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Summary Reporting System (SRS) User Manual - FBI — Uniform

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U. S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation Criminal Justice Information Services Division

Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program

Summary Reporting System (SRS) User Manual Version 1.0 Document Date: 06/20/2013 Prepared by: Law Enforcement Support Section (LESS) Crime Statistics Management Unit (CSMU)

CHANGE DESCRIPTION SUMMARY Revision Date

Change Description

Comments

1.0

SRS Manual Initial Release

Replaces the 2004 UCR Handbook and all previous SRS manuals.

06/20/2013

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Table of Contents

CHANGE DESCRIPTION SUMMARY .................................................................................................. 2 FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................... 10 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................... 11 Book Contents ........................................................................................................................... 11 Uniform Crime Reporting Program Publications...................................................................... 12 Historical Background............................................................................................................... 12 The National Incident-Based Reporting System ....................................................................... 14 Advisory Groups ....................................................................................................................... 14 Quality Assurance Review (QAR) ............................................................................................ 14 Objectives of the QAR .......................................................................................................... 15 State, Territorial, Tribal, and Federal UCR Quality Assurance Reviews.............................. 16 Training and Education ............................................................................................................. 16 UCR Programs .......................................................................................................................... 17 Crime Data Needs ..................................................................................................................... 18 Guidelines for Records Management ........................................................................................ 18 CHAPTER I—GENERAL INFORMATION ........................................................................................ 20 Classifying and Scoring ............................................................................................................ 20 Offenses ..................................................................................................................................... 20 Part I Offenses ....................................................................................................................... 20 Part II Offenses ...................................................................................................................... 21 Persons Arrested ........................................................................................................................ 22 Jurisdiction ................................................................................................................................ 22 Hierarchy Rule .......................................................................................................................... 23 Separation of Time and Place Rule ........................................................................................... 26 CHAPTER II—CLASSIFYING OFFENSES......................................................................................... 28

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CRIMINAL HOMICIDE (1) .................................................................................................... 28 Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) .................................... 28 Justifiable Homicide.................................................................................................................. 30 Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b) ...................................................... 31 RAPE (2) ................................................................................................................................... 32 Rape—Completed (2a) .......................................................................................................... 32 Rape—Attempts to Commit Rape (2b) ................................................................................. 33 Historical Rape (2c) ............................................................................................................... 34 ROBBERY (3) .......................................................................................................................... 35 Robbery—Firearm (3a) ......................................................................................................... 36 Robbery—Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b) ......................................................................... 36 Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c) ............................................................................ 36 Robbery—Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc. (3d)........................................................... 37 ASSAULT (4) ........................................................................................................................... 37 Aggravated Assault................................................................................................................ 37 Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a) ....................................................................................... 38 Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b) ....................................................... 39 Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c) .......................................................... 39 Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d) ............................. 39 Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e) ..................................................................... 40 Aids to Classifying Assaults .................................................................................................. 41 BURGLARY—BREAKING OR ENTERING (5) ................................................................... 42 Hotel Rule .............................................................................................................................. 43 Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) .............................................................................................. 44 Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) ......................................................................... 45 Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c) ............................................................................ 45 LARCENY-THEFT (6)............................................................................................................. 46 Pocket-picking (6Xa) ............................................................................................................. 47 Purse-snatching (6Xb) ........................................................................................................... 47 Shoplifting (6Xc) ................................................................................................................... 47 4

Theft From Motor Vehicles (Except Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories) (6Xd) 48 Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories (6Xe)............................................................ 48 Theft of Bicycles (6Xf).......................................................................................................... 49 Theft From Buildings (6Xg) .................................................................................................. 49 Theft From Coin-Operated Device or Machine (6Xh) .......................................................... 49 All Other Larceny-Theft Not Specifically Classified (6Xi) .................................................. 50 MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT (7) ............................................................................................... 51 Motor Vehicle Theft—Autos (7a) ......................................................................................... 51 Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b) ...................................................................... 52 Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c)........................................................................... 52 ARSON (8)................................................................................................................................ 52 Arson—Structural (8a–g) ...................................................................................................... 53 Arson—Mobile (8h–i) ........................................................................................................... 53 Arson—Other (8j).................................................................................................................. 54 Cautions In Classifying Arson............................................................................................... 54 Human Trafficking Classifications ........................................................................................... 55 Human Trafficking—Commercial Sex Acts (9) ....................................................................... 55 Human Trafficking—Involuntary Servitude (10) ..................................................................... 57 CHAPTER III ........................................................................................................................................... 59 SCORING OFFENSES ............................................................................................................. 59 Crimes Against the Person Versus Crimes Against Property ................................................... 59 CRIMINAL HOMICIDE (1) .................................................................................................... 60 Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) ........................................ 60 Justifiable Homicide .............................................................................................................. 64 Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b) ...................................................... 65 RAPE (2) ................................................................................................................................... 67 Rape—Rape (2a), Historical Definition of Rape (2c) ........................................................... 67 Rape—Attempts to Commit Rape (2b) ................................................................................. 69 Rape (2a)................................................................................................................................ 70 5

ROBBERY (3) .......................................................................................................................... 71 Robbery—Firearm (3a) ......................................................................................................... 71 Robbery—Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b) ......................................................................... 73 Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c) ............................................................................ 74 Robbery—Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc. (3d)........................................................... 76 ASSAULT (4) ........................................................................................................................... 77 Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a) ....................................................................................... 77 Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b) ....................................................... 79 Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c) .......................................................... 80 Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d) ............................. 82 Assault—Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e) ..................................................... 84 BURGLARY—BREAKING OR ENTERING (5) ................................................................... 89 Hotel Rule .............................................................................................................................. 89 Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) .............................................................................................. 91 Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) ......................................................................... 92 Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c) ............................................................................ 94 LARCENY-THEFT (6)............................................................................................................. 95 MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT (7) ............................................................................................... 98 Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b) .................................................................... 100 Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c)......................................................................... 101 ARSON (8).............................................................................................................................. 102 Arson—Structural (8a–g) .................................................................................................... 102 Arson—Mobile (8h–i) ......................................................................................................... 106 Arson—Other (8j)................................................................................................................ 107 Human Trafficking—Commercial Sex Acts (A) .................................................................... 108 Human Trafficking—Involuntary Servitude (B)..................................................................... 109 CHAPTER IV ........................................................................................................................................ 110 MONTHLY REPORTING ..................................................................................................... 110 RETURN A—MONTHLY RETURN OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE ........... 110 6

Column 1: Classification of Offenses ................................................................................. 110 Column 2: Offenses Reported or Known to Police ............................................................ 111 Column 3: Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints ................................................ 111 Column 4: Number of Actual Offenses .............................................................................. 112 Column 5: Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means ................................. 112 Column 6: Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age ........ 112 Clearances Explained .......................................................................................................... 112 Computing the Grand Total ................................................................................................. 117 Adjustments of Previous Returns ........................................................................................ 118 SUPPLEMENT TO RETURN A ............................................................................................ 123 Valuation of Stolen Property ............................................................................................... 123 Property by Type and Value ................................................................................................ 125 Reconciling the Supplement to Return A ............................................................................ 133 MONTHLY RETURN OF ARSON OFFENSES KNOWN TO LAW ENFORCEMENT ... 134 AGE, SEX, RACE, AND ETHNICITY (ASRE) OF PERSONS ARRESTED ..................... 138 Racial Designations ............................................................................................................. 139 Classifying and Scoring Arrests .......................................................................................... 139 Preparing the ASRE ............................................................................................................. 140 Juveniles .............................................................................................................................. 141 Police Disposition Of Juveniles (Not Including Neglect or Traffic Cases) ........................ 142 1.

Handled Within Department and Released. ................................................................. 143

2.

Referred to Juvenile Court or Probation Department. ................................................. 143

3.

Referred to Welfare Agency. ....................................................................................... 143

4.

Referred to Other Police Agency. ................................................................................ 143

5.

Referred to Criminal or Adult Court............................................................................ 143

TOTAL ................................................................................................................................ 144 SUPPLEMENTARY HOMICIDE REPORT ......................................................................... 144 Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter ............................................................................. 144 ASRE ................................................................................................................................... 145 Weapon Used ....................................................................................................................... 145 7

Relationship of Victim to Offender ..................................................................................... 146 Circumstances ...................................................................................................................... 146 Manslaughter by Negligence ............................................................................................... 146 LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS KILLED AND ASSAULTED .................................... 147 Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted (Form 1-705)............................................ 148 Analysis of Officers Feloniously Killed and Assaulted (Form 1-701) ................................ 149 Analysis of Officers Accidentally Killed (Form 1-701a) .................................................... 149 Guidelines for Completing Form 1-705 .............................................................................. 149 Scoring Scenarios for Completing Form 1-705 ................................................................... 151 Monthly LEOKA Report (Form 1-705) ............................................................................... 157 LAW ENFORCEMENT EMPLOYEES REPORT ................................................................ 159 CHAPTER V ......................................................................................................................................... 160 PART II OFFENSES .............................................................................................................. 160 9. Other Assaults .................................................................................................................... 160 10. Forgery and Counterfeiting .............................................................................................. 160 11. Fraud................................................................................................................................. 161 12. Embezzlement .................................................................................................................. 162 13. Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing ............................................................ 162 14. Vandalism......................................................................................................................... 162 15. Weapons: Carrying, Possessing, Etc. .............................................................................. 162 16. Prostitution and Commercialized Vice ............................................................................ 163 17. Sex Offenses (Except Rape and Prostitution and Commercialized Vice) ....................... 163 18. Drug Abuse Violations ..................................................................................................... 164 19. Gambling .......................................................................................................................... 165 20. Offenses Against the Family and Children ...................................................................... 165 21. Driving Under the Influence ............................................................................................ 166 22. Liquor Laws ..................................................................................................................... 166 23. Drunkenness ..................................................................................................................... 166 24. Disorderly Conduct .......................................................................................................... 167 8

25. Vagrancy .......................................................................................................................... 167 26. All Other Offenses ........................................................................................................... 167 27. Suspicion .......................................................................................................................... 168 28. Curfew and Loitering Laws (Persons under age 18) ........................................................ 169 29. Runaways (Persons under age 18) ................................................................................... 169 30. Assisting and Promoting Prostitution............................................................................... 169 31. Purchasing Prostitution .................................................................................................... 169 GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................... 170 INDEX .................................................................................................................................................... 176

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FOREWORD The UCR Program has expanded in scope, importance, and size since its inception over eight decades ago. The FBI UCR Program began with law enforcement agencies (LEAs) in 400 cities from 43 states submitting crime data in January 1930 and now encompasses more than 18,000 LEAs nationwide that voluntarily contribute their crime statistics. Without the support of these city, county, state, tribal, and federal agencies, the FBI UCR Program could not fulfill its mission to generate a reliable set of crime statistics for use in law enforcement administration, operation, and management. To ensure the best reporting possible, the UCR staff developed, and has further revised, this handbook 1 to assist participating agencies in submitting crime data to the FBI. This document helps agency staff understand and accurately report their agency’s crime which is crucial to a wide variety of data users who formulate policies, make strategic and operational decisions, and conduct criminological research and analysis. Inquiries concerning the UCR Program may be addressed to: Uniform Crime Reporting Program Federal Bureau of Investigation 1000 Custer Hollow Road Clarksburg, WV 26306 (304) 625-4830 [email protected]

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Available at www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr and the UCR special interest group on www.leo.gov.

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INTRODUCTION Uniform crime reporting is a collective effort by city, county, state, tribal, and federal LEAs to present a nationwide view of crime. Agencies throughout the country participate in the FBI UCR Program and provide monthly summarized reports on ten Part I offenses known to law enforcement and reports on persons arrested. The Part I offenses, murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, human trafficking–commercial sex acts, human trafficking–involuntary servitude, burglary, motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, and arson, are considered indicators of the level of crime occurring within the United States. Crime reports also provide information about law enforcement officers killed and assaulted, hate crime, and cargo theft. In the 1980s, the FBI UCR Program implemented the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), which collects incident-level data on victims, offenders, arrestees, property, and more detailed offense information for 50 different offenses. For the purposes of SRS reporting and publication, NIBRS is converted to Summary offenses, or simplified, in order to represent NIBRS agencies in UCR Program publications. Approximately 33 percent of agencies report crime data in the NIBRS format, and is available to the public when requested. Most agencies submit crime reports through a centralized crime records facility, called a state UCR Program. State UCR Programs then forward data, using uniform offense definitions, to the FBI UCR Program. Agencies in states that do not have a state UCR Program submit their statistics directly to the FBI UCR Program. Agencies interested in using electronic reporting can contact the UCR Program Office at 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Clarksburg WV, 26306, or by telephone at (304) 625-4830.

Book Contents The SRS User Manual’s main function is to describe how SRS offenses are to be classified, scored, and reported to the UCR Program. Chapter I provides general information about what constitutes an incident of crime, classification and scoring of offenses, and the Hierarchy Rule. Chapter II discusses how Part I offenses are classified and Chapter III explains how Part I offenses are counted for reporting to the UCR Program. Chapter IV explains how offenses, clearances, property, and arrest data are reported to the FBI 2. This section also provides instruction for reporting police employment and Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) data. Chapter V discusses the breakdown of Part II offenses, for which, only arrest information is collected.

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The discussion in Chapter IV broadly discusses reporting concepts. The specific requirements for electronically reporting UCR data to the UCR Program are fully documented in the SRS Technical Specification at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/summary_reporting_technical_specification_version_1.0_05-25-2012.pdf

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Uniform Crime Reporting Program Publications The FBI produces three annual publications: Crime in the United States, Hate Crime Statistics, and Law Enforcement Officers Killed & Assaulted, all of which have become sources of data widely used by law enforcement administrators, government policy makers, social science researchers, the media, and private citizens. Additionally, UCR data are often considered by the federal government in administering law enforcement grants. The annual publication, Crime in the United States, is a detailed report of offense, arrest, and police employment data. Twice a year, the FBI UCR Program also publishes reports in the Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report and the Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report, which provide the percent change of the Part I offenses from the previous reporting period for population groups and geographical regions. The annual publication Law Enforcement Officers Killed & Assaulted provides detailed information on local, state, tribal, and federal officers killed and assaulted in the line of duty, including the circumstances regarding the incidents, type of duty assignments, weapons used, etc. The report also includes trend data for states and geographic regions. Once a year, the FBI publishes a press release that provides preliminary data on law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty. The FBI publishes the annual Hate Crime Statistics. This publication includes data on criminal offenses committed against persons, property, or society that are motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, gender, or gender identity.

Historical Background Recognizing a need for national crime statistics, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) formed the Committee on Uniform Crime Records in 1927 to develop a system for collecting uniform police statistics. The Committee first determined the number of offenses known to law enforcement, whether or not there was an arrest, was the most appropriate measure of the nation’s criminality. Next, the members evaluated crimes on the basis of their seriousness, frequency of occurrence, geographic pervasiveness, and likelihood of being reported to law enforcement. Based on this assessment, the Committee identified seven crimes to be reported to the FBI UCR Program: homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. From the beginning, the Committee realized the differences among criminal codes precluded aggregating state statistics to national totals. To avoid these problems and provide nationwide uniformity in crime reporting, the Committee created standardized offense definitions by which LEAs submitted data without regard for local statutes. In 1929, the Committee’s work was published as Uniform Crime Reporting, a complete manual for police records and statistics. The manual established uniform definitions for Part I and Part II 12

crimes and described procedures for completing the Return A, Monthly Return of Offenses Known to the Police. During that year, LEAs in 400 cities from 43 states and the territories of Puerto Rico, Alaska, and Hawaii submitted statistics to the IACP, which subsequently published the first monthly Uniform Crime Reports for the United States and Its Possessions. The pamphlet consisted of one table, “Number of Offenses Known to the Police: January 1930.” At the urging of the IACP, Congress enacted legislation in 1930 authorizing the Attorney General to gather crime information. The Attorney General, William D. Mitchell, designated the FBI to serve as the national clearinghouse for the data collected, and the FBI assumed responsibility for managing the UCR Program in September 1930. Over the years, the scope of the FBI UCR Program expanded in response to suggestions from law enforcement advisory groups or to comply with federal mandates. For example, agencies began contributing data on the age, sex, and race of arrestees in 1952. In 1958, upon the recommendation of the Committee on Uniform Crime Reporting, the FBI incorporated the concept of a national Crime Index, the total of six Part I offenses and larceny over $50, to serve as a general indicator of criminality. Crime in the United States, 1960, presented the first full year of reporting for the 50 states, including the new states Alaska and Hawaii. Also in 1960, the UCR Program first collected national statistics on law enforcement officers killed. In 1962, the FBI UCR Program published the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR). For the first time, national data were available concerning the age, sex, and race of murder victims, the weapon used, and the circumstances surrounding the offense. Changes to the UCR Program over the next several decades included collecting more comprehensive data regarding law enforcement officers killed and assaulted, arson, and crimes motivated by bias. In 1972, the UCR Program began gathering specific information on incidents in which officers were killed or assaulted. In 1978, Congress mandated the collection of arson data and, in 1982, directed the FBI to permanently count arson as a Part I offense. Beginning in 1980, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) authorized the FBI to collect ethnic origin data regarding persons arrested. The UCR Program collected ethnicity data until 1987, when the OMB’s authorization of the collection expired. Following passage of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990, the UCR Program began collecting the additional variable of bias motivation in incidents in which the offense resulted in whole or in part because of the offender’s prejudice against a race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin. In 1994, Congress amended the Act to include bias against physical or mental disability. Congress also passed the 2005 USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act which mandates the UCR Program to collect incident-level crime data on cargo theft offenses. The William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 made human trafficking for involuntary servitude and commercial sex acts Part I offenses. In 2009, Congress passed the Matthew Shepard Act requiring the FBI to add gender and gender identity to the Hate Crime collection. Most recently in 2011, the definition of rape was updated to allow the reporting of male victims, victims of sodomy, and victims of sexual assaults with objects.

