in the appointment of a special commission and declarations from the United States and Canada that this must never happen again. However, Kennedy was not alone; child sexual exploitation occurs at the hands of youth coaches across geographic and class boundaries and across individual and team sports. Youth sports organizations, including schools, have approached the human and legal issues presented by child sexual exploitation in numerous ways. This Note analyzes the differences between--and strengths and weaknesses of--U.S. and Canadian courts' respective treatment of these organizations' actions both before and after sexual abuse is discovered. It also examines the degree to which youth sports organizations in both nations have acted to prevent future problems, specifically as compared to the recommendations of the commission formed in response to Kennedy's story. The Author concludes the Canadian judicial standard for youth sports organizations' liability ultimately is superior to the standard employed by U.S. courts. Boys Are Not Sexually Exploited?: A Challenge to Practitioners. Lillywhite, Ralph; Skidmore, Paula. Child Abuse Review, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 351 - 361, September-October 2006. Abstract: This paper argues that the view that boys are not sexually exploited is very common among many professionals in the United Kingdom working with young men and reasons for this belief and reasons for this mindset to change. The issue of boys and young men at risk of sexual exploitation is slowly being recognized by practitioners and more services are expanding their provision to ensure support and facilities are open to boys and young men at risk, as well as girls and young women. This is just the beginning of reducing and preventing sexual exploitation of male children. Until all professionals working with vulnerable young men ask themselves, is this young man being sexually exploited, young men are going to remain hidden and unsupported. This paper draws on evidence collected from Barnardo’s Young Men s Project (BYMP) which provides free and confidential services aimed at preventing and reducing sexual exploitation of male children. BYMP is a London-wide service working with boys under 18 who are experiencing or are vulnerable to sexual exploitation. History and practice have in the past suggested that boys and young men are at no, or low, risk of sexual exploitation. This paper argues that this is impossible to conclude with such a weak knowledge base concerning the extent and nature of sexual exploitation of male children in the United Kingdom. Child Sexual Exploitation: A Partnership Response and Model Intervention. Leblock, Evelyn Kerrigan; King, Siobhan. Child Abuse Review, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 362-372, Sept-Oct 2006. Abstract: The fact of child sexual exploitation is well-known by youth services, but many fail to recognize the vulnerability of children to this abuse even among those presenting with obvious related damage. By the time they become adolescents, they present a challenge to intervention even among the most experienced youth professionals. A model of identification of such children and subsequent risk assessment and intervention developed by a statutory/voluntary partnership F-57

between the Camden (London) Social Services Dept and the north London Barnardo's Young Women's Project is described. The Children Abused through Sexual Exploitation (CATSE) project was established in 1999 to recognize cases of child sexual exploitation (or prostitution), treat the child as a victim of abuse, safeguard such children, work to prevent abuse and help children recover from victimization, and prosecute those responsible. The procedures, methods, and outcomes of the CATSE project are discussed. Meetings the Needs of Sexually Exploited Young People: The Challenge of Conducting PolicyRelevant Research. Scott, Sara; Harper, Zoe. Child Abuse Review, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 313 - 325, September-October 2006. Abstract: This paper presents findings from a research study which explored the extent of, and responses to, the service needs of young people at risk of sexual exploitation in London, England. The research study had a relatively high profile during the 2 years it was being conducted and the interviews themselves inevitably raised awareness of the issues regarding the sexual exploitation of young people. Even though recommendations of the research study were supported by the Metropolitan Police, the Association of London Government, the Greater London Authority, and the Corporation of London, the Baroness Scotland made it clear that the Government had no plans to follow the report’s recommendation to remove the provision to prosecute young people who are considered to persistently and voluntarily return to prostitution. However, indications were seen of the research s immediate value in relation to both policy and service development. The London Child Protection Committee has produced a draft pan-London protocol for working with children who are sexually exploited and has held a consultation seminar. The Bridge House Trust has funded the development of a new specialist service in south London. It provides a service in some of the highest risk boroughs identified in the research and also provides consultancy and training to those boroughs not served by the specialist service, but identified as in need. Meeting the needs of sexually exploited young people in London was commissioned by the Bridge House Trust and the research was undertaken by researchers from Barnardo's Policy and Research Unit. This paper outlines the findings of a 2year study exploring the extent of, and responses to, the service needs of young people at risk of sexual exploitation in London, England. It was a case study in conducting policy-relevant research into a hidden social problem. Data were collected through interviews with key professionals across London. Participation And Young People Involved In Prostitution. Brown, Kate. Child Abuse Review, Sep/Oct2006, Vol. 15 Issue 5, p.294-312. Abstract: This paper discusses a campaign which involves young people with experience of prostitution in influencing policy and practice which affects this group: the National Youth Campaign on Sexual Exploitation (the Youth Campaign). It is argued that participation is critical to improving outcomes for young people involved in prostitution, yet is often overlooked. Through participation, young people with experience of prostitution can build their self-esteem whilst also helping agencies and policy makers develop more effective strategies on youth prostitution. The paper examines in detail one piece of work undertaken by the Youth Campaign: a workshop run by two young women at a national conference on sexual exploitation. In addition, it gives an overview of current research, policy and practice on participation and young F-58