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The National Incident-Based Reporting System By the 1980s, law enforcement called for a complete overhaul and modernization of the UCR Program. At a conference on the future of UCR, which was held in Elkridge, Maryland, in 1984, participants began developing a national data collection system that would gather information about each crime incident. By the end of the decade, NIBRS was operational. Since 1990, several additional crimes have been added to NIBRS which now collects data on each incident and arrest within 23 offense categories made up of 49 specific crimes called Group A offenses. For each incident known to police within these categories, law enforcement collects administrative, offense, victim, property, offender, and arrestee information. In addition to the Group A offenses, there are 10 Group B offenses for which only arrest data are collected. Providing considerably more detail, NIBRS yields richer and more meaningful data than those produced by the traditional SRS. The conference attendees recommended allowing NIBRS reporting to proceed at a pace commensurate with the resources and limitations of contributing LEAs. By 2013, approximately 33 percent of LEAs report data in the NIBRS format.

Advisory Groups The Criminal Justice Information Systems Committees of the IACP and the National Sheriffs’ Association (NSA) represents local law enforcement in the FBI’s UCR Program. The IACP represents thousands of police departments nationwide and the NSA encourages sheriffs throughout the country to participate fully in the UCR Program. Both committees serve in advisory capacities concerning the UCR Program’s operation. In 1988, a Data Providers’ Advisory Policy Board was established and operated until 1993 when it combined with the National Crime Information Center Advisory Policy Board to form a single Advisory Policy Board (APB) to address all FBI criminal justice information services. The current APB advises the FBI concerning UCR policy and procedures. Specifically, the UCR Subcommittee of the APB ensures continuing emphasis on UCR-related issues. Another group, the Association of State Uniform Crime Reporting Programs focuses on UCR issues within individual state law enforcement associations and promotes interest in the UCR Program. These organizations foster widespread and responsible use of uniform crime statistics and lend assistance to data contributors.

Quality Assurance Review (QAR) The QAR is a program developed by the CJIS Audit Unit (CAU) designed to assist UCR agencies in collecting and reporting accurate and dependable crime data. Its mission is to assess compliance with the standards to operate a certified UCR Program. The CAU accomplishes this mission by the evaluation and review of incident reports submitted by LEAs to ensure the data reported meets FBI UCR Program guidelines and offense definitions. The QAR assesses both 14

SRS and NIBRS data at both state and local levels. The CAU offers participation in a QAR to each UCR Program every three years, but participation is not mandatory. Objectives of the QAR The objectives of the QAR are to: Evaluate the UCR Program’s conformity to FBI UCR Program guidelines. Confirm the accuracy of the statistics. Ensure consistency in crime reporting. Increase agency reporting integrity. Assess discrepancies in crime reporting practices. Provide feedback and identify UCR Program needs. Evaluate the effectiveness of the response to recommendations made during the previous QAR. The QAR reviews the accuracy and completeness of crime data at LEAs with the presumption the LEA has initially reported accurate and complete data to the FBI UCR Program. The QAR compares this data to the case documentation immediately available. Therefore, it is rather unlikely a compliance review such as the QAR would yield results similar to an investigation that may include in-depth offender, victim, and witness interviews. Several months prior to the scheduled QAR, the CAU contacts the UCR Program’s manager to begin the review process, which includes the LEA providing pertinent documentation and selecting agencies to review. A QAR at the local level consists of an administrative interview, data quality review, and an exit briefing. The administrative review focuses on how an agency manages incident reporting. During the data quality review, the auditor reviews a predetermined number of incidents based on a random sampling method applied at the state level. For all records selected, the auditor then compared the complete incident reports to data reported to the FBI UCR Program to determine if the LEA appropriately applied national standards and definitions. The auditor then conducts the exit briefing to review administrative interview and data quality review findings with agency personnel. The CAU then compiles local and state agency information into a draft report and submits the report to the UCR Program’s manager, who should respond to any recommendations within 30 days of receipt of the report. The CAU then finalizes the report and shares the results with the APB UCR Subcommittee during their semi-annual meetings. The QAR provides a valuable service to both local and state UCR participants. It is a resource LEAs can use at no cost and allows the agency to gauge their compatibility with the FBI UCR Program standards. Valid and accurate crime statistics allow LEAs to better allocate resources and provide more meaningful information in the development of crime legislation. 15

State, Territorial, Tribal, and Federal UCR Quality Assurance Reviews The FBI UCR Program expects UCR contributors to develop and implement their own quality assurance procedures for ensuring proper classification of UCR submissions for their reporting domain. The contributors should assess its agencies’ data to ensure compliance with FBI UCR Program standards and requirements. The purpose is to ensure the highest quality and uniformity of the data nationwide. UCR Programs should assess the validity of the crime data they submit through reviews of reporting procedures at the contributor level. First and foremost, UCR Programs should confirm the accuracy of their statistics by assessing discrepancies in offense classification.

Training and Education To ensure uniformity in the submission of crime data and further enhance the quality of the data the FBI UCR Program publishes, the FBI has trainers who provide on-site training for LEAs participating in the UCR Program. The trainers furnish introductory, intermediate, and advanced courses in data collection procedures and guidelines for the SRS, the NIBRS, the LEOKA Program, the Hate Crime Statistics Program, and Cargo Theft. The trainers are available to provide LEAs with answers to specific questions about classification or scoring and to schedule UCR Program training sessions by contacting the FBI UCR Training Office, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module C-2, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (888) 827-6427, email: [email protected] The FBI also employs specialized coordinators who provide support for the NIBRS and LEOKA Program who are available to answer questions or address issues. The NIBRS Coordinator provides support for agencies who contribute data via the NIBRS or who want FBI UCR Program certification to contribute data using the NIBRS. Similarly, the LEOKA Coordinator provides training and support for the LEOKA Program. Both coordinators also work to increase participation in their respective programs and are available to answer questions or address issues. They serve as liaisons with and provide support to other FBI staff.

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UCR Programs UCR Programs gather crime information from the LEAs under their domain and forward the data to the FBI. Most states in the nation have UCR Programs that streamline the collection of UCR data from local LEAs, ensure consistency and comparability of data, and provide a higher quality of service to the Nation’s law enforcement community. However, the establishment of a UCR Program is not limited to state governments and territorial, tribal, and federal 3 agencies may institute UCR Programs. The following define UCR Program operation standards: 1. A UCR Program must conform to the FBI UCR Program’s submission standards, definitions, specifications, and required deadlines. 2. A UCR Program must establish data integrity procedures and have personnel assigned to assist contributing agencies in quality assurance practices and crime reporting procedures. 3. A UCR Program’s submissions must cover more than 50 percent of the LEAs (LEAs) within its established reporting domain and be willing to cover any and all UCRcontributing agencies who wish to use the UCR Program from within its domain. (An agency wishing to become a UCR Program is willing to report for all of the agencies within the state). 4. A UCR Program must furnish the FBI UCR Program with all of the UCR data collected by the LEAs within its domain. These requirements do not prohibit the state from gathering other statistical data beyond the national collection. Data integrity procedures should include crime trend assessments, offense classification verification, and technical specification validation. Agencies in states without a UCR Program, called direct contributors, submit their reports directly to the FBI.

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Federal agencies may develop UCR Programs; however, federal UCR Programs report crime data to the FBI in the NIBRS crime data specification according to the Uniform Federal Crime Reporting Act of 1988. Please refer to the latest version of the NIBRS User Manual (http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/ucr-program-datacollections#National) for Federal reporting requirements.

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Crime Data Needs The collection of reports on a nationwide scale is based on local, state, national, and public need to understand the nature of crime within law enforcement jurisdictions. Complete crime statistics assist people concerned with administrative, operational, and policy developments affected by crime. Specifically, identified needs include: 1. The number and kinds of criminal acts that occur (offenses known). 2. The number of such crimes or offenses cleared. 3. The personal characteristics concerning persons arrested. 4. Law enforcement disposition of juveniles. 5. Law enforcement employee information. 6. The characteristics of known offenders. Law enforcement officials, researchers, and policy makers equipped with this information can present a clear picture of the crime situation within jurisdictions and gain an understanding of steps needed to effectively address crime.

Guidelines for Records Management An efficient record-keeping system which provides information needed for generating UCR data should meet the following guidelines: 1. Permanent and complete documentation for each crime is made immediately upon receipt of a complaint or call for service. All reports of thefts and attempted thefts are included, regardless of the value of property involved. 2. The staff or headquarters has control over the receipt of each complaint or call for service to ensure each is promptly recorded and accurately tabulated. 3. Effective follow-up systems are used to ensure reports are promptly submitted in all cases. 4. All reports are checked to see that the crime classifications conform to uniform definitions. That is, all offenses reported to the UCR Program, regardless of what the offense is called at the local, state, tribal, or federal level, must conform to the UCR classification of offenses. 5. The offense reports on crimes cleared by arrest or exceptional means are noted as cleared.

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6. Arrest records are complete, with special care being taken to show the final disposition of the charge. 7. Records are centralized, records and statistical reports are closely supervised by the administrator, and periodic inspections are made to ensure strict compliance with the rules and regulations of the local agency relative to records and reports. 8. Statistical reports conform in all respects to statistical standards and UCR regulations.

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CHAPTER I—GENERAL INFORMATION This chapter contains some general information law enforcement personnel should know before reporting offenses and arrests to the UCR Program. Information covered in this chapter includes (1) a general discussion of classifying and scoring offenses, (2) a list of Part I and Part II offenses, (3) an explanation of jurisdiction, (4) an explanation of the Hierarchy Rule, and (5) an explanation of separation of time and place.

Classifying and Scoring Classifying and scoring offenses are two core functions for reporting crime in the UCR Program. Classifying is determining the proper crime categories in which to report offenses in UCR. The offense’s classification is based on the facts of an agency’s investigation of crimes (see Chapter II.) Scoring is counting the number of offenses after they have been classified. The appropriate scoring of Part I crimes is directly related to the two types of crimes involved, crimes against the person and crimes against property (see Chapter III.) City, county, state, territorial, and tribal LEA participants classify and score offenses from the records of calls for service, complaints, and/or investigations. Since these crime statistics are intended to assist law enforcement in identifying the crime problem, participants record offense counts, not the findings of a court, coroner, or jury or the decision of a prosecutor. For practical purposes, the reporting of offenses known is limited to the following crime classifications because they are the most serious and most commonly reported crimes occurring in all areas of the United States. Together, they serve as a gauge of the level and scope of crimes occurring across the country.

Offenses Part I Offenses Part I offense classifications include: •

Criminal Homicide



Rape



Robbery



Aggravated Assault



Burglary

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Larceny-theft (except motor vehicle theft)



Motor Vehicle Theft



Arson



Human Trafficking, Commercial Sex Acts



Human Trafficking, Involuntary Servitude

Part II Offenses Part II offenses encompass all other reportable classifications outside those defined as Part I. LEAs report to the FBI only arrest data involving the Part II crimes: •

Other Assaults



Forgery and Counterfeiting



Fraud



Embezzlement



Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing



Vandalism



Weapons: Carrying, Possessing, etc.



Prostitution o Prostitution and Commercialized Vice o Assisting or Promoting Prostitution o Purchasing Prostitution



Sex Offenses (except Rape and Prostitution offenses)



Drug Abuse Violations



Gambling



Offenses Against the Family and Children



Driving Under the Influence



Liquor Laws



Drunkenness



Disorderly Conduct



Vagrancy 21



All Other Offenses



Suspicion



Curfew and Loitering Laws—(Persons under 18)



Runaways—(Persons under 18) 4

Persons Arrested Contributing agencies submit the number of persons arrested for violations, except traffic offenses, on monthly submissions to their state Program or directly to the FBI. Specifically, agencies record the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of adult and juvenile arrestees for computing arrest trends and volumes.

Jurisdiction The purpose of establishing appropriate jurisdiction is to depict the nature and volume of crime in a particular community, not for an agency to claim or take credit for the number of investigations, arrests, etc., or to serve as a measurement of agency workload. Throughout the United States, there are thousands of LEAs, some of which have overlapping jurisdictions. To be certain that data (offense or arrest) are not reported more than once by overlapping jurisdictions, the FBI UCR Program developed the following guidelines: 1. Local, county, state, tribal, and federal LEAs should report offenses and arrests for offenses only committed within their jurisdictions. 2. County and state law enforcement agencies report offenses which take place in the county outside the jurisdiction of the city. 3. When two or more local, county, state, tribal, or federal LEAs are involved in the investigation of the same offense, the agency with investigative jurisdiction based on local, county, state, tribal, and federal law and/or applicable interagency agreements or memorandums of understanding should report the offense. If there is uncertainty as to the lead or primary agency, the agencies must agree on which agency should report the offense. 4. The recovery of property should be reported only by the LEA who first reported it missing and/or stolen regardless of which agency recovered it. As a rule, cities having their own police departments report their own crime data. However, smaller locales may combine their crime data with larger agencies (e.g., sheriffs’ offices and

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Since 2009, Runaway is no longer a required Part II offense as it is not universally considered a crime by all agencies. Agencies may choose to report runaway offenses to the UCR Program; however, while this data is stored in UCR databases, the FBI no longer publishes information on runaways as a Part II crime.

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state police) for reporting purposes. This practice most often occurs in rural or unincorporated areas employing constables, town marshals, or other officers who infrequently report offenses. In cases where the county sheriff or state police has a contract to provide law enforcement services for an incorporated city, the sheriff or state police will continue to report incidents occurring within the boundaries of these cities. These reports should reflect the geographic location of where the incident occurred by use of the city’s Originating Agency Identifier (ORI). In some localities, the sheriff, state police, or a federal LEA will assist a local police department in the investigation of crimes committed within the limits of the city. Even though this is the case, the city police department should report the offenses unless there is a written or oral agreement specifying otherwise. The jurisdictional guidelines provide for the most local reporting. Whenever possible, the local LEA of the geographical area in which the crime occurred should report the data.

Hierarchy Rule There is a significance to the order in which the Part I offenses are presented. In cases where more than one offense occurs in an incident, only the highest ranking Part I offense is counted. Three offenses, Arson, Human Trafficking–Commercial Sex Acts, and Human Trafficking– Involuntary Servitude, ignore the Hierarchy Rule and are always counted even in cases when multiple offenses occur in an incident. The Part I offenses following the Hierarchy Rule are: 1. Criminal Homicide a. Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter b. Manslaughter by Negligence 2. Rape a. Rape b. Attempts to Commit Rape c. Historical Rape 3. Robbery a. Firearm b. Knife or Cutting Instrument c. Other Dangerous Weapon d. Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.

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4. Aggravated Assault a. Firearm b. Knife or Cutting Instrument c. Other Dangerous Weapon d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.—Aggravated Injury 5. Burglary a. Forcible Entry b. Unlawful Entry—No Force C. Attempted Forcible Entry 6. Larceny-theft (except motor vehicle theft) 7. Motor Vehicle Theft a. Autos b. Trucks and Buses c. Other Vehicles The following Part I offenses ignore the Hierarchy Rule: 8. Arson a.–g. Structural h.–i. Mobile j. Other 9. Human Trafficking, Commercial Sex Acts 10. Human Trafficking, Involuntary Servitude Approximately 85 percent of incidents involve only one offense. In these single offense situations, LEAs decide whether the crime is a Part I offense and score the crime accordingly. However, if several offenses are committed at the same time and place, a different approach is used in classifying and scoring. When more than one Part I offense is classified, the Hierarchy Rule requires the LEA locates the offense is highest on the hierarchy list and score only that offense. The Hierarchy Rule applies only to crime reporting and does not affect the number of charges for which the defendant may be prosecuted in the courts. The offenses of justifiable homicide, motor vehicle theft, human trafficking, and arson are exceptions to the Hierarchy Rule.

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The following scenarios illustrate the proper application of the Hierarchy Rule in reporting a multiple-offense incident. 1. Two women broke into a new car dealership after closing hours. They took the cash from the dealership’s office safe and two new automobiles from the garage. Applying the Hierarchy Rule to crime reporting: A Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) and a Motor Vehicle Theft (7a) were committed. Following the Hierarchy Rule, only the Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a), the highest of the offenses on the list of Part I offenses, is scored. 2. A burglar broke into a home, stole several items, and placed them in a car belonging to the owner of the home. The homeowner returned and surprised the thief, who in turn knocked the owner unconscious by hitting him over the head with a chair. The burglar drove away in the homeowner’s car. Applying the Hierarchy Rule to crime reporting: A Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a), Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c), Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c), and Motor Vehicle Theft—Auto (7a) occurred in this situation. After classifying the offenses, the reporting agency scores only one offense—Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c)—the crime appearing first in the list of Part I offenses. 3. A white female, aged 23, was arrested on charges of soliciting for prostitution. During the arrest, she pepper sprayed the arresting officer’s face. The officer’s search incident to the arrest resulted in the recovery of a credit card belonging to an individual that had previously reported it stolen. There was no indication the card had been used fraudulently. Applying the Hierarchy Rule to crime reporting: In this situation, Prostitution and Commercialized Vice, Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing, and Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c) were committed. Following the Hierarchy Rule, only the Part I offense, Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c), is classified and scored. The Part II offenses are ignored in using the Hierarchy Rule. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that are exceptions to the Hierarchy Rule. 4. Someone stole a pickup truck that had attached to it a camper containing camping equipment. The police recovered the truck and camper but not the equipment. Exception to the Hierarchy Rule: Motor Vehicle Theft (7) is a special type of Larceny-theft (6). It is a separate classification because of the volume of such thefts and the prevailing need of law enforcement for specific statistics on this offense. 25

Therefore, when classifying, the reporting agency chooses between Larceny-theft (6) and Motor Vehicle Theft (7). In cases such as this, the agency classifies and scores the offense as Motor Vehicle Theft (7b). The stolen property is also reported in the Supplement to the Return A. 5. As a result of arson in an apartment building, six persons were found dead. Exception to the Hierarchy Rule: The Part I crimes of Murder (1) and Arson (8) are involved in this multiple-offense situation. The reporting agency counts Criminal Homicide (1) offenses (one for each victim) on the Return A and one arson on the Monthly Return of Arson Offenses Known to Law Enforcement. NOTE: The Hierarchy Rule never applies to the offenses of Arson or Human Trafficking. For a multiple-offense situation, of which one offense is arson, the reporting agency reports the arson and applies the Hierarchy Rule to the remaining Part I offenses to determine which one is the most serious. When arson is involved in a multiple-offense situation, the reporting agency reports two Part I offenses, the arson as well as the additional Part I offense. The same criteria and reporting practices apply for human trafficking offenses. Should a situation occur with both Arson and Human Trafficking in addition to other Part I crimes, Arson and Human Trafficking offenses are reported in addition to the highest Part I crime.

Separation of Time and Place Rule Occasionally, an individual or a group will perpetrate a number of offenses over a short period of time. If there is a separation of time and place between the commissions of several crimes, the reporting agency handles each crime as a separate incident and classifies and scores each offense individually. Same time and place means that the time interval between the offenses and the distance between locations where they occurred is insignificant. Normally, the offenses have occurred during an unbroken time duration and at the same or adjoining location(s). However, incidents can also be comprised of offenses which, by their nature, involve continuing criminal activity by the same offender(s) at different times and places, as long as investigation deems the activity to constitute a single criminal transaction. The following scenarios illustrate the proper application of the Separation of Time and Place Rule: 1. A robber entered a bank, stole $5,000 from a teller at gunpoint, and then escaped in a getaway car. At a shopping center parking lot across town, the robber and an accomplice stole a car in their efforts to elude police.

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Application of the Separation of Time and Place Rule: Because of the separation of time and place between the Robbery and the Motor Vehicle Theft, these incidents are handled as independent single-offense situations. The two crimes are each classified and scored as separate offenses—one Robbery—Firearm (3a) and one Motor Vehicle Theft—Auto (7a). 2. After hours, a man forcibly entered a sporting goods store and stole cash and merchandise including numerous firearms. The next day, the police arrested a man during an attempted street Robbery. The man was armed with a handgun, which further police investigation determined he had stolen from the sporting goods store the previous day. Application of the Separation of Time and Place Rule: In this scenario, two crimes were committed at different times and places—a Burglary and a Robbery. In other words, there were two distinct operations with a separation of time and place. The reporting agency should classify and score separately the Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) and the Robbery—Firearm (3a). 3. A known purse snatcher caught in the act was subsequently identified by four additional women as having snatched their purses at different times. All stated that the thief knocked them down when he stole their purses. The thief admitted to all five Robberies. Application of the Separation of Time and Place Rule: This scenario illustrates five separate and distinct operations by the same offender. The reporting agency classifies and scores five Strong-arm Robbery offenses (3d). Because it is not possible to provide instructions that will cover all of the situations that might occur, in some cases the reporting agency’s personnel will have to use their best judgment in determining how many incidents were involved. Assistance for counting incidents and classifying offenses is also available by contacting the FBI UCR Training Office, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module C-2, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (888) 827-6427, email: [email protected]

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CHAPTER II—CLASSIFYING OFFENSES Classifying is determining the proper crime categories in which to report offenses in UCR. The classification of the offense is based on the facts of an agency’s investigation of a crime. Before reporting crime data to the FBI UCR Program, agencies first appropriately classify offenses known to police into the Part I or Part II standard offense categories as defined by the UCR Program. This practice ensures offenses with different titles under state and local law are considered and uniformly recorded in UCR. Generally, agencies classify attempts to commit a crime as though the crimes were actually completed. The only exception to this rule applies to attempted murder or assaults to murder wherein the victim does not die. These offenses are classified as aggravated assaults rather than attempted murders. Unusual situations will arise in the effort to classify offenses, and not all can be covered in this handbook. In classifying the unusual situations, agencies should consider the nature of the crime along with the guidelines provided herein. If agencies require assistance, they should communicate with their territorial, state, tribal, or federal UCR Program. Direct contributors should contact the FBI UCR Training Office, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module C-2, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (888) 827-6427, email: [email protected] In order to maintain the FBI UCR Program’s need for uniform and consistent data, all reporting agencies use standard UCR Program offense definitions.

CRIMINAL HOMICIDE (1) •

Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter



Manslaughter by Negligence

Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) Definition: The willful (nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another. As a general rule, any death caused by injuries received in a fight, argument, quarrel, assault, or commission of a crime is classified as Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a).

The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a): 1. A berserk gunman shot and killed three pedestrians.

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2. A neighbor discovered an infant who had been beaten. The neighbor rushed the infant to the hospital. The infant later died as a direct result of the injuries. Investigation revealed that the mother was responsible. 3. A man shot and killed his neighbor in an argument over the location of their property line. 4. A husband and wife had an argument. The wife shot the husband and severely wounded him. He grabbed the gun and shot and killed her. The husband survived his wounds. (See Justifiable Homicide on page 30.) 5. A man was in a fight on the second floor of a building. During the fight, he was knocked through a window and fell to his death. 6. A psychiatrist counseling a young female patient performed a criminal abortion on her. She died of peritonitis resulting from the operation. 7. A teller chased a Robbery from a bank. The Robbery fired at him. His shot missed the teller but killed a woman walking on the street. 8. While playing cards, two men got into an argument. The first man attacked the second with a broken bottle. The second man pulled a gun and killed the first. 9. A felon fleeing in her car attempted to get through a police roadblock. As a result, she struck and killed two police officers. Agencies do not classify the following as Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a): •

Suicides

• Accidental Deaths



Fetal deaths

• Assaults to murder



Traffic fatalities

• Attempts to murder

Suicides, traffic fatalities, and fetal deaths are excluded from the UCR Program; however, some accidental deaths are classified as Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b). Attempts and assaults to murder are classified as aggravated assaults. Situations in which a victim dies of a heart attack as the result of a crime are not classified as criminal homicide. A heart attack cannot be caused at will by an offender. Even in instances where an individual is known to have a weak heart, there is no assurance an offender can cause sufficient emotional or physical stress to guarantee that the victim will suffer a fatal heart attack. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement not classified as Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a): 10. A man was despondent over the breakup of his marriage. Police officers discovered his body in his home office with a bullet wound to his head and a revolver still in his hand. They also found a suicide note in the victim’s handwriting on his desk. 29

11. A woman was attacked by her boyfriend, who struck her several times in the abdomen with a baseball bat. The victim was eight months pregnant at the time of the attack. Her baby was stillborn. (Refer to Aggravated Assault.) 12. A woman swerved her vehicle to avoid hitting a dog in the road. She struck and killed two children playing near the roadway. 13. A convenience store clerk was robbed at gunpoint. The victim, who was under a doctor’s care from previous heart surgery, had a heart attack during the Robbery. He collapsed and died in the store. (Refer to Robbery.)

Justifiable Homicide Certain willful killings are classified as justifiable or excusable. In UCR, justifiable homicide is defined as and limited to: •

The killing of a felon by a peace officer in the line of duty.



The killing of a felon, during the commission of a felony, by a private citizen.

NOTE: To submit offense data to the UCR Program, LEAs report the willful (nonnegligent) killing of one individual by another, not the criminal liability of the person or persons involved. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies would consider Justifiable Homicide: 14. A police officer answered a bank alarm and surprised the robber coming out of the bank. The robber saw the responding officer and fired at him. The officer returned fire, killing the robber. 15. A man entered a store and attempted to rob the proprietor at gunpoint. The storekeeper shot and killed the felon. NOTE: Justifiable homicide, by definition, occurs in conjunction with another offense(s). Therefore, the crime being committed when the justifiable homicide took place is reported as a separate offense. Reporting agencies should take care to ensure they do not classify a killing as justifiable or excusable solely on the claims of self-defense or on the action of a coroner, prosecutor, grand jury, or court. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies would not consider Justifiable Homicide: 16. While playing cards, two men got into an argument. The first man attacked the second with a broken bottle. The second man pulled a gun and killed his attacker. The police arrested the shooter though he claimed self-defense with no corroborating evidence.

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Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b) Definition: The killing of another person through gross negligence. As a general rule, any death caused by the gross negligence of another is classified as Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b). The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b): 18. While two juveniles were playing with a gun, one playfully pointed it at the other. The youth pointing the gun fired it and killed the other. At the time of arrest, the juvenile claimed no knowledge of the gun being loaded. 19. A target shooter was practicing in an unincorporated wooded area near some houses. One shot missed the target and killed a resident. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement not classified as Manslaughter by Negligence (1b): NOTE: Deaths of persons due to their own negligence, accidental deaths not resulting from gross negligence, and traffic fatalities are not included in the category Manslaughter by Negligence. The findings of a coroner, prosecutor, grand jury, or court do not affect classifying or scoring, these are law enforcement statistics. 20. A man was riding his motorcycle without a helmet and ran off the roadway. He was killed in the subsequent crash. 21. A woman slipped on her neighbor’s icy sidewalk and died as a result of the fall. 22. A woman was a passenger in a man’s car. The man drove through an ungated railroad crossing. A train struck the car, killing both the driver and the passenger. 23. A man drove his pickup truck recklessly and exited the interstate at a high rate of speed. While attempting a right turn at the first intersection, he lost control of his vehicle and struck and killed three pedestrians standing at a bus stop. The police arrested the driver at the scene for vehicular manslaughter.

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RAPE (2) •

Rape, Completed



Attempts to Commit Rape



Historical Rape

Reporting agencies classify one offense for each person raped or upon whom an assault to rape or attempt to rape has been made. Reporting agencies classify rape or attempted rape regardless of the age of the victim. Rape—Completed (2a) Definition: Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. This definition includes either gender of victim or offender. Sexual penetration means the penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, or by a sex-related object. This definition also includes instances in which the victim is incapable of giving consent because of temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity (including due to the influence of drugs or alcohol) or because of age. Physical resistance is not required on the part of the victim to demonstrate lack of consent. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Rape, Completed (2a): 1. A young man was reentering his apartment from a night out when he was attacked by an unidentified man and forced into his apartment. The young man was held down by the attacker and was sodomized. 2. A female high school student was drinking with a male classmate at her house. The young man gave her a pill that he said would make her feel “really good.” After taking the pill, the young woman did not recall what happened. A rape kit indicated semen from sexual penetration. 3. A man worked as an aide at a residential facility for adults with a range of mental disabilities. He asked a woman in his care who had a severe mental disability to go for a walk with him in the woods behind the facility. Once alone, he instructed her to do what he said or he wouldn’t be her friend anymore. He fondled her and sexually penetrated her. Because of the woman’s disability, she was unable to understand and consent to the sexual act.

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4. One night, a woman’s husband was very drunk, and he accused her of sleeping around. He became enraged, pushed her onto the bed, and sexually penetrated her with an object. She was too afraid to struggle. 5. A woman broke up with her ex-boyfriend three months earlier, but he showed up at her workplace and followed her home. Once there, he intimidated her and told her he wouldn’t leave until she had sex with him. He forced her to perform oral sex. 6. After a first date, two men were kissing and had removed their clothes. One man had initially consented to having sex, but changed his mind once they began. He told the other man he did not want to have sex, but the man held him down and sodomized him. 7. A woman took her young son to a secluded park. She told him they would have special time together, convinced him to remove his pants, and penetrated him with her fingers. She told the boy that she would go to jail if he told anyone and that his father would not love him anymore. 8. A 17-year-old boy coerced his 10-year-old sister into having sexual intercourse with him. 9. A college freshman attended an off-campus party. She drank heavily until she had difficulty standing and was slurring her speech. Two older male students offered to walk her home. Once in her dorm room, she passed out. She awoke the next day in pain, found used condoms in her bed, and reported she was raped to her local police department. 10. A man who owned a restaurant threatened to fire a waitress if she would not consent to sexual acts with him. When she refused, he threatened her. She was afraid to resist, and he performed oral sex on her. 11. Two women had been dating for a few months. After an argument, one woman became violent, held the other woman down, fondled her, and forcibly penetrated her mouth with a sex object. Rape—Attempts to Commit Rape (2b) Assaults or attempts to rape are classified as Attempts to Commit Rape (2b). The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Attempts to Commit Rape (2b): 12. A man attacked a woman on the street, knocked her down, and attempted to rape her. A pedestrian frightened the man away before he could complete the attack.

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13. At a local bar, a man slipped a sedative drug, into his date’s drink. However, the man could not convince the woman to leave her friends and go home with him. After an investigation, detectives concluded that the man intended to rape the woman. Agencies do not classify statutory rape, incest, or other sex offenses, i.e., forcible fondling, etc., as Rape (2a or 2b). The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement not classified as Rape: 14. A 17-year-old boy was dating a 15-year-old girl. Her parents discovered them having sexual intercourse and reported it to the police. The age of consent in the state is 15, and the girl reported that the intercourse was consensual. 15. At a family reunion, an 18-year-old girl had consensual sexual intercourse with her 17year-old cousin in violation of the state’s incest laws. No force or weapon was involved. The age of consent in the state is 16. 16. A man cornered a woman waiting at a bus stop and threatened to hit her if she screamed. He put his hand up her blouse and into her pants, but did not penetrate her. Note: In 2011, the FBI UCR Program revised the definition of Rape for SRS purposes. As the offense is now defined, it is possible to report males and females as rape victims. Historical Rape (2c) Definition: The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. “Carnal Knowledge” is defined as sexual intercourse, or the slightest penetration of a female sex organ by a male sex organ. “Against her will” implies the victim’s lack of consent, including cases where a victim is incapable of giving consent due to the victim’s youth, or the victim’s temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity. The FBI UCR Program changed the definition of rape and removed the term “Forcible” in 2011. However, to understand the trend in sex offenses during the transition period, rape offenses should be reported according to the new and the historical definition. After agencies have updated their reporting capabilities to include the new definition of rape, the FBI UCR Program will test the validity and reliability of the data for accuracy, representativeness, and trending purposes. The historical collection of rape, limited to only male offenders of female victims, will be removed from the FBI UCR Program when the trends for sex offenses for the transition period are clearly understood and documented. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Historical Rape (2c):

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17. Law enforcement received a complaint from a victim who claimed when she was leaving work late one night, she was attacked in the company parking lot by an unidentified male and raped. 18. Two men lured a woman to their motel room with the promise of discussing a job opportunity. They threatened her with a knife and both raped her.

ROBBERY (3) • Firearm • Knife or Cutting Instrument • Other Dangerous Weapon • Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. Definition: The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. Robbery is a type of theft committed in the presence of the victim. The victim is directly confronted by the offender and is threatened with force or is put in fear that force will be used. Robbery involves a theft or larceny but is aggravated by the element of force or threat of force. Because some type of assault is an element of the crime of Robbery, an assault is not reported as a separate crime as long as it was performed in furtherance of the Robbery. Additionally, the Hierarchy Rule would preclude reporting assault. However, if the injury results in death, a homicide offense is reported, as per the Hierarchy Rule. Armed Robbery, categories 3a, 3b, and 3c, includes incidents commonly referred to as stickups, hijackings, holdups, heists, carjackings, etc. Carjackings are Robbery offenses in which a motor vehicle is taken through force or threat of force. In such cases, following the Hierarchy Rule, agencies report only a Robbery, not a motor vehicle theft. Robberies wherein only personal weapons, such as hands, fists, and feet, are used (3d) or threatened to be used may be referred to as strong-arms or muggings. The UCR Program considers a weapon to be a commonly known weapon (a gun, knife, club, etc.) or any other item which, although not usually thought of as a weapon, becomes one in the commission of a crime. Reporting agencies classify crimes involving pretended weapons or those in which the weapon is not seen by the victim, but the Robbery claims to possess one, as armed Robbery (3a, 3b, and 3c). Should an immediate on-view arrest prove that there is no weapon involved, the agency classifies the offense as strong-arm Robbery (3d). Law enforcement guards against using terminology such as “a house was robbed” or “safe Robbery” when classifying a Robbery offense. For UCR purposes, the term Robbery in these situations is actually referring to burglary offenses.