people involved in prostitution and makes recommendations for how practice in this area could be improved. Criminal Exploitation of Women and Children and the Important Role of Community Policing. Murray, John. Police Practice and Research, May2006, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p.125-134. Abstract: Australia, like all other responsible countries, considers the sexual exploitation of women and children an abhorrent criminal act and accordingly regards this activity as a priority public policy issue. Consistent with the UN protocols, Australia has committed considerable resources to the pursuit of offenders and has in place severe penalties. Relentless pursuit of offenders is critical but this paper draws attention to the emphasis the UN has placed on identifying the women and children as ‘victims’ and the consequent need to provide them with the rights, privileges, and due sensitivities that we afford victims of other crimes. The context in which policing takes place has, arguably, changed since ‘September 11.’ Some police services have tended to move away from community policing and return to the traditional model of policing. For the prevention and detection of crimes like sexual exploitation this is seen as a counter‐productive move. Traditional policing distances police from the rest of the community— while it is difficult for police to gain mutual respect and trust with the community for conventional crimes, the unique nature of sexual exploitation places additional challenges on police which are best met by maintaining community policing, its fine ethical principles and its practical resolve. Trafficking In Women and Children (Part 2): Strategies and Responses. Egan, R. Community Safety Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 14-16, 2006. Abstract: This second part of a literature review on the trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation examines some policy responses to the problem and the dilemmas faced by practitioners. There are a number of strategies and tactics adopted by different countries in tackling trafficking. The direction of these policies depends on the emphasis determined by the political concerns involved. Overall, four guidelines first introduced at the 2004 International Police Executive Symposium should be added to the U.N. Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime and its Protocols. Although they have yet to be adopted, these are sound organizing principles that should also be reflected in local partnership strategies. Reuniting Fractured Families After a Disaster: The Role of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Broughton, Daniel D.; Allen, Ernest E.; Hannemann, Robert E.; Petrikin, Joshua E. Pediatrics, May2006 Supplement, Vol. 117, p. S442-S445. Abstract: The article focuses on the role of the U.S. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) in reuniting families who were dislocated by the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana in 2005. Records show how efficient NCMEC is in locating missing children and reuniting them with their families. It implements systems and programs designed to search for missing children in different locales. When Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans, children where dislocated from their families. NCMEC created programs specifically to aid in reuniting the families, such as a hotline with a unique toll-free number and a

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collaboration with law enforcement officers. It also used the opportunity to emphasized the importance of creating a family emergency plan. The Sexual Exploitation of Children in Mexico. Azaola, Elena. Police Practice and Research, May2006, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p. 97-110, 3 charts. Abstract: This paper describes research conducted into the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Mexico. It describes the economic circumstances that give rise to the phenomenon and provides an estimation of the numbers of children in seven cities in Mexico. The nature and methods of the exploiters are described and recommendations are made for improvements in law, practice, and procedure to tackle the problem. The Flesh Trade in Europe: Trafficking in Women and Children for the Purpose of Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Melrose, Margaret; Barrett, David. Police Practice and Research, May2006, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p. 111-123. Abstract: This paper explores the phenomenon of trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) in the context of a changing Europe and pays particular attention to the situation in the UK. It discusses difficulties with defining the issue of trafficking and the reasons for an apparent increase in this phenomenon in recent years. It then considers trafficking as a process and the challenges of measuring the scale of the problem. The paper goes on to consider trafficking routes and examines the situation in Britain. Finally, official responses to the problem in Britain are considered. An Overwhelming Sense of Injustice? An Exploration of Child Sexual Abuse in Relation to the Concept of Justice. Green, Lorraine. Critical Social Policy, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 74-100, Feb 2006. Abstract: This article explores the relationship between justice and child sexual abuse, developing a broader theoretical conception of justice than that customarily applied. The traditional legal perception of justice as the attempted prosecution of alleged perpetrators is widened to encompass justice as initial prevention of abuse, the fair treatment of children by the criminal justice and child protection systems, and the subsequent after-care and compensation of abused children and adults. Concepts of justice are therefore examined within a chronological lifecourse trajectory, as well as being extended from traditional notions of due process and desert including understandings of justice as human rights, 'fair shares' and liberation. Particular social constructions of childhood are revealed to be highly significant regarding how justice is perceived and operationalized. Therefore, the interaction between perceptions of justice and responses to child sexual abuse is examined, relative to wider understandings of childhood. Exploiting West Africa's Children: Trafficking, Slavery and Uneven Development. Manzo, Kate. Area, Dec2005, Vol. 37 Issue 4, p.393-401, 3 charts. Abstract: This paper analyses child trafficking and slavery in relation to media coverage of West African children, international law and academic research within geography and development studies. The meaning and practice of child trafficking is examined in the context of related F-60

debates about child labour, exploitation and uneven development. The analysis highlights key differences between trafficking and slavery, thereby illuminating the varying forms of exploitation at work in different relations of power. Trafficking in Children for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation in the EU. Staiger, Ines. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 2005, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p.603624. Abstract This article looks at developments concerning trafficking in children for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the European Union, focusing on the European Commission's Council Framework Decision of July 19, 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings. Article 1 of the framework defines tracking in children for purpose of sexual exploitation. At the heart of it stands the trafficking operation. This covers recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring and subsequent reception of the child. An underlying goal of the trafficking process is the sexual exploitation of the trafficked child. Another goal is the approximation of criminal sanctions. In summary, the framework does provide for requirements to facilitate the prosecution of trafficking in children but it does not adequately follow such objective with regard to criminal sanctions. Acceptable Victims? Sexually Exploited Youth in the U.S. Lloyd, Rachel. Encounter, Autumn 2005, Vol. 18 Issue 3, pp. 6-18. Abstract: The article focuses on the sexual exploitation of children in the U.S. in September 2005. A study conducted in 2001 states that hundreds of thousands of adolescents are sexually exploited annually in the U.S. Several factors have been cited as the cause of youth prostitution. The media also has a role in the celebrity-like status bestowed upon pimps and exploiters. National advocates indicate that the prostitution of adolescents is rampant in New York City. Violence and Exploitation of Children in Tajikistan. Haarr, Robin. Central Asian Survey, Jun2005, Vol. 24 Issue 2, pp. 131-149. Abstract Analyzes the phenomenon of violence and exploitation of children in Tajikistan. Violence as defined by the WHO Report on Violence and Health; Government statistics on violence and exploitation of children; Social science research on the subject; Requirements for achieving the progressive implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. International Trafficking In Children: Will New U.S Legislation Provide An Ending To The Story? Mathews, Stacey. Houston Journal of International Law, Spring 2005, Vol. 27 Issue 3, pp. 649-702. Abstract: Focuses on the growing problem with sexual exploitation and child trafficking. Requirement for a multinational response with international coordination of law enforcement to address the problem; Consideration of poverty as another root of trafficking and child prostitution; Role played by organized crime in many countries where trafficking occurs.