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Robbery—Firearm (3a) Robbery—Firearm (3a) includes Robberies and attempts in which any firearm is used as a weapon or employed as a means of force to threaten the victim or put the victim in fear. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Robbery— Firearm (3a): 1. A man came to a victim’s door and asked to use the phone. After being admitted to the residence, he pulled a gun and demanded money. He took the victim’s money and fled. 2. A lone male with a gun appeared in a tavern and ordered ten patrons and the owner to hand over their cash and jewelry. 3. Four individuals planned to rob a local supermarket. One of the group informed the police. On the appointed day, the four walked in the front door of the market armed with handguns. They were all arrested. The informant was released for cooperating. 4. A person with a shotgun entered a rural grocery store and ordered the clerk to hand over the cash. Robbery—Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b) The category Robbery—Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b) includes Robberies and attempts in which a knife, broken bottle, razor, ice pick, or other cutting or stabbing instrument is employed as a weapon or as a means of force to threaten the victim or put the victim in fear. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Robbery— Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b): 5. A lone male approached a car stopped at a traffic light. The male brandished a knife and ordered the driver of the car to get out of the vehicle. She complied, and the male then jumped into the car and drove away, leaving the car owner frightened but unhurt. 6. A man was walking down the street when an assailant grabbed him and held a broken bottle to his throat. While the assailant was attempting to remove the victim’s wallet from his pocket, the police arrived and arrested the assailant. Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c) The category Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c) includes Robberies in which a club, acid, explosive, brass knuckles, Mace®, pepper spray, stun guns, Tasers®, or other dangerous weapon is employed or its use is threatened. Attempts are included in this category.

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The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Robbery— Other Dangerous Weapon (3c): 7. Two men accosted a third, an acquaintance, in an alley near a bar. They beat him severely with a club and took his wallet containing several hundred dollars. 8. A woman robbed a jewelry store by threatening to detonate a bomb. 9. While a motorist was stopped at an intersection, a man armed with a canister of Mace® forcibly removed her from her convertible. The man got into the vehicle and drove away. Robbery—Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc. (3d) The category of Robbery—Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc., (3d) includes muggings and similar offenses in which only personal weapons such as hands, arms, feet, fists, and teeth are employed or their use is threatened to deprive the victim of possessions. In the absence of force or threat of force, as in pocket-picking or purse-snatching, the offense is classified as larceny-theft rather than Robbery. However, if in a purse-snatching or other such crime, force or threat of force is used to overcome the active resistance of the victim, the offense is classified as Robbery—Strong-arm (3d). The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Robbery— Strong-arm (3d): 10. During a purse-snatching, a thief shoved a woman to the ground and took her purse. 11. A juvenile was observed by a store security guard concealing compact discs under his shirt. When he was confronted, the youth punched the security guard and fled the store, leaving the compact discs behind.

ASSAULT (4) Definition: An unlawful attack by one person upon another. Agencies participating in the UCR Program collect assault information on the offenses that are aggravated in nature, as well as on those that are not. Assaults that are not aggravated are classified by the FBI UCR Program as Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e). Aggravated Assault Definition: An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault usually is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. 37

• Firearm • Knife or Cutting Instrument • Other Dangerous Weapon • Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. • Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated The UCR Program considers a weapon to be a commonly known weapon (a gun, knife, club, etc.) or any other item which, although not usually thought of as a weapon, becomes one in the commission of a crime. The categories of Aggravated Assault (4a–4d) include assaults or attempts to kill or murder, poisoning, assault with a dangerous or deadly weapon, maiming, mayhem, assault with explosives, and assault with disease (as in cases when the offender is aware that he/she is infected with a deadly disease and deliberately attempts to inflict the disease by biting, spitting, etc.). All assaults by one person upon another with the intent to kill, maim, or inflict severe bodily injury with the use of any dangerous weapon are classified as Aggravated Assault. It is not necessary that injury result from an aggravated assault when a gun, knife, or other weapon that could cause serious personal injury is used. It is the practice of local jurisdictions to charge assailants in assault cases with assault and battery, disorderly conduct, domestic violence, or simple assault even though a knife, gun, or other weapon was used in the incident. This type of offense is reported to the UCR Program as Aggravated Assault (4a–4d). Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a) The category Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a) includes all assaults in which a firearm of any type is used or is threatened to be used. Assaults with revolvers, automatic pistols, shotguns, zip guns, rifles, etc. are included in this category. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a): 1. A man had an argument with his girlfriend. She left and later returned with a gun and shot the man, attempting to kill him. He recovered from his gunshot wound. 2. While an officer was attempting to serve a warrant, the individual ran from her. The subject turned and fired on the officer, wounding her. LEOKA forms are also submitted with this incident.

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Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b) The category Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b) includes assaults wherein weapons such as knives, razors, hatchets, axes, cleavers, scissors, glass, broken bottles, arrows, and ice picks are used as cutting or stabbing objects or their use is threatened. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b): 3. During a dice game, a heated argument erupted and one man stabbed another with a hypodermic needle. 4. During an argument, a man cut a woman with a razor. Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c) The category Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c) includes assaults resulting from the use or threatened use of any object as a weapon in which serious injury does or could result. The weapons in this category include, but are not limited to, Mace®, pepper spray, clubs, bricks, jack handles, tire irons, bottles, or other blunt instruments used to club or beat victims. Attacks by explosives, acid, lye, poison, scalding, burnings, BB guns, pellet guns, Tasers®, stun guns, etc. are also included in this category. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c): 5. At the scene of a riot, three police officers were attacked by 20 rioters who were armed with clubs and rocks. The police officers sustained injuries that caused them to be hospitalized. 6. During an argument, a man picked up a tire iron and hit his neighbors, a man and his wife. The man suffered a minor bruise, but the wife had a concussion from a blow to the head. 7. During a physical altercation between two patrons at a local tavern, one of the men displayed a vial filled with a biological contaminant in a threatening manner. The police arrived at the tavern and arrested the individual. 8. The police responded to a fight-in-progress call. They found the offender beating a victim about the face and head with a shoe. The victim suffered a cut that required several stitches. Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d) The category Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d) includes only the attacks using personal weapons such as hands, arms, feet, fists, and teeth, that result in 39

serious or aggravated injury. Reporting agencies are to consider the seriousness of the injury as the primary factor in establishing whether the assault is aggravated or simple. The assault is aggravated if the personal injury is serious, for example, there are broken bones, internal injuries, or stitches required. Conversely, the offense is considered simple assault if the injuries are not serious (abrasions, minor lacerations, or contusions) and require no more than usual first-aid treatment. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d): 9. A man came home drunk. During an argument with his wife, he slapped her with an open hand and broke her jaw. 10. During an argument over a parking space, one man pushed another to the ground. The man on the ground suffered an abrasion and a broken wrist. Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e) The category Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e) includes all assaults which do not involve the use of a firearm, knife, cutting instrument, or other dangerous weapon and in which the victim did not sustain serious or aggravated injuries. Simple assault is not a Part I offense— it is a Part II offense but is collected under 4e as a quality control matter and for the purpose of looking at total assault violence. Agencies classify simple assault for offenses such as assault and battery, injury caused by culpable negligence, intimidation, coercion, and all attempts to commit these offenses. Under certain circumstances, offenses of disorderly conduct, domestic violence, or affray is classified as simple assault. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e): 11. Several bar patrons were watching a football game on television. The supporters of the two teams exchanged heated words that led to a fist fight. The bartender called the police. None of the participants cooperated, so the police could not determine who started the fight. The police arrested six patrons who had suffered bruises and minor cuts and charged them with affray. 12. A married couple was arguing about financial problems. The husband slapped his wife and left the house. The wife followed him, and they continued their argument. The police responded to a call by a neighbor. The wife told them that her husband slapped her but that she was not physically injured. 13. An employee of a local retail establishment received numerous e-mail messages at work from her ex-boyfriend, against whom she had a restraining order. The e-mail

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messages contained sexually offensive material and threats of violence to the employee, she turned them over to the police. 14. Police responded to a reported fight at a residence. Upon arrival, they discovered a man with a bruise around one eye. The man said that his son, aged 17, had struck him during an argument. The boy admitted to striking his father and apologized. 15. Two men were waiting in a line to enter a nightclub. One man tried to bully the other man into giving up his place in line by threatening to punch him in the face. Aids to Classifying Assaults Careful consideration of the following factors should assist reporting agencies in classifying assaults: 1. The type of weapon employed or the use of an object as a weapon 2. The seriousness of the injury 3. The intent of the assailant to cause serious injury Often, the weapon used or the extent of the injury sustained will be the deciding factor in distinguishing aggravated from simple assault. In only a limited number of instances should it be necessary for the agency to examine the intent of the assailant. Prosecutorial policy in a jurisdiction does not dictate an agency’s classification of an assault. Reporting agencies examine and classify assaults according to the standard UCR definitions, regardless of whether they are termed misdemeanors or felonies by local definitions. If a number of persons are involved in a dispute or disturbance and law enforcement investigation cannot distinguish the aggressors from the victims, the reporting agency counts the number of persons assaulted as the number of offenses. In such circumstances, assault classifications may require agencies to identify and report both aggravated and simple assaults within the same crime scenario. Additionally, multiple types of weapons may be used during the commission of the assaults. Occasionally, classifying offenses in this category will involve reporting offenses in two or more subcategories when reporting the assaults. The following scenario offers an example of a multiple-offense situation in which some of the offenses is classified as a simple assault and others as aggravated assault: 16. During a confrontation between two groups of people, a fight occurred during which several of the participants were injured. None of the combatants were cooperative, and all claimed to be innocent. It was unclear to police who was responsible for which assault. The police arrested eight persons. Five arrestees were severely beaten and in need of emergency medical treatment.

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Explanation: To report this crime to the UCR Program, law enforcement reports a total of eight assaults. Even though all the victims were not known, it was known that five persons were severely beaten. Therefore, reporting agencies classify five offenses as Aggravated Assault— Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d) and three offenses as Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e). The following scenario offers an example of a multiple-offense situation in which offenses are classified in two aggravated assault subcategories: 17. Police responding to a disturbance call found a juvenile gang fight in progress. The participants escaped, except for seven youths who suffered injuries. None would cooperate, and the police could not determine who started the fight. Three gang members were cut severely with knives. The remaining four suffered broken bones from being beaten with clubs. Explanation: A total of seven assault offenses is reported: three offenses classified as Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b) and four offenses classified as Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c).

BURGLARY—BREAKING OR ENTERING (5) •

Forcible Entry



Unlawful Entry—No Force



Attempted Forcible Entry

Definition: The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. The UCR Program classifies offenses locally known as burglary (any degree), unlawful entry with intent to commit a larceny or felony, breaking and entering with intent to commit a larceny, housebreaking, safe­cracking, and all attempts at these offenses as burglary. The UCR Program’s definition of a structure includes, but is not limited to, the following: •

Apartment



Barn



Cabin



Church



Condominium



Dwelling house



Factory



Garage 42



House trailer or houseboat (used as permanent dwelling)



Mill



Office



Other building



Outbuilding



Public building



Railroad car



Room



School



Stable



Storage facility



Vessel (ship)



Warehouse

Additionally, any house trailer or other mobile unit is permanently fixed as an office, residence, or storehouse is considered a structure. Tents, tent trailers, motor homes, house trailers, or other mobile units being used for recreational purposes are not considered structures. The UCR Program does not consider a telephone booth a structure. Hotel Rule Burglaries of hotels, motels, lodging houses, or other places where temporary lodging is the main purpose can present reporting problems to law enforcement. If a number of units under a single manager are burglarized and the offenses are most likely to be reported to the police by the manager rather than the individual tenants, the burglary is reported as a single offense. Examples are burglaries of a number of rental hotel rooms, rooms in flop houses, rooms in youth hostels, and units in a motel. If the individual living areas in a building are rented or leased to the occupants for a period of time that would preclude the tenancy from being classified as transient, then the burglaries would most likely be reported separately by the occupants. Such burglaries are reported as separate offenses. Examples of this latter type of multiple burglary would be the burglary of a number of apartments in an apartment house, of the offices of a number of commercial firms in a business building, of the offices of separate professionals within one building, or of a number of rooms in a college dormitory. Thefts from automobiles, whether locked or not, shoplifting from commercial establishments, and thefts from telephone booths, coin boxes, or coin-operated machines are all classified as larceny­theft offenses. If the area entered was one of open access, thefts from the area would not 43

involve an unlawful trespass and, therefore, should be classified as larceny-theft. Forcible or unlawful entry are not classified as a burglary when no theft or felony is committed, and when an investigation clearly established the unlawful entry was for a purpose other than to commit a felony or theft. Larceny-theft is an element of burglary and, therefore, is not reported as a separate offense if associated with the unlawful entry of a structure. If a forcible or unlawful entry of a building is made to steal a motor vehicle, the reporting agency counts the offense and the value of the vehicle under burglary, not motor vehicle theft. When a question arises as to whether a type of structure comes within the scope of the burglary definition, the law enforcement officer looks to the nature of the crime and may be guided by the examples set forth. If a question remains, the agency should contact its state, territorial, tribal, or federal UCR Program. Direct contributors should contact the FBI UCR Training Office, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module C-2, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (888) 827-6427, email: [email protected] NOTE: It is important to remember that offenses are classified according to UCR definitions and not according to state or local codes. Some states might, for instance, categorize a shoplifting or a theft from an automobile as burglary. For UCR purposes, such instances are reported as larceny-thefts. Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) Law enforcement classifies Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) as all offenses where force of any kind is used to unlawfully enter a structure for the purpose of committing a theft or felony. This definition applies when a thief gains entry by using tools, breaking windows, forcing windows, doors, transoms, or ventilators, cutting screens, walls, or roofs, and where known, using master keys, picks, unauthorized keys, celluloid, a mechanical contrivance of any kind (e.g., a passkey or skeleton key), or other devices that leave no outward mark but are used to force a lock. Agencies also include burglary by concealment inside a building followed by exiting the structure as burglary. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Burglary— Forcible Entry (5a): 1. A liquor store was broken into on a holiday when the store was closed. The next day, the manager found alcoholic beverages and money were missing and called the police. 2. A burglar used a key to enter four units in a condominium complex and stole numerous articles from each residence. 3. A man hid in a theater. After it closed, he stole money from the cash register and left the premises during the night. 44

Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) The entry of a structure in a Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) situation is achieved by use of an unlocked door or window. The element of trespass to the structure is essential in this category, which includes thefts from open garages, open warehouses, open or unlocked dwellings, and open or unlocked common basement areas in apartment houses where entry is achieved by other than the tenant who has lawful access. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Burglary— Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b): 4. While a woman was in the backyard hanging clothes, a 14-year-old boy entered her house through the unlocked front door and took her purse. When the woman realized her purse was missing, she called the police. 5. A woman posing as a maintenance employee entered an unlocked office and stole a wallet from a cabinet. 6. During the night, someone stole a $24,000 car out of an unlocked, but closed, private garage. Two days later, police found the car abandoned in a nearby town. In certain circumstances of burglary, an agency may be required to identify, classify, and report both Forcible Entry (5a) and Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) within the same incident. Therefore, the agency will occasionally report offenses in two or more categories. The following scenario illustrates an incident requiring scoring in two subcategories of burglary: 7. After closing hours, a thief entered an unlocked door of a warehouse. The warehouse contained a number of offices of individual shipping companies. The subject broke into eight of the company offices, rifled through the office desks, and stole some items from each office. Explanation: The reporting agency classifies this incident as eight offenses of Burglary— Forcible Entry (5a) and one offense of Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b). Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c) This category includes those situations where a forcible entry burglary is attempted but unlawful entry is not achieved. Once the thief is inside a locked structure, the offense becomes a Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a). Agencies classify attempts to enter an unlocked structure as well as actual trespass to an unlocked structure as Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b). Only situations in which a thief has attempted to break into a locked structure are classified as Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c).

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The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c): 8. Police investigation verified an attempted break-in at the local bank. There were no suspects in the incident.

LARCENY-THEFT (6) •

Pocket-picking



Purse-snatching



Shoplifting



Thefts From Motor Vehicles



Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories



Theft of Bicycles



Theft From Buildings



Theft From Coin-operated Device or Machine



All Other

Definition: The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Constructive possession is “control or dominion over a property without actual possession or custody of it.” 5 Larceny and theft are synonymous in the UCR Program. All thefts and attempted thefts are included in this category with one exception: motor vehicle theft. Because of the high volume of motor vehicle thefts, this crime has its own offense category. For the UCR Program, agencies report local offense classifications such as grand theft, petty larceny, felony larceny, or misdemeanor larceny as larceny-theft. Also, agencies report all larceny offenses regardless of the value of the property stolen. Agencies do not classify larceny offenses of embezzlement, fraudulent conversion of entrusted property, conversion of goods lawfully possessed by bailees, lodgers, or finders of lost property, counterfeiting, obtaining money by false pretenses, larceny by check, larceny by bailee, or check fraud. Each of these crimes falls within one of the Part II offense categories.

5

Garner, B. A. (Ed.). (2004). Black’s Law Dictionary (8th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

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The UCR Program divides the category larceny-theft into the following subcategories, which are included in the Supplement to Return A under the heading Additional Analysis of Larceny and Motor Vehicle Theft (6X). Pocket-picking (6Xa) Definition: The theft of articles from a person by stealth where the victim usually does not become immediately aware of the theft. Pocket-picking includes the removal of such items as wallets from women’s purses and men’s pockets. It usually occurs in a crowd, public conveyance, or other similar situation to disguise the activity. Reporting agencies also include theft from a person in an unconscious state, including drunks, in this category. However, if the victim is manhandled or if force beyond simple jostling is used to overcome the resistance of the victim, the offense becomes a strongarm Robbery and is classified as such. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as pocket-picking (6Xa): 1. While standing in a crowd watching a parade, a man was jostled by someone who stole his billfold containing over $200. Purse-snatching (6Xb) Definition: The grabbing or snatching of a purse, handbag, etc., from the custody of an individual. The purse is in the physical possession of the victim for the theft to be classified as pursesnatching. If more force is used than is actually necessary to snatch the purse from the grasp of the owner, or if the victim resists the theft in any way, then the offense is classified as a strongarm Robbery. If a woman leaves her purse unattended and a thief steals it, the offense is classified, depending on the location, as Theft From a Motor Vehicle (6xd), Theft From Buildings (6Xg), or All Other Larceny-theft Not Specifically Classified (6Xi). Shoplifting (6Xc) Definition: The theft by a person (other than an employee) of goods or merchandise exposed for sale. By definition, the offender in a shoplifting incident has legal access to the premises and, thus, no trespass or unlawful entry is involved. The category includes thefts of merchandise displayed as a part of the stock in trade outside buildings such as department stores, hardware stores, supermarkets, fruit stands, and gas stations.

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The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as shoplifting (6Xc): 2. Two persons entered a hardware store together. While one engaged the clerk in a discussion in the back of the store, the other stole a power saw valued at $125. Theft From Motor Vehicles (Except Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories) (6Xd) Definition: The theft of articles from a motor vehicle, whether locked or unlocked. This type of larceny includes thefts from automobiles, trucks, truck trailers, buses, motorcycles, motor homes, or other recreational vehicles. It also includes thefts from any area in the automobile or other vehicle including the trunk, glove compartment, or other enclosure. Some of the items included in this theft category are cameras, suitcases, wearing apparel, cellular phones, MP3 players, and packages. Agencies do not report automobile parts and accessories theft since these fall under the category Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories (6Xe). Certain state statutes list theft from motor vehicles in their criminal codes as burglaries. For the UCR Program, however, agencies classify these thefts as Theft From Motor Vehicles (6Xd). The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as Theft From Motor Vehicles (6Xd): 3. A tractor trailer parked in the company parking lot was broken into, and 20 cases of canned food were taken. In larceny situations where both motor vehicle parts and accessories and articles from the motor vehicle are stolen, agencies report the offense resulting in the greatest value of property loss. If a theft from a motor vehicle occurs in conjunction with a motor vehicle theft, reporting agencies classify the incident as a motor vehicle theft. Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories (6Xe) Definition: The theft of any part or accessory attached to the interior or exterior of a motor vehicle in a manner that would make the part an attachment to the vehicle or necessary for the operation of the vehicle. Thefts of motors, transmissions, radios, heaters, hubcaps and wheel covers, manufacturers’ emblems, license plates, inspection stickers, registration tags, radio antennas, side-view mirrors, siphoned gasoline, compact disc players, air bags, citizens’ band radios, radar detectors, etc., are included in this category. Agencies report only parts or accessories that are attached to the vehicle. If items being transported in the vehicle are stolen, reporting agencies classify the offense as a Theft From Motor Vehicles (6Xd).

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The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories (6Xe): 4. A thief broke into a locked car and was attempting to remove an expensive compact disc player when the owner of the car returned. Theft of Bicycles (6Xf) Definition: The unlawful taking of any bicycle, tandem bicycle, unicycle, etc. The category Theft of Bicycles includes all bicycle thefts reported to LEAs. Theft From Buildings (6Xg) Definition: A theft from within a building that is open to the general public or where the offender has legal access. The category Theft From Buildings includes thefts from such places as churches, restaurants, schools, libraries, public buildings, and other public and professional offices during the hours when such facilities are open to the public. This category does not include shoplifting and thefts from coin-operated devices or machines within open buildings, these offenses are classified according to their separate larceny categories. Theft from residences are included in this category. Though the language explaining Theft From Buildings changed somewhat between 1966 and 1979, the original intent of the Summary definition was to capture those offenses in which either circumstance (open to public or legal access) occurred. Therefore, law enforcement agencies should classify all offenses that meet either of the criteria in the definition as Theft From Buildings. Agencies report a theft from a structure accompanied by a breaking or unlawful entry without breaking (trespass) as burglary, not as larceny-theft. Theft From Coin-Operated Device or Machine (6Xh) Definition: A theft from a device or machine which is operated or activated by the use of a coin or paper money. Coin-operated or currency-operated devices or machines (operated through use of coins, paper money, tokens, etc.) vending machines, telephone coinboxes, parking meters, pinball machines, video machines, and washers and dryers located in laundromats where no breaking or illegal entry of a building is involved.

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All Other Larceny-Theft Not Specifically Classified (6Xi) Definition: All thefts which do not fit the definition of the specific categories of larceny listed above. The category All Other Larceny-theft includes: •

Theft from fenced enclosures



Theft from boats and airplanes



Theft of lawn mowers



Theft of lawn furniture

Theft of farm and construction equipment where no breaking or entering of a structure is involved •

Theft following illegal entry of a tent, tent trailer, or travel trailer used for recreational purposes



Theft of airplanes, bulldozers, and motorboats



Theft of gasoline from a gas station



Theft of timber or crops

NOTE: The UCR Program considers only incidents in which an individual leaves a selfservice gas station without paying for gasoline as larceny-theft. Purchasing gasoline from a full-service gas station implies a tacit agreement with the service attendant. Therefore, agencies must classify incidents in which a driver leaves a full-service gas station without paying the attendant as fraud, not larceny-theft. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as All Other Larceny-theft Not Specifically Classified (6Xi): 5. A local airport reported the theft of a single-engine airplane by a mechanic who did not have permission to take the plane. 6. Two 12-year-old boys boarded a rowboat at dockside and stole a fishing rod and reel.

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MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT (7) •

Autos



Trucks and Buses



Other Vehicles

Definition: The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. Motor Vehicle Theft includes the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle, which the UCR Program defines as a self-propelled vehicle that runs on land surface and not on rails, for example, sport utility vehicles, automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, motor scooters, allterrain vehicles, and snowmobiles are classified as motor vehicles. This category does not include farm equipment, bulldozers, airplanes, construction equipment, or water craft (motorboats, sailboats, houseboats, or jet skis). Taking a vehicle for temporary use when prior authority has been granted or can be assumed such as in family situations, rental car agreements, or unauthorized use by chauffeurs and others having lawful access to the vehicle is not classified as motor vehicle thefts. Reporting agencies classify as Motor Vehicle Theft all cases where automobiles are taken by persons not having lawful access even though the vehicles are later abandoned. They should include joyriding in this category. If a vehicle is stolen in conjunction with another offense, the reporting agency classifies the crimes using the procedures for classifying multiple offenses. Motor Vehicle Theft—Autos (7a) The category Motor Vehicle Theft—Autos (7a) includes the thefts of all sedans, station wagons, coupes, convertibles, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and other similar motor vehicles that serve the primary purpose of transporting people from one place to another. Automobiles used as taxis are also included. Some states allow a station wagon to be registered as a truck, however, licensing is not a determining factor. The UCR Program stipulates that a station wagon is classified as an automobile. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Motor Vehicle Theft—Autos (7a): 1. A juvenile took a sport utility vehicle from in front of the owner’s residence. 2. An owner awoke to find his car several parking spaces north of where it had been parked the previous night. 3. A woman stopped at a mailbox and left her minivan running while she got out to mail a letter. A 14-year-old boy jumped into the vehicle and drove away. 4.

A taxi (sedan) was stolen from a parking lot.

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Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b) The category Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b) includes the theft of those vehicles specifically designed (but not necessarily used) to commercially transport people and cargo. Pickup trucks and cargo vans, regardless of their use, are included in this category. The UCR Program considers a self-propelled motor home to be a truck. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b): 5. A self-propelled motor home was stolen from the driveway of a citizen’s residence. 6. Three 16-year-old students drove their school bus from the school’s property to a local shopping center to buy concert tickets. They had no permission to use the bus. Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c) The category Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c) includes all other motor vehicles that meet the UCR definition such as snowmobiles, motorcycles, motor scooters, trail bikes, mopeds, golf carts, all-terrain vehicles, go-carts, mini-bikes, and motorized wheelchairs. Obviously, all situations cannot be covered, so the classifier’s decision is based on UCR standards and the results of law enforcement investigation. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c): 7. A winter retreat lodge in a mountain area had numerous snowmobiles for the use of its guests. During the night, three of these vehicles were stolen.

ARSON (8) •

Arson—Structural



Arson—Mobile



Arson—Other

Definition: Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Agencies report as arson only fires determined through investigation to have been willfully or maliciously set. Attempts to burn are included in this offense, but fires of suspicious or unknown origins are not. Agencies classify one offense for each distinct arson operation originating within the reporting jurisdiction. If arson is perpetrated in one locale and spreads to another, the jurisdiction in which the fire originated reports it.

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Arson—Structural (8a–g) •

Single occupancy residential (houses, townhouses, duplexes, etc.)



Other residential (apartments, tenements, flats, hotels, motels, inns, dormitories, boardinghouses, etc.)



Storage (barns, garages, warehouses, etc.)



Industrial/manufacturing



Other commercial (stores, restaurants, offices, etc.)



Community/public (churches, jails, schools, colleges, hospitals, etc.)



All other structure (out buildings, monuments, buildings under constructions, etc.)

In classifying the object of arson as structural, reporting agencies should use the guidelines for defining structures set forth in the discussion of burglary. A permanently fixed house trailer or mobile unit used as an office, residence, or storehouse is considered structural property. Structures are further divided into two subcategories: residential and nonresidential. The UCR Program considers a residential structure to be any dwelling used for human habitation, including houses, townhouses, apartments, etc. to comply with the UCR definition of Arson—Single Occupancy Residential (8a) structures must meet all three of the following conditions: •

Private dwellings, duplexes, townhouses, etc. each occupied by a single family group



Total sleeping accommodations for no more than 20 persons



No more than two rooms per unit rented to outsiders

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as Arson—Structural (8a–g): 1. As the result of fire, several condominiums were destroyed or damaged. Investigation revealed arsonist had ignited a fire in one condominium, however, the fire spread to several adjacent buildings, causing $400,000 total damage. Residential property not meeting the above-listed criteria are classified as Other Residential (8b). For the purpose of reporting arson, temporary living quarters such as hotels, motels, inns, are included in the Other Residential category. The remaining structural subcategories address nonresidential property and are self-explanatory. Arson—Mobile (8h–i) •

Motor vehicle (automobiles, trucks, recreational vehicles, buses, motorcycles, etc.)



Other mobile property (trailers, airplanes, boats, etc.)

53

Motor vehicles by UCR definition is self-propelled and run on land surface and not on rails, for example, sport utility vehicles, automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, motor scooters, allterrain vehicles, and snowmobiles are classified as motor vehicles. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement classified as Arson— Mobile (8h–i): 2. Someone threw a firebomb at a parked vehicle, the device missed the car and burned harmlessly in the street. 3. The owner of an airplane willfully burned it to collect the insurance money. The fire also damaged the plane’s hangar. Arson—Other (8j) The category Arson—Other (8j) subcategory encompasses arson of all property not classified as structural or mobile. Willful or malicious burnings of property such as crops, timber, fences, signs, and merchandise stored outside structures are included in this category. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify as Arson—Other (8j): 4. A 16-year-old boy, whose motive was revenge, burned the timber belonging to a local rancher. Cautions In Classifying Arson Key to properly classifying arson is establishing the point of origin of a fire. If an individual willfully burns a vehicle parked adjacent to a home and the fire subsequently spreads to and destroys the home, the appropriate arson subcategory would be Mobile—Motor Vehicle (8h). In cases where the point of origin is undetermined, or in instances of multiple points of origin, the agency reports the structural, mobile, or other category of property that suffered the greatest fire damage. Incidents in which persons are killed as a direct result of arson are classified as both criminal homicides and arson. Similarly, the number of persons severely injured during arson offenses is reported as aggravated assaults along with the arson. NOTE: The Hierarchy Rule does not apply to the offense of arson. In cases in which arson occurs in conjunction with another Part I crime, the agency reports both offenses, the arson and the additional Part I offense. For multiple offenses, one of which is arson, the reporting agency reports the arson and applies the Hierarchy Rule to the remaining Part I crimes to determine which one is the most serious and should also be reported. Because of the hazardous nature of the professions of police officers and firefighters, arsonrelated deaths and injuries of these individuals, unless willful, are excluded from the Return A 54

and SHR but law enforcement officer deaths and injuries should be reported on the appropriate LEOKA forms. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies classify both as Arson—Structural (8a–g) and the appropriate Part I offense: 5. The police and fire investigators determined a fire was deliberately set in a singlefamily home valued at $165,000. Rescue workers assisted in helping the family escape, however, a child, aged 8, died at the scene from smoke inhalation. Explanation: Law enforcement reports arson and criminal homicide. 6. Three individuals broke into a warehouse. While inside, they spray painted the walls. They located the night watchman and kicked him into unconsciousness. The watchman sustained several broken ribs. Prior to leaving, the vandals sloshed gasoline around the premises. Explanation: Law enforcement reports arson and aggravated assault. 7. A fire was reported at a local college dormitory. Ten students were killed as a direct result of the flames and asphyxiation. Two more students died from internal injuries received when they attempted to jump to safety. Six people were hospitalized with second- and third-degree burns. Final investigative reports of the incident revealed that tennis balls soaked in alcohol had been ignited against a dormitory room door as a prank. Explanation: Law enforcement reports arson and criminal homicide.

Human Trafficking Classifications The FBI UCR Program collects offense and arrest data regarding human trafficking as authorized by the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008. The act requires the FBI to collect human trafficking offense data as Part I violent crimes and to make distinctions between assisting or promoting prostitution, purchasing prostitution, and prostitution in Part II arrest data (see Part II offenses.) To comply with the Wilberforce Act, the FBI UCR Program created for the SRS two additional Part I offenses for which the UCR Program will collect offense and arrest data.

Human Trafficking—Commercial Sex Acts (9) Definition: Inducing a person by force, fraud, or coercion to participate in commercial sex acts, or in which the person induced to perform such act(s) has not attained 18 years of age.

55

For the scenarios listed below, investigation has determined to be a Human Trafficking incident. 1. A prostitute (adult or juvenile) was arrested with a John (No pimp, no human trafficking). Score one offense on the Monthly Return of Human Trafficking Offenses Known to Law Enforcement (HT) Report (Commercial Sex Acts). On the Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity (ASRE) Report, score one arrest for 16a–Prostitution (Prostitute) and one arrest for 16c–Purchasing Prostitution). •

Prostitute = 16a–Prostitution.



John = 16c–Purchasing Prostitution.

2. A juvenile prostitute was arrested with her Pimp. Score one offense on the (HT) Report (Commercial Sex Acts). On the ASRE Report, score one arrest for 16a–Prostitution (juvenile prostitute) and 30–Human Trafficking/Commercial Sex Acts (Pimp). •

Prostitute = 16a–Prostitution.



Pimp = 30–Human Trafficking/Commercial Sex Acts.

3. A juvenile prostitute was arrested with her Pimp and a John. Score one offense on the HT Report (Commercial Sex Acts). On the ASRE Report, score one arrest for 16a–Prostitution (juvenile prostitute), one arrest for 16c–Purchasing Prostitution (John), and one 30–Human Trafficking/Commercial Sex Acts (Pimp). •

Prostitute = 16a–Prostitution.



Pimp = 30–Human Trafficking/Commercial Sex Acts.



John = 16c–Purchasing Prostitution.

4. An adult prostitute was arrested with his Pimp and a John. Score one offense on the HT Report (Commercial Sex Acts). On the ASRE Report, score one arrest for 16a–Prostitution (juvenile prostitute), one arrest for 16c–Purchasing Prostitution (John), and one 30–Human Trafficking/Commercial Sex Acts (Pimp). Prostitute = 16a–Prostitution. •

Pimp = 30–Human Trafficking/Commercial Sex Acts.



John = 16c–Purchasing Prostitution.

56

Human Trafficking—Involuntary Servitude (10) Definition: The obtaining of a person(s) through recruitment, harboring, transportation, or provision, and subjecting such persons by force, fraud, or coercion into involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery (not to include commercial sex acts). 5. A doctor was arrested for falsely promising a family in a foreign country a home, education, and work while their juvenile child resided in the United States. The juvenile was forced to do domestic work for the doctor’s family once arriving in the United States while being denied schooling and payment. Score one offense on the HT Report (Involuntary Servitude). On the ASRE Report, score one arrest for 31–Human Trafficking/Involuntary Servitude (Doctor). •

Juvenile Victim/Doctor Offender = Score one on the HT Report (Involuntary Servitude).



Doctor = 31–Human Trafficking/Involuntary Servitude (ASRE).

6. A doctor was arrested for falsely promising a family in a foreign country a home, education, and work while their juvenile child resided in the United States. The juvenile was forced to do domestic work for the doctor’s family while being denied schooling and payment. The juvenile was often beaten and on one occasion was severely injured for not performing the duties. Score one offense on the HT Report (Involuntary Servitude), score one Assault (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.-Aggravated Injury, 4d) on the Return A–Monthly Return of Offenses Known to the Police (Return A) Report. On the ASRE Report, score one arrest for 31– Human Trafficking/Involuntary Servitude (Doctor). •

Juvenile Victim/Doctor Offender= Score one on the HT Report (Involuntary Servitude).



Doctor Offender = score one Assault (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.-Aggravated Injury, 4d) on the Return A Report.



Doctor = 31–Human Trafficking/Involuntary Servitude (ASRE).

7. A doctor was arrested for falsely promising a family in a foreign country a home, education, and work while their juvenile child resided in the United States. The juvenile was forced to do domestic work for the family while being denied schooling and payment. The juvenile was also raped during captivity by the doctor’s brother. Score one offense on the HT Report (Involuntary Servitude) and score one Rape on the Return A Report. On the ASRE Report, score one arrest for 02–Rape (Brother) and 31– Human Trafficking/Involuntary Servitude (Doctor).

57



Juvenile Victim/Doctor Offender = Score one on the HT Report (Involuntary Servitude).



Brother Offender = Score one Rape on the Return A



Brother = 02–Rape (ASRE).



Doctor = 31–Human Trafficking/Involuntary Servitude (ASRE).

58

CHAPTER III SCORING OFFENSES Scoring is counting the number of offenses after they have been classified. The appropriate scoring of Part I crime is directly related to the two types of crimes involved, crimes against the person and crimes against property. Generally, agencies score attempts to commit a crime as though the crimes were actually completed. The only exception to this rule applies to attempts or assaults to murder wherein the victim does not die, these offenses are scored as aggravated assaults rather than attempted murders.

Crimes Against the Person Versus Crimes Against Property Distinguishing between crimes committed against persons and those committed against property greatly facilitates the process of scoring offenses. In the UCR Program, the offenses of criminal homicide, rape, human trafficking, and aggravated assault are crimes against the person. For these crimes, one offense is counted for each victim. Robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson are crimes against property. For these crimes, one offense is counted for each distinct operation or attempt, except in the case of motor vehicle theft for which one offense is counted for each stolen vehicle and one offense for each attempt to steal a motor vehicle.

59

CRIMINAL HOMICIDE (1) •

Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter



Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence

Crime Against the Person Score One Offense Per Victim

Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a): 1. A berserk gunman shot and killed three pedestrians. The police subdued the offender and placed him under arrest. (Three offenses, three offenses cleared by arrest.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

11

3

3

3

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

2. A neighbor discovered an infant who had been beaten. The neighbor rushed the infant to the hospital. The infant later died as a direct result of the injuries. Investigation revealed that the mother was responsible. The mother was not considered mentally competent, and the district attorney did not wish to prosecute. (One offense, one offense cleared by exceptional means.)

2

3

4

5

6

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

Data Entry

1

11

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

60

3. A man shot and killed his neighbor in an argument over the location of their property line. The police arrested the man and charged him with murder. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

11

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

4. A husband and wife had an argument. The wife shot the husband and severely wounded him. He grabbed the gun and shot and killed her. The husband survived his wounds. The police subsequently arrested him. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

11

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

5. A man was in a fight on the second floor of a building. During the fight, he was knocked through a window and fell to his death. No arrest was made. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

61

6. While attempting to break up a fight, a man was struck over the head with an ashtray by one of the combatants. During the incident, a pre-existing aneurysm burst in the man’s head, causing his death. No arrest was made. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

11

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

7. A psychiatrist counseling a young female patient performed a criminal abortion on her. She died of peritonitis resulting from the operation. The psychiatrist fled the state and is still wanted for the crime. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

11

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

8. A teller chased a robber from a bank. The robber fired at him. His shot missed the teller but killed a woman walking on the street. The police did not locate the robber. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

Data Entry

1

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

62

9. While playing cards, two men got into an argument. The first man attacked the second with a broken bottle. The second man pulled a gun and killed the first. The police arrested the shooter, he claimed self-defense. The police found no other witnesses. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

11

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

10. A felon fleeing in her car attempted to get through a police roadblock. As a result, she struck and killed two police officers. (Two offenses, two offenses not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

2

2

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

NOTE: For each Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) reported on the Return A, the reporting agency should also provide additional required information in the SHR. The UCR Program uses the SHR to provide more detailed information about the victim and offender in a homicide such as the relationship of victim to offender, the weapon used, and the circumstances surrounding the victim’s death. Additionally, in cases where police officers are killed in the line of duty, the deceased officer’s agency completes the applicable law enforcement officers killed and assaulted forms.

63

Justifiable Homicide To report justifiable homicides on the Return A, agencies score one offense for each victim in Column 2 on line 1a. Agencies score the same number of offenses in Column 3, Unfounded. Finally, agencies do not score the number of actual offenses in Column 4 because a justifiable homicide is not an offense. NOTE: A justifiable homicide, by definition, occurs in conjunction with other offenses. Therefore, the crime being committed when the justifiable homicide took place is reported as a separate offense. Further, the crime being committed by the felon at the time of his or her death is cleared by exceptional means (Death of the Offender). Reporting agencies should ensure they do not classify a killing as justifiable or excusable solely on the claim of self-defense or on the action of a coroner, prosecutor, grand jury, or court. The following scenario is an example of a justifiable homicide by a police officer, during the commission of a felony in the line of duty, that reporting agencies score as Criminal Homicide— Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) and then score as Unfounded:

11. A police officer answered a bank alarm and surprised the robber coming out of the bank. The robber saw the responding officer and fired at him. The officer returned fire, killing the robber. The officer was charged in a court of record as a matter of routine in such cases. (One offense of criminal homicide, unfounded, and one offense of robbery, cleared by exceptional means.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

12

30

1

1

1

a. Firearm

31

1

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

64

NOTE: The activity of the Robbery is classified as Robbery. The killing by the officer in the line of duty is classified as justifiable homicide and is entered opposite the criminal homicide (1a) category in Column 2 of the Return A and unfounded in Column 3. Therefore, the killing has been classified for as murder, but also reported as unfounded. Additionally, this incident is classified and scored as an assault on the Law Enforcement Officers Killed & Assaulted form 1-701.

The following scenario is an example of a justifiable homicide by a private citizen that reporting agencies score as Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) and then score as Unfounded:

12. When a gunman entered a store and attempted to rob the proprietor, the storekeeper shot and killed the felon. (One offense of murder, unfounded, and one offense of Robbery, cleared by exceptional means.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

12

30

1

1

1

a. Firearm

31

1

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b) As a general rule, one offense is counted for each death caused by the gross negligence of another. Deaths of persons due to their own negligence, accidental deaths not resulting from gross negligence, and traffic fatalities are not included in the category Manslaughter by Negligence (1b). However, arrests in connection with traffic fatalities is counted on the ASRE. The findings of a coroner, prosecutor, grand jury, or court do not affect classifying or scoring, these are law enforcement statistics.

65

The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Criminal Homicide—Manslaughter by Negligence (1b).

13. While two juveniles were playing with a gun, one playfully pointed it at the other. The youth pointing the gun fired it and killed the other. At the time of arrest, the juvenile claimed no knowledge of the gun being loaded. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest involving persons under 18 years of age.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

11

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

1

1

14. A target shooter was practicing in an unincorporated wooded area near some houses. One shot missed the target and killed a resident. The police arrested the shooter. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

11

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

1

NOTE: For each Manslaughter by Negligence (1b) reported on the Return A, the reporting agency makes an entry on the back of the SHR to provide additional required information.

66

RAPE (2) • Rape • Attempts to Commit Rape • Historical Definition of Rape Crime Against the Person Score One Offense Per Victim Rape—Rape (2a), Historical Definition of Rape (2c) As specified in the SRS Technical Specification, only the monthly sum for Historical Rape is reported in Column 4. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Rape—Rape (2a) and also score as Historical Rape (2c):

1. Law enforcement received a complaint from a victim who claimed when she was leaving work late one night, she was attacked in the company parking lot by an unidentified male and raped. The offender was not apprehended. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

2. RAPE TOTAL

20

1

1

a. Rape

21

1

1

b. Attempts to commit Rape

22

c. Historical Rape

22

1

67

2. Two men lured a woman to their motel room with the promise of discussing a job opportunity. They threatened her with a knife and both raped her. On complaint by the woman, the police arrested both men. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

2. RAPE TOTAL

20

1

1

1

a. Rape

21

1

1

1

b. Attempts to commit Rape

22

c. Historical Rape

22

1

1

NOTE: In cases where several persons attack one person, agencies count the number of victims, not the number of offenders nor the number of times the victim was raped.

3. Three girls were attacked, assaulted, and raped by four boys. Each boy raped each of the girls. No arrests were made. (Three offenses, three offenses not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

2. RAPE TOTAL

20

3

3

a. Rape

21

3

3

b. Attempts to commit Rape

22

c. Historical Rape

22

3

68

Rape—Attempts to Commit Rape (2b) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Rape—Attempts to Commit Rape (2b):

4. A man attacked a woman on the street, knocked her down, and attempted to rape her. A pedestrian frightened the man away before he could complete the attack. The police were notified. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2. RAPE TOTAL

20

a. Rape

21

b. Attempts to commit Rape

22

c. Historical Rape

22

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1 1

Actual offenses of rape are scored opposite item 2a, and assaults or attempts to rape are scored opposite item 2b. Both subtotals, 2a and 2b, are added for rape total.

5. At a local bar, a man slipped sedative drug into a woman’s drink. However, the man was unable to lure the woman away from her friends. Investigators concluded that the man intended to have intercourse with the woman and arrested him. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2. RAPE TOTAL

20

a. Rape

21

b. Attempts to commit Rape

22

c. Historical Rape

23

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearance involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

69

Rape (2a) The following scenario includes an example of offenses which are now scored in 2a in accordance with the change in the definition of rape to include male victims, victims of sodomy, and victims of sexual assaults with objects.

19. A woman took her young son to a secluded park. She told him they would have special time together, convinced him to remove his pants, and penetrated him with her fingers. She told the boy she would go to jail if he told anyone and that his father would not love him anymore.

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearance involving only persons under 18 years of age

2. RAPE TOTAL

20

1

1

1

a. Rape

21

1

1

1

b. Attempts to commit Rape

22

c. Historical Rape

22

70

ROBBERY (3) • Firearm • Knife or Cutting Instrument • Other Dangerous Weapon • Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. Crime Against Property Score One Offense Per Distinct Operation Agencies do not count the number of victims robbed, those present at the Robbery, or the number of offenders when scoring this crime. Robbery—Firearm (3a) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Robbery—Firearm (3a):

1. A man came to a victim’s door and asked to use the phone. After being admitted to the residence, he pulled a gun and demanded money. He took the victim’s money and fled. The police have yet to apprehend the suspect. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

30

1

1

a. Firearm

31

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

71

2. A lone male with a gun appeared in a tavern and ordered ten patrons and the owner to hand over their cash and jewelry. After obtaining their possessions, the man left. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

30

1

1

a. Firearm

31

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

3. Four individuals planned to rob a local supermarket. One of the group informed the police. On the appointed day, the four walked in the front door of the market armed with handguns. They all were arrested. The informant was later released for cooperating. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

30

1

1

1

a. Firearm

31

1

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

72

4. A person with a shotgun entered a rural grocery store and ordered the clerk to hand over the cash. The clerk complied. The suspect ran out of the store to a waiting car. The clerk notified the police. The police spotted the suspect’s vehicle and engaged in a high-speed chase. They apprehended a 17-year-old suspect. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest of a person under 18.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

30

1

1

1

1

a. Firearm

31

1

1

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

Robbery—Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Robbery—Knife or Cutting Instrument (3b):

5. A lone male approached a car stopped at a traffic light. The male brandished a knife and ordered the driver of the car to get out of the vehicle. She complied, and the male then jumped into the car and drove away, leaving the car owner frightened but unhurt. The woman called the police. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

73

6. A man was walking down the street when an assailant grabbed him and held a broken bottle to his throat. While the assailant was attempting to remove the victim’s wallet from his pocket, the police arrived and arrested the assailant. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Robbery—Other Dangerous Weapon (3c):

7. Two men accosted a third, an acquaintance, in an alley near a bar. They beat him severely with a club and took his wallet containing several hundred dollars. The victim reported the incident to the police. No arrest was made. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

74

8. A woman robbed a jewelry store by threatening to detonate a bomb. Two store employees managed to detain the suspect until the police arrived. The subject was arrested. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

9. While a motorist was stopped at an intersection, a man armed with a canister of pepper spray forcibly removed her from her convertible. The man got into the vehicle and drove away. The motorist suffered several cuts and bruises in the confrontation. The police were unable to locate the offender or the vehicle. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

75

Robbery—Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc. (3d) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Robbery—Strong-arm—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. (3d):

10. During a purse-snatching, a thief shoved a woman to the ground and took her purse. The thief escaped. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

1

1

1

1

11. A juvenile was observed by a store security guard concealing compact discs under his shirt. When he was confronted, the youth punched the security guard and fled the store, leaving the compact discs behind. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.)

34

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

76

ASSAULT (4) • Firearm • Knife or Cutting Instrument • Other Dangerous Weapon • Strong-arm—Hands, Fist, Feet, etc.—Aggravated Injury • Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated Crime Against the Person Score One Offense Per Victim Attempts and assaults to murder is classified as aggravated assault. NOTE: Aggravated assault is a troublesome crime to score. If a number of persons are involved in a dispute or disturbance and law enforcement investigation cannot distinguish the aggressors from the victims, reporting agencies count the number of persons assaulted as the number of offenses. Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Aggravated Assault—Firearm (4a): 1. A man had an argument with his girlfriend. She left and later returned with a gun and shot the man, attempting to kill him. He recovered from his gunshot wound. The police arrested the woman. She was prosecuted for attempted murder. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

40

1

1

1

a. Firearm

41

1

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

44 45

77

2. While an officer was attempting to serve a warrant, the individual ran from her. The subject turned and fired on the officer, wounding her. Assisting officers caught and arrested the individual. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

40

1

1

1

a. Firearm

41

1

1

1

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

44 45

NOTE: Additionally, this incident is classified and scored as an assault on the Law Enforcement Officers Killed & Assaulted form 1-701.

78

Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b):

3. During a dice game, a heated argument erupted and one man stabbed another with a hypodermic needle. The victim recovered, identified the attacker, but refused to press charges against his attacker. (One offense, one offense cleared by exceptional means.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

40

a. Firearm

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury

2

44 45

4. During an argument, a man cut a woman with a razor. The police were unable to locate the suspect. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

44 45

79

Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon (4c):

5. At the scene of a riot, three police officers were attacked by 20 rioters who were armed with clubs and rocks. The police officers sustained injuries that caused them to be hospitalized. A total of 45 rioters, including 18 of those participating in the assaults, were arrested for disorderly conduct. (Three offenses, three offenses cleared by arrest).

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

3

3

3

3

3

3

44 45

NOTE: Additionally, this incident is classified and scored as an assault on the Law Enforcement Officers Killed & Assaulted form 1-701.

80

6. During an argument, a man picked up a tire iron and hit his neighbors, a man and his wife. The man suffered a minor bruise, but the wife had a concussion from a blow to the head. The police arrested the attacker. (Two offenses, two offenses cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

2

2

2

2

2

2

40

a. Firearm

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury

2

44 45

7. During a physical altercation between two patrons at a local tavern, one of the men displayed a vial filled with a biological contaminant in a threatening manner. The police arrived at the tavern and arrested the individual. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

44 45

81

8. The police responded to a fight-in-progress call. They found the offender beating a victim about the face and head with a shoe. The victim suffered a cut that required several stitches. The offender was arrested at the scene. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

40

a. Firearm

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury

2

44 45

Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, Etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.—Aggravated Injury (4d): 9. A man came home drunk. During an argument with his wife, he slapped her with an open hand and broke her jaw. The police arrested the husband, but his wife refused to prosecute. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

44

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

45

82

10. During an argument over a parking space, one man pushed another to the ground. The man on the ground suffered an abrasion and a broken wrist. The individual who pushed him was later arrested for assault. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

44

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

45

83

Assault—Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Assault—Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated (4e):

11. Several bar patrons were watching a football game on television. The supporters of the two teams exchanged heated words that led to a fist fight. The bartender called the police. None of the participants cooperated, so the police could not determine who started the fight. The police arrested six patrons, who had suffered bruises and minor cuts, and charged them with affray. (Six offenses, six offenses cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearance involving only persons under 18 years of age

6

6

6

6

6

6

44 45

84

12. A married couple was arguing about financial problems. The husband slapped his wife and left the house. The wife followed him, and they continued their argument. The police responded to a call by a neighbor. The wife told them that her husband slapped her. The police arrested the husband for domestic violence. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

40

a. Firearm

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury

2

44 45

13. An employee of a local retail establishment received numerous e-mail messages at work from her ex-boyfriend, against whom she had a restraining order. The e-mail messages contained sexually offensive material and threats of violence to the employee, so she turned them over to the police. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

44 45

85

14. The police responded to a reported fight at a residence. Upon arrival, they discovered a man with a bruise around one eye. The man said his son, age 17, struck him during an argument. The boy admitted to striking his father and apologized. The police documented the incident but did not arrest anyone at the scene because the father did not wish to press charges. (One offense, one offense cleared by exceptional means.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

40

a. Firearm

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury

2

44 45

15. Two men were waiting in a line to enter a nightclub. One man tried to bully the other man into giving up his place in line by threatening to punch him in the face. Refusing to be intimidated, the man reported the threat to the nightclub’s bouncer who called the police. The police cited the bully but did not arrest anyone at the scene. (One offense, one offense cleared by exceptional means.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

44 45

86

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as simple assaults and as aggravated assaults:

16. During a confrontation between two groups of people, a fight occurred during which several of the participants were injured. None of the combatants were cooperative, and all claimed to be innocent. It was unclear to the police who was responsible for which assault. The police arrested eight persons, five of whom were severely beaten and in need of emergency medical treatment. (A total of eight offenses is reported: five offenses classified as Aggravated Assault—Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. [4d] and three offenses classified as Other Assaults—Simple, Not Aggravated [4e]. Eight offenses cleared by arrest.)

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

8

8

8

44

5

5

5

45

3

3

3

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

87

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score in two aggravated assault subcategories:

17. Police responding to a disturbance call found a juvenile gang fight in progress. The participants escaped, except for seven youths who suffered injuries. None would cooperate, and the police could not determine who started the fight. Three gang members had been cut severely with knives. The remaining four suffered broken bones from being beaten with clubs. The police arrested the combatants who were under the age of 18 on felonious assault charges. (A total of seven assault offenses is reported: three offenses classified as Aggravated Assault—Knife or Cutting Instrument [4b] and four offenses classified as Aggravated Assault—Other Dangerous Weapon [4c]. Seven offenses cleared by arrest.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

40

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

7

7

7

7

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

3

3

3

3

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

4

4

4

4

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

44 45

88

BURGLARY—BREAKING OR ENTERING (5) • Forcible Entry • Unlawful Entry—No Force • Attempted Forcible Entry Crime Against Property Score One Offense Per Distinct Operation The UCR Program scores as burglary those offenses locally known as burglary (any degree), unlawful entry with intent to commit a larceny or felony, breaking and entering with intent to commit a larceny, housebreaking, safecracking, and all attempts at these offenses. Hotel Rule Burglaries of hotels, motels, lodging houses, and other places where lodging of transients is the main purpose are scored under provisions of the Hotel Rule. This principle of scoring dictates that if a number of dwelling units under a single manager are burglarized and the offenses are most likely to be reported to the police by the manager rather than the individual tenants, the burglary is scored as one offense. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score under the provisions of the Hotel Rule:

1. A thief entered a hotel, forcibly entered seven unoccupied guests’ rooms and stole cash, jewelry, and other personal belongings from each room. Subsequent police investigation eliminated hotel employees and others who had lawful access to the rooms. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

1

1

a. Forcible Entry

51

1

1

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

89

However, if the individual living areas in a building are rented or leased to the occupants for a period of time, which would preclude the tenancy from being classified as transient, then the burglaries should be reported separately. Reporting agencies score these burglaries as separate offenses. Examples of this latter type of multiple burglary include burglaries of a number of apartments in an apartment house, the offices of a number of commercial firms in a business building, or the offices of separate professionals within one building.

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as multiple offenses of Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a): 2. The manager of a self-storage facility called the police to investigate a possible burglary. Once on the scene, the police determined that six storage units had been forced open and that items had been stolen from each unit. No arrest has been made. (Six offenses, six offenses not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (column 2) minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

6

6

a. Forcible Entry

51

6

6

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

90

Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a):

1. A liquor store was broken into on a holiday when the store was closed. The next day, the manager found that alcoholic beverages and money were missing and called the police. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

1

1

a. Forcible Entry

51

1

1

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

2. A burglar used a key to enter four units in a condominium complex and stole numerous articles from each residence. The resident in each condominium called the police. The police made no arrest. (Four offenses, four offenses not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

4

4

a. Forcible Entry

51

4

4

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

91

3. A man hid in a theater. After it closed, he stole money from the cash register and left the premises during the night. The police made no arrest. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

1

1

a. Forcible Entry

51

1

1

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b):

4. While a housewife was in the backyard hanging clothes, a 14-year-old boy entered her house through the unlocked front door and took her purse. When the woman realized her purse was missing, she called the police. The police subsequently located the boy and charged him with juvenile delinquency. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest of a person under age 18.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

a. Forcible Entry

51

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

92

5. A woman posing as a maintenance employee entered an unlocked office and stole a wallet from a cabinet. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

a. Forcible Entry

51

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

6. During the night, someone stole a $24,000 car out of an unlocked, but closed, private garage. Two days later, police found the car abandoned in a nearby town. No suspect was identified. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

a. Forcible Entry

51

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

In certain circumstances involving burglary, the reporting agency may be required to classify and score both Forcible Entry (5a) and Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b) within the same incident.

93

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as both Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) and Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force (5b):

7. After closing hours, a thief entered an unlocked door of a warehouse. The warehouse contained a number of offices of individual shipping companies. The subject broke into eight of the company offices, rifled through the office desks, and stole some items from each office. (Eight offenses of Burglary—Forcible Entry [5a], not cleared, one offense of Burglary—Unlawful Entry—No Force [5b], not cleared, for a total of nine offenses. Nine offenses not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

9

9

a. Forcible Entry

51

8

8

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

1

1

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c) The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Burglary—Attempted Forcible Entry (5c):

8. Police investigation verified an attempted break-in at the local bank. There were no suspects in the incident. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

a. Forcible Entry

51

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

94

LARCENY-THEFT (6) Crime Against Property Score One Offense Per Distinct Operation In larceny-theft situations, whether a single article or several articles are stolen from one place on the same occasion, only one distinct operation has occurred, and reporting agencies score one offense. The number of offenses reported would be one even if several items belonging to different people were stolen at the same time from one place. (See the Separation of Time and Place Rule.) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Larceny-theft (6):

1. While standing in a crowd watching a parade, a man was jostled by someone who stole his billfold containing over $200. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

6. LARCENY - THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

60

1

1

(Except Motor Vehicle Theft)

2. Two persons entered a hardware store together. While one engaged the clerk in a discussion in the back of the store, the other stole a power saw valued at $125. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

6. LARCENY - THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

60

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

(Except Motor Vehicle Theft)

95

3. A tractor trailer parked in the company parking lot was broken into, and 20 cases of canned food were taken. (One offense, one offense not cleared.) 6

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

6. LARCENY - THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

60

1

1

(Except Motor Vehicle Theft)

4. A thief broke into a locked car and was attempting to remove an expensive navigation system when the owner of the car returned. The owner called the police, who arrested the man. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

6. LARCENY - THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

60

1

1

1

(Except Motor Vehicle Theft)

5. A local airport reported the theft of a single-engine airplane by a mechanic who did not have permission to take the plane. The police apprehended the subject. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

6. LARCENY - THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

60

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

(Except Motor Vehicle Theft)

6

If the plane was carrying cargo, this incident is also scored as a cargo theft. Refer to the Cargo Theft Manual at for more information.

96

6. Two 12-year-old boys boarded a rowboat at dockside and stole a fishing rod and reel. The police released the boys to their parents and no charges were formally filed. (One offense, one offense cleared by exceptional means.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of actual Offenses (column 2

Total offenses

Number of clearances involving only

(Include “unfounded” and attempts)

6. LARCENY - THEFT TOTAL

60

1

false or baseless complaints

minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

1

cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

1

persons under 18 years of age

1

(Except Motor Vehicle Theft)

97

MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT (7) • Autos • Trucks and Buses • Other Vehicles Crime Against Property Score One Offense For Each Stolen Vehicle Reporting agencies score one offense for each vehicle stolen and one offense for each attempt to steal a motor vehicle. The theft of a vehicle is scored as such even if the vehicle was recovered immediately after the theft occurred. Motor Vehicle Theft—Autos (7a) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Motor Vehicle Theft—Autos (7a):

1. A juvenile took a sport utility vehicle from in front of the owner’s residence. Approximately three hours later, the police found the vehicle on the other side of town, abandoned and out of gas. The juvenile was not apprehended. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

70

1

1

a. Autos

71

1

1

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

98

2. An owner awoke to find his car several parking spaces north of where it had been parked the previous night. Though there was no damage and the vehicle had not been hot-wired, the owner noticed the gas tank was empty in spite of being full the night before. He notified the police who determined the vehicle was taken for joyriding. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

70

1

1

a. Autos

71

1

1

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

3. A woman stopped at a mailbox and left her minivan running while she got out mailing a letter. A 14-year-old boy jumped into the vehicle and drove away. The police recovered the auto two hours later, wrecked against a tree and they arrested the boy. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest of a person under age 18.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

70

1

1

1

1

a. Autos

71

1

1

1

1

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

99

4. A taxi (sedan) was stolen from a parking lot. The police recovered it in another city. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

70

1

1

a. Autos

71

1

1

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Motor Vehicle Theft—Trucks and Buses (7b):

5. A self-propelled motor home was stolen from the driveway of a citizen’s residence. The police later found the vehicle stripped of all removable parts. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

70

a. Autos

71

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1

1

100

6. Three 16-year-old students drove their school bus from the school’s property to a local shopping center to buy concert tickets. They had no permission to use the bus. All three were summoned to appear before the juvenile court for juvenile delinquency. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest of a person under age 18.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

70

a. Autos

71

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c) The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Motor Vehicle Theft—Other Vehicles (7c):

7. A winter retreat lodge in a mountain area had numerous snowmobiles for the use of its guests. During the night, three of these vehicles were stolen. (Three offenses, three offenses not cleared.)

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT TOTAL

70

a. Autos

71

b. Trucks and Buses

72

c. Other Vehicles

73

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

3

3

3

3

101

ARSON (8) • Structural • Mobile • Other Crime Against Property Score One Offense Per Distinct Operation Because of the unique nature of the crime of arson, the UCR Program provides a separate reporting collection (Monthly Return of Arson Offenses Known to Law Enforcement) for arson data. The various property types appear in Column l. Columns 2 through 6 are identical to those on the Return A, but two additional columns are included on the arson report. Reporting agencies use Column 7 to enter the number of arson offenses that involved structures (a–g only) that were uninhabited, abandoned, deserted, or not normally in use. In Column 8, the agency enters the estimated value of property damage rounded to the nearest dollar for all arson offenses entered in Column 4. These two additional columns are discussed further in Chapter IV of this handbook. Arson—Structural (8a–g) The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Arson on the Monthly Return of Arson Offenses Known to Law Enforcement:

1. As the result of fire, several condominiums were destroyed or damaged. Investigation revealed arsonist had ignited a fire in one condominium, however, the fire spread to several adjacent buildings, causing $400,000 total damage. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited,

Estimated Value of Property Damage

and attempts) A. Single Occupancy Residential:

1

Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

1

Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

$400,000

Houses, Townhouses, Duplexes, etc.

102

2. The police and fire investigators determined a fire was deliberately set in a singlefamily home valued at $165,000. Rescue workers assisted in helping the family escape, however, a child, age eight, died at the scene from smoke inhalation. No arrests were made. (One offense of arson, one offense of criminal homicide, not cleared.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited, Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

Estimated Value of Property Damage

A. Single Occupancy Residential:

1

1

$165,000

Houses, Townhouses, Duplexes, etc.

NOTE: The criminal homicide is reported on the Return A and on the SHR.

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

103

3. A fire was reported at a local college dormitory. Ten students were killed as a direct result of the flames and asphyxiation. Two more students died from internal injuries received when they attempted to jump to safety. Six people were hospitalized with second- and third-degree burns. Final investigative reports of the incident revealed that tennis balls soaked in alcohol had been ignited against a dormitory room door as a prank. No arrests were made. Investigators estimated the damage at $1.5 million. (One offense of arson, one offense not cleared, 12 offenses of criminal homicide, 12 offenses not cleared.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited, Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

Estimated Value of Property Damage

B. Other Residential:

1

1

$1,500,000

Apartments, Tenements, Flats, Hotels, Motels, Inns, Dormitories, Boarding Houses, etc.

NOTE: The criminal homicide is reported on the Return A and on the SHR.

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

11

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

12

12

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

104

4. Three individuals broke into a warehouse. While inside, they spray painted the walls. They located the night watchman and kicked him into unconsciousness. The watchman sustained several broken ribs. Prior to leaving, the vandals sloshed gasoline around the premises. The police arrived on the scene and apprehended two of the three suspects as they were attempting to ignite the gasoline. Investigators estimated the damage at $4,000. (One offense of arson, one offense of aggravated assault, one offense cleared by arrest.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited, Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

Estimated Value of Property Damage

1

1

C. Storage

1

$4,000

Barns, Garages, Warehouses, etc.

NOTE: The aggravated assault is also reported on the Return A.

2

3

4

5

6

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearance involving only persons under 18 years of age

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

Data Entry

1

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. - Aggravated injury e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

44

1

1

1

1

1

1

45

105

Arson—Mobile (8h–i) 5. Someone threw a firebomb at a parked vehicle, the device missed the car and burned harmlessly in the street. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of

Total Offenses Cleared

Number of

Offenses Where

Clearances

Structures

Estimated Value of

or Known to Police

False or Baseless

Involving Only

Uninhabited,

(Include Unfounded

Complaints

Exceptional Means

Persons Under

Abandoned, or not

(Include Column 6)

18 Years of Age

Normally in Use

(Column 2 Minus Column 3)

and attempts)

H. Motor Vehicles:

Actual Offenses

(Include Attempts)

1

by Arrest or

1

Property Damage

$0

Automobiles, Trucks, Buses, Motorcycles, etc. UCR Definition

6. The owner of an airplane willfully burned it to collect the insurance money. The fire also damaged the plane’s hangar, the estimated total loss was $450,000. The owner fled the area and could not be found. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited, Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

Estimated Value of Property Damage

I. Other Mobile Property:

1

1

$450,000

Trailers, Recreational Vehicles, Airplanes, Boats, etc.

106

Arson—Other (8j) 7. A 16-year-old boy, whose motive was revenge, burned the timber belonging to a local rancher, causing $200,000 damage. The police arrested the juvenile. (One offense, one offense cleared by arrest of a person under age 18.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited, Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

Estimated Value of Property Damage

1

1

J. TOTAL OTHER

1

1

$200,000

Crops, Timber, Fences, Signs, etc.

Because of the hazardous nature of the professions of police officers and firefighters, arsonrelated deaths and injuries of these individuals, unless willful, are excluded from the Return A and SHR but law enforcement officer deaths and injuries should be submitted on the appropriate LEOKA report. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Arson, but not murder.

8. The police and fire officials responded to a report of a car, valued at $15,000, burning parked along an interstate highway. As two firefighters approached the car, it exploded, killing the two firefighters. Debris from the explosion struck a police officer causing a laceration that required stitches. Investigation determined that an incendiary device caused the fire. (One offense, one offense not cleared.)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported or Known to Police (Include Unfounded and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include Attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means (Include Column 6)

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Offenses Where Structures Uninhabited, Abandoned, or not Normally in Use

Estimated Value of Property Damage

H. Motor Vehicles:

1

1

$15,000

Automobiles, Trucks, Buses, Motorcycles, etc. UCR Definition

107

Human Trafficking—Commercial Sex Acts (A) Crime Against Persons Score One Offense Per Victim 1. After receiving a complaint about prostitution activities at a local hotel, a patrol officer finds three minors engaging in prostitution with their pimp monitoring them from a separate room.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Human Trafficking Classification

A.

Commercial Sex Acts

B.

Involuntary Servitude

3

3

3

GRAND TOTAL

2. After law enforcement called an online posting advertising a male escort, a young boy arrives at the hotel room. After questioning the boy, officers are told the boy was promised a vacation in Florida by another man, but instead was brought to Virginia and forced to have sex with paying customers. All money was then turned over to the man and the boy was threatened with assault and told he would be turned over to law enforcement for prostitution.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Human Trafficking Classification

A.

Commercial Sex Acts

B.

Involuntary Servitude

GRAND TOTAL

1

1

1

108

Human Trafficking—Involuntary Servitude (B) Score One Offense Per Victim 1. A customer of a local nail salon is told in confidence by the nail technician she has to pay back a $20,000 debt and is forced to work 15 hours a day. The nail technician was promised a job in the United States and told she would have legitimate documents. Once in the United States, she was informed she was here illegally and had to pay off a debt or she will be reported to law enforcement. The woman reported she had been slapped several times when customers complained about her service.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Human Trafficking Classification

A.

Commercial Sex Acts

B.

Involuntary Servitude

1

1 1

GRAND TOTAL

2. Two Ghanaian youth were told they would receive education in the United States in exchange for weekend babysitting duties for a family. Before leaving for the United States, the youth were part of a voodoo ceremony sealing them to that family. The youth believed the ritual would result in death if they broke the seal by leaving the family. Once in the United States, the youth did not go to school, but instead were forced to work at a hair braiding salon without pay. Fearing the voodoo ritual, the youth were too terrified to seek out help.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints

Number of Actual Offenses (Column 2 Minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means

Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age

Human Trafficking Classification

A.

Commercial Sex Acts

B.

Involuntary Servitude

GRAND TOTAL

2

2 2

109

CHAPTER IV MONTHLY REPORTING The preferred method for submitting SRS UCR data is an electronic format, including Excel, Microsoft Access, and Extensible Markup Language (XML). The FBI UCR Program’s SRS Specifications for electronic submissions are available at .

RETURN A—MONTHLY RETURN OF OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE The Return A refers to the monthly data collection submitted to the UCR Program for offenses known to law enforcement. If no offenses have occurred during the month, the reporting agency submits the Return A with zeros in the Grand Total row. Agencies also count and include on the Return A the offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means as defined in this handbook. The UCR Program suggests agencies prepare to submit information on the Return A using a tally book to aid in classifying and scoring the Part I offenses during the month. Agencies should not send the tally book to the national or state Programs but maintain it in their own files and report offenses to the FBI UCR Program in approved electronic formats. The following explains each column on the Return A: 2

3

4

5

6

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

Data Entry

1

Column 1: Classification of Offenses The Part I criminal offenses to be scored on the Return A are listed in Column 1. (Definitions for Part I offenses can be found in Chapter II.) They include: 1. Criminal Homicide 2. Rape 3. Robbery 4. Aggravated Assault 5. Burglary 6. Larceny-theft 7. Motor Vehicle Theft NOTE: There is a separate report to submit human trafficking and arson offenses.

110

Column 2: Offenses Reported or Known to Police Reporting agencies indicate in Column 2 all actual, unfounded, and attempted offenses reported within their jurisdictions for the month. Agencies also include in this column any crimes committed in previous months but not reported until the current month. It is important agencies enter into this column all known offenses, including those subsequently determined to be unfounded. Each entry made on the Return A and tally book is classified according to the standard UCR definition. (Attempted murder is scored as an aggravated assault.) Column 3: Unfounded, i.e., False or Baseless Complaints Occasionally, an agency will receive a complaint is determined through investigation to be false or baseless. In other words, no crime occurred. If the investigation shows no offense occurred nor was attempted, UCR Program procedures dictate the reported offense is unfounded in Column 3. Agencies still record all such Part I offenses and then score them as unfounded on the current month’s Return A. NOTE: The recovery of stolen property, the low value of stolen property, the refusal of the victim to cooperate with prosecution, or the failure to make an arrest does not unfound a legitimate offense. Also, the findings of a coroner, court, jury, or prosecutor do not unfound offenses or attempts that law enforcement investigations establish to be legitimate. If, after scoring an actual offense in one of the Part I categories, new information is developed through investigation showing the offense did not occur, an agency records an unfounded offense on the next monthly Return A the agency submits. Additionally, if the offense the agency unfounded has a property value, the agency records an unfounded value as well. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies report as unfounded complaints: 1. A woman claimed a man attempted to rape her in his automobile. When law enforcement personnel talked to both individuals, the complainant admitted she had exaggerated and the man did not attempt to rape her. 2. Law enforcement received a report of a burglary. Upon investigation, officers determined a man climbed through the window of his own home after having locked himself out of his house by mistake. A neighbor had thought he was a burglar and called the police. 3. While attending a convention, a man reported to the police his wallet was stolen by a pickpocket. It was later recovered, intact with cash and credit cards, at the convention’s lost and found department. The police concluded he had dropped his wallet.

111

Column 4: Number of Actual Offenses To complete Column 4, for each offense in Column 1, reporting agencies subtract the number in Column 3 from that in Column 2 to delete the unfounded offenses. The difference equals the number of actual offenses that occurred in the jurisdiction for the month in question. Attempted offenses are included in the count. Column 5: Total Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exceptional Means Part I offenses in the UCR Program are cleared either by arrest or exceptional means. In Column 5, reporting agencies make one entry for each offense they clear. Column 5 shows the total number of offenses cleared and includes the number of offenses cleared by the handling of juveniles, adults, or both. Column 5 does NOT show the number of persons arrested, but includes exceptional clearance counts of juveniles from column 6. Column 6: Number of Clearances Involving Only Persons Under 18 Years of Age To complete Column 6, reporting agencies enter the number of offenses cleared involving offenders under 18 years of age only. The number in Column 6 is never greater than the number in Column 5. If an offense is cleared by arrest or exceptional means and the offenders include both adults and persons under 18 years of age, reporting agencies score the clearance only in Column 5. If a clearance involves only persons under age 18, reporting agencies score the clearance in both Columns 5 and 6. Reporting agencies should remember that the number of persons arrested is not being counted in Columns 5 and 6. Agencies count only the number of offenses cleared. NOTE: Agencies score clearances in Columns 5 and 6 for crimes that were reported in previous months but not cleared until the current month. Clearances Explained Part I offenses reported on the Return A can be cleared either by arrest or exceptional means. However, no distinction between cleared by arrest and cleared by exceptional means is made on the report when filling out Column 5. Cleared by Arrest. An offense is cleared by arrest, or solved for crime reporting purposes, when at least one person is (1) arrested, (2) charged with the commission of the offense, and (3) turned over to the court for prosecution (whether following arrest, court summons, or police notice). Although it makes no physical arrest, an agency can claim an offense is cleared by arrest when the offender is a person under 18 years of age and is cited to appear in juvenile court or before other juvenile authorities. 112

Reporting agencies verify the number of offenses cleared, not the number of persons arrested, are counted in the clearances that they record on the Return A. Agencies cannot report more clearances than offenses in a given month unless they are scoring clearances of offenses that were reported in previous months. Several crimes may be cleared by the arrest of one person, or the arrest of many persons may clear only one crime. Further, if several persons are involved in the commission of a crime and only one is arrested and charged, the agency lists the crime on the Return A as cleared by arrest. When the other persons involved in the crime are arrested at a later date, the agency does not record another clearance because the offense was already cleared following the arrest of the first person. All arrests for offenses committed within the same jurisdiction are to be reported on the ASRE. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as cleared by the arrest of one person:

1. A murder was committed. The police subsequently arrested a suspect whom they charged and turned over to the court.

On the Return A, agencies score one offense of Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) (Columns 2 and 4) and one offense of Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) cleared (Column 5). The agency also enters information on the SHR and one arrest for Criminal Homicide on the ASRE.

2

3

4

5

6

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

Unfounded, i.e., false or baseless complaints

Number of actual Offenses (Column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

Total offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means (Include column 6)

Number of clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age

1

1

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

Data Entry

1

11

1

a. Murder/Nonnegligent Homicide b. Manslaughter by Negligence

12

113

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as one offense cleared by the arrest of only one of several individuals involved in the crime:

2. Five thieves broke into a warehouse, law enforcement arrested and charged one of the thieves.

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

On the Return A, the reporting agency scores one offense of Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) (Columns 2 and 4) and one offense of Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a) cleared by arrest. The agency also enters one arrest on the ASRE. 2 Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

3 Unfounded, i.e. false or baseless complaints

4 Number of actual Offenses (column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

5 6 Total offenses Number of clearances cleared by arrest or involving only exceptional means persons under 18 (Include column 6) years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

1

1

1

a. Forcible Entry

51

1

1

1

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

Later, the agency arrested and charged the other four thieves. The agency makes no further entry on the Return A because the offense has already been listed as cleared by arrest, however, it records four additional burglary arrests on the ASRE.

114

The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as cleared by the arrest of one person:

3. The police arrested one suspect for forcible entry. On investigation, the suspect is identified in connection with four other separate forcible entry burglaries reported in prior months and charged him with the five offenses.

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Data Entry

The contributing agency reports all five previously reported offenses as cleared by arrest (Column 5) even though only one person was involved. The agency also records one burglary arrest on the ASRE.

2 Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

3 Unfounded, i.e. false or baseless complaints

4 Number of actual Offenses (column 2 minus Column 3) (Include attempts)

5 6 Total offenses Number of clearances cleared by arrest or involving only exceptional means persons under 18 (Include column 6) years of age

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

1

1

5

a. Forcible Entry

51

1

1

5

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

Cleared by Exceptional Means In certain situations, law enforcement is not able to follow the three steps outlined under “Cleared by Arrest” to clear offenses known to them. Often they have exhausted all leads to clear a case. If agencies can answer all of the following questions in the affirmative, they can clear the offense exceptionally for the purpose of reporting to UCR. 1. Has the investigation definitely established the identity of the offender? 2. Is there enough information to support an arrest, charge, and turning over to the court for prosecution? 3. Is the exact location of the offender known so that the subject could be taken into custody now? 4. Is there some reason outside law enforcement control that precludes arresting, charging, and prosecuting the offender?

115

Examples of Exceptional Clearances Generally, an offense can be exceptionally cleared when it falls into one of the following categories. The list is not all-inclusive, there are other circumstances in which a LEA is entitled to an exceptional clearance. 1. Suicide of the offender. (The person who committed the offense is dead.) 2. Double murder. (Two persons kill each other.) 3. Deathbed confession. (The person who committed the offense dies after making the confession.) 4. Offender killed by police or citizen. 5. Offender is prosecuted by state or local authorities in another city for a different offense or is prosecuted in another city or state by the federal government for an offense which may be the same. (Law enforcement makes an attempt to return the offender for prosecution, but the other jurisdiction will not allow the release.) 6. Extradition denied/In Custody of Other Jurisdiction. The suspect is in the custody of another jurisdiction, usually for a more serious offense, and the extradition was either denied or not pursued. For example, a suspect of motor vehicle theft was arrested for murder in another jurisdiction and is currently serving a sentence for the more serious offense. 7. Victim refuses to cooperate in the prosecution. (This action alone does not unfound the offense. The answer is also yes to questions 1, 2, and 3 in the section Cleared by Exceptional Means.) 8. Warrant is outstanding for felon but before being arrested the offender dies. (The method of death is irrelevant.) 9. The handling of a juvenile offender either orally or by written notice to parents in instances involving minor offenses such as petty larceny. No referral is made to juvenile court as a matter of publicly accepted law enforcement policy. 10. Prosecution declined (for other than the lack of probable cause). The UCR Program recognizes departmental policy in various LEAs permits discontinuing an investigation and administratively closing cases for which all investigation has been completed. The administrative closing of a case or the clearing of it by departmental policy does not permit exceptionally clearing the offense for UCR unless all four questions mentioned earlier can be answered yes. Additionally, the recovery of property does not clear a case. Clearances in accordance with UCR procedures should have no effect on whether an agency has internal policies as to closing a case or discontinuing active investigation. 116

Computing the Grand Total

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

GRAND TOTAL

Data Entry

The GRAND TOTAL row at the bottom of the Return A must show a sum for each column. The grand total of Column 2 minus that of Column 3 must equal the grand total of Column 4.

2 Offenses reported or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

3 Unfounded, i.e. false or baseless complaints

4 5 6 Number of actual Total offenses Number of clearances Offenses (column 2 cleared by arrest or involving only minus Column 3) exceptional means persons under 18 (Include attempts) (Include column 6) years of age

77

In the event that an agency has no offenses, arrests, or clearances to report (zero reports) for the month, the agency must report zero on the Grand Total (line 77) and indicate zero reporting on the Return A. However, even if no offenses have occurred during the reporting month, the agency submits the Return A by forwarding it to their UCR Program or the FBI (for non-Program contributors) by the seventh day after the close of each month. Any questions regarding the completion of the Return A can be directed to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module E-3, Clarksburg, WV 26306 or by calling (304) 625-4830.

117

Adjustments of Previous Returns Law enforcement investigation in the current month may show that actual offenses the agency recorded on a previous month’s report require adjustment, that is, an offense might be (1) unfounded, (2) reclassified, or (3) subtracted from previous totals. It may be necessary for the agency to adjust the totals reported to the UCR Program for the past month or prior months. Agencies can make needed adjustments on the current month’s report, these do not affect the reliability of the figures because such adjustments tend to offset one another from month to month over a period of time. The following scenarios illustrate incidents known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as unfounded the next month: 1. In March, an agency scored an offense of Robbery—Strong-arm (3d). Investigation in April showed the offense was unfounded or false. Therefore, the reporting agency adds 1 to April’s figures in Column 3 of the Return A. (The agency makes no entry in Column 2 to adjust the figure.)

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2 Data Entry

1

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of actual

Total offenses

Number of clearances

or known to police

false or baseless

Offenses (column 2

cleared by arrest or

involving only

(Include “unfounded”

complaints

minus Column 3)

exceptional means

persons under 18

(Include attempts)

(Include column 6)

years of age

and attempts)

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

etc.)

30

a. Firearm

31

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet,

34

1

-1

1

-1

If a finished report looks like the above (no Robberies reported in the current month). Further, if the agency received five complaints of Robbery (three by firearm, two strong-arm) in April and none were unfounded, the entry in example 1 would result in the agency’s reducing the five Robberies to four actual offenses, as shown below.

118

2

3

4

5

6

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Offenses reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of actual

Total offenses

or known to police

false or baseless

Offenses (column 2

cleared by arrest or

Number of clearances

(Include “unfounded”

complaints

minus Column 3)

exceptional means

(Include attempts)

(Include column 6)

Data Entry

1

and attempts)

involving only persons under 18 years of age

30

5

a. Firearm

31

3

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

1

3

2

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.) 34

4

1

1

2. A police department reported seven actual Robberies in June and reported five Robberies (three by firearm, one by knife or cutting instrument, and one by other dangerous weapon) in July. Through investigation in July, the department determined one of the offenses, Robbery—Firearm (3a), reported in June to be unfounded. 2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of actual

Total offenses

or known to police

false or baseless

Offenses (column 2

cleared by arrest or

Number of clearances

(Include “unfounded”

complaints

minus Column 3)

exceptional means

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

(Include attempts)

and attempts)

years of age

30

5

1

4

a. Firearm

31

3

1

2

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

32

1

1

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

33

1

1

3. ROBBERY TOTAL

(Include column 6)

involving only persons under 18

d. Strong-arm (Hands, Fists, Feet, etc.) 34

119

Explanation: The department records 1 in the unfounded column in July, resulting in a total of four Robberies for the current month’s report. The department also subtracts the unfounded offense from the correct Robbery category (in this example, Robbery—Firearm [3a]) so that the correct number will appear in each of the other Robbery categories. 3. In February, a police department reported an actual offense of Aggravated Assault— Knife or Cutting Instrument (4b). Two months later, the victim died as a result of injuries received during the assault, so the department classifies the offense as Criminal Homicide—Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter (1a) and prepare the Return A for April as follows:

1 Data Entry

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

2

3

Offenses reported

Unfounded, i.e.

or known to police (Include “unfounded” and attempts)

false or baseless complaints

4

5

6

Number of actual

Total offenses

Number of clearances

Offenses (column 2 cleared by arrest or minus Column 3)

exceptional means

(Include attempts) (Include column 6)

involving only persons under 18 years of age

1. CRIMINAL HOMICIDE a.

Murder and Nonnegligent Homicide (score attempts as aggravated assault) if homicide reported. Submit Supplementary Homicide Report. 11

b. Manslaughter by Negligence

4. ASSAULT TOTAL

1

1

-1

-1

-1

-1

12

40

a. Firearm

41

b. Knife or Cutting Instrument

42

c. Other Dangerous Weapon

43

d. Hands, Fists, Feet, etc. – Aggravated injury

44

e. Other Assaults - Simple, Not Aggravated

45

Explanation: The above procedure subtracts an aggravated assault offense from Columns 2 and 4 and adds a murder. If a clearance was previously shown for the aggravated assault, the reporting agency deducts one clearance (Column 5) from the aggravated assault and then add one to the murder category.

120

4. Police questioned a suspect about forcible entry burglaries. The suspect admitted to two burglaries police had recorded on crime reports in previous months, as well as five others during prior months that had not been reported by the victims.

Explanation: The reporting agency has cleared seven forcible entry burglaries, but has listed only two on the Return A. (It is the LEA’s responsibility to verify offenses that come to their attention through confession of subjects.) The entries on the current month’s Return A for this situation would be:

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of actual

Total offenses

Number of clearances

or known to police

false or baseless

Offenses (column 2

cleared by arrest or

involving only

(Include “unfounded”

complaints

minus Column 3)

exceptional means

persons under 18

(Include attempts)

(Include column 6)

years of age

5

5

7

5

5

7

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

and attempts)

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

50

a. Forcible Entry

51

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

52

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

121

5. In September, a couple returned from a month-long vacation and discovered their house had been broken into. Police investigation determined the burglary most likely occurred in August just after the couple had left. The reporting agency includes the offense on September’s Return A as follows:

2

3

4

5

6

Offenses reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of actual

Total offenses

Number of clearances

or known to police

false or baseless

Offenses (column 2

cleared by arrest or

involving only

(Include “unfounded”

complaints

minus Column 3)

exceptional means

persons under 18

(Include attempts)

(Include column 6)

years of age

Data Entry

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

and attempts)

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

a. Forcible Entry

50

51

1

1

1

1

52 b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

53

122

SUPPLEMENT TO RETURN A All agencies reporting data to the UCR Program are asked to prepare the Supplement to Return A (Supplement), which is a monthly reporting of the nature of crime and the type and value of property stolen and recovered. The Supplement requires a value be established for property stolen and recovered in each Part I crime except aggravated assault. The determination of the value of property stolen is an obligation of the investigating officer, such information is essential to ensure the completeness of a law enforcement investigative report on stolen property. Valuation of Stolen Property Questions frequently arise as to the method most commonly used by law enforcement to determine the value of stolen property. To answer these questions, the FBI UCR Program suggests that reporting agencies: 1. Use the fair market value for articles that are subject to depreciation because of wear and tear, age, or other factors