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Trafficking of Women and Children for Exploitation in the Commercial Sex Trade: The Case of the Russian Federation. Orlova, Alexandra V. Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law, Symposium Issue 2005, Vol. 6 Issue 2, pp.157-178. Abstract This article focuses on trafficking of women and children for exploitation in the commercial sex trade. The trafficking of human beings for exploitation in the commercial sex trade is not a new phenomenon. Trafficking has been endemic in South and Southeast Asia for decades. However, relatively recent changes in the global economy account for both the increase in human trafficking as well as trafficking from a variety of new "source" countries, including countries with transitional economies that were created after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Russia in particular has experienced, and continues to experience, a "regional crisis" in trafficking. The difficulties in dealing with the problem of human trafficking are exacerbated by the absence of consensus over a definition of this phenomenon. Various governmental and nongovernmental bodies that deal with human trafficking define it differently. Some agencies are only concerned with trafficking that is transnational in scope, disregarding regional and intranational manifestations of this problem. Commercial and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Young People in the UK—A Review. Chase, Elaine; Statham, June. Child Abuse Review, Jan/Feb2005, Vol. 14 Issue 1, pp. 4-25. Abstract: This paper reviews recent information and data relevant to the commercial sexual exploitation of children and young people in the UK. Three main aspects of exploitation are addressed: abuse through prostitution; abuse through pornography; and the trafficking of children and young people to and through the UK for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Most published research in this area relates to young people exploited through prostitution. The review explores the range of vulnerability factors, the processes used to engage young people in prostitution and the types of support strategies for those being exploited. Rather less information is currently available on the scale of child pornography, or the links between the use of pornography and other forms of sexual abuse. The internet as a modern technology for proliferating child pornography is discussed, alongside its role in providing opportunities for paedophiles to access and ‘groom’ children for sexual purposes. Finally, the review provides a summary of research on trafficking of children to and through the UK for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and demonstrates the limited knowledge about this topic. Human Trafficking in East Asia: Current Trends, Data Collection, and Knowledge Gaps. Lee, June J. H. International Migration, 2005, Vol. 43 Issue 1/2, pp. 165-201. Abstract: Focuses on the movement of people and volume of migration flows in East Asia. Focus on trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation and highlight serious violations of human rights; Examination of the general trends in human trafficking; Factors contributing to the rapid growth of a market-driven intraregional migration. Preventing Sexual Exploitation of Children and Teens. Iton, Anthony; Oliver, Mary Margaret; Torgensen, Kirk. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, Winter2005 Supplement, Vol. 33 Issue 4, pp.38-39.

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Abstract The article presents the views of some conference participants concerning sexual exploitation of children and teens in the U. S. One conference moderator noted that the problems of sexual exploitation involves law enforcement, social services and health organizations and the advocacy groups. Another speaker called the attention of political entities to focus on cases of child exploitation. Financial Exploitation of the Sexuality of Migrant Children in Greece. Antonopoulos, Georgios A. Crime and Justice International, vol. 20, no. 83, pp. 19 - 22, November/December 2004. Abstract: This article provides a brief overview of the financial exploitation of the sexuality of migrant children in the country of Greece and combative measures to address this exploitation. Since the beginning of the 1990's, Greece has experienced a large influx of migrants which include: Albanians, Bulgarians, Georgians, Romanians, Russians, and Ukrainians. This influx of migrants has created the exploitation of migrant children, who are being trafficked for a variety of purposes, such as sexual exploitation. According to a recent study, about 7.5 percent (1,005) of the average 13,400 individuals who were trafficked annually from 1990 to 2000 in Greece were children with the majority of the children coming from Albania. The methods for recruiting children include: abduction, selling protection to unaccompanied children crossing the GreekAlbanian border, purchase from family and/or relatives, false marriage proposal, false promise of work, and exploitation by members of the family. Those measures undertaken to combat the trafficking of children usually fall within the context of measures undertaken against the trafficking in human beings in general. There are international initiatives taken among the members of the United Nations, the European Union, and others, as well as local and national measures. In addition, the new Law 3064 of 2002 includes harsher penalties for traffickers of children. References "Don't Trust Me With Your Child": Non-Legal Precautions When the Law Cannot Prevent Sexual Exploitation in Youth Sports. Peterson, Jamie. Texas Review of Entertainment and Sports Law, Spring 2004, Vol. 5 Issue 2, pp. 297-323. Abstract: Discusses laws aimed at preventing and remedying child exploitation by youth coaches, with a particular focus on Texas law. Reasons behind the difficulties for a sexually abused athlete to achieve full civil remedy; Proponents and opponents of coaching background checks; Non-legal methods for the prevention of sexual exploitation of child-athletes. The Sexual and Mental Health Problems of Street Children: A Transcultural Preventative Approach in Counselling Psychology. Guernina, Zoubida. Counselling Psychology Quarterly; 17 (1) Mar 2004, pp. 99-105. Abstract: Sexual and mental health problems are on the increase world-wide especially among street children. A high proportion of vulnerable children who live in the street suffer exploitation, poor quality of life that often lead to sexual and mental health problems. Evidence is needed on the theoretical perspectives taken to address the existing gaps in counselling psychology research and practice on the plight of street children. It is also important to identify interventions that could be implemented to prevent the expansion of sexual and mental health problems among street children. Because of paucity of evidence in counselling psychology, an attempt has been F-63

made to highlight the risks factors associated with street children such as sexual exploitation, engaging in unsafe sex at an early age, promiscuity, unplanned pregnancy which tend to lead to mental health problems. Case studies are presented that illustrate the importance of a preventative transcultural approach in counselling psychology. U.S. Domestic Prosecution of the American International Sex Tourist. Andrews, Sara K. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Winter2004, Vol. 94 Issue 2, pp. 415-454. Abstract The article highlights the efforts of the U.S. to protect children from sexual exploitation as of 2003. The commercial sexual exploitation of minors by international tourists is a humanitarian tragedy carried out on a grand scale with virtually no repercussions for the criminal perpetrators. Over the past decade, the U.S. has publicly recognized the severity of the problem of child sexual exploitation on a global level and has undertaken measures designed to help solve the problem. In June 2002, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Sex Tourism Prohibition Improvement Act of 2002, declaring the bill would close significant loopholes in the existing law. Through its legislative efforts and support for the Optional Protocol, the U.S. has taken steps to acknowledge the gravity of the global problem of child sexual exploitation, as well as the complicity of U.S. citizens in its perpetuation. However, recognition of the severity of the problem, although an important development, is only the first step in the process of addressing child sexual exploitation in a meaningful and effective way. Since its passage in 1994, the Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Act has resulted in few actual prosecutions of U.S. nationals who traveled abroad for the purpose of committing sex crimes against minors. Internet-initiated Sex Crimes Against Minors: Implications for Prevention Based on Findings from a National Study. Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., and Mitchell, K. J. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 424.e11–424.e20, 2004. Abstract: Purpose: To describe the characteristics of episodes in which juveniles became victims of sex crimes committed by people they met through the Internet. Methods: A national survey of a stratified random sample of 2574 law enforcement agencies conducted between October 2001 and July 2002. Telephone interviews were conducted with local, state, and federal law enforcement investigators concerning 129 sexual offenses against juvenile victims that originated with online encounters. Results: Victims in these crimes were primarily 13- through 15-year-old teenage girls (75%) who met adult offenders (76% older than 25) in Internet chat rooms. Most offenders did not deceive victims about the fact that they were adults who were interested in sexual relationships. Most victims met and had sex with the adults on more than one occasion. Half of the victims were described as being in love with or feeling close bonds with the offenders. Almost all cases with male victims involved male offenders. Offenders used violence in 5% of the episodes. Sexual Crimes against and Exploitation of Children and the Law in Papua New Guinea. Luluaki, John Y. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 275-307, Dec 2003. Abstract: On 28 Mar 2002, the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea (PNG) passed the Criminal Code (Sexual Offences and Crimes Against Children) Act (the new law). Its purpose was to repeal certain sections and amend others of the Criminal Code, Ch. 262 (the Code) F-64

dealing with sexual offenses against children to reflect more appropriately the changed and changing circumstances of sexual violence against women and children in the country. The old Criminal Code provisions relating to sexual offenses against children and women generally went under the legislative scalpel changing completely the landscape of the old provisions with this enactment. The purpose of this article is to discuss the different provisions contained in the new law dealing with the issue of sexual crimes against children. This is done in the context of both legislative reform of outdated criminal laws and PNG's international obligation to safeguard children from all forms of abuse and exploitation and protect the rights of children. 9 References. Adapted from the source document. The Legacy of the Clergy Abuse Scandal. Finkelhor, David. Child Abuse and Neglect; 27 (11) Nov 2003, pp.1225-1229. Abstract: The clergy abuse scandal in the Catholic Church has left its mark on child protection efforts. It was a major national story about child maltreatment that has dominated the media for more than a year, prompting discussions about child exploitation issues in countless homes and organizations. Asks whether it has ultimately helped the cause of child protection and concludes that the controversy has had a complex kind of impact in the United States, both positive and negative. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth the South Africa. Snell, Cudore L. Journal of Negro Education, Fall2003, Vol. 72 Issue 4, pp. 506-514. Abstract: This article provides an overview of commercial exploitation, with a focus on commercial sexual exploitation of Black children and youth in South Africa. A literature review on research on the labor exploitation among youth globally and in South Africa and on the commercial sexual exploitation of South African youth is presented first. International and national policy proclamations related to South African youth are highlighted. Second, findings from a study of Black South African youth who engaged in commercial sexual activities in Cape Town are presented. Third, conclusions and recommendations to consider the complex social, educational, economic, and political aspects of child exploitation are offered. This includes implications for further research, policy, and programs to assist this group of youth and their families. Sexual Abuse, Family Violence, and Female Delinquency: Findings from a Longitudinal Study. Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura Ann. Violence and Victims, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 319-334, June 2003. Abstract: The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (1) child exposure to marital violence, (2) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and reinterviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a F-65

history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation. 8 Tables, 34 References.

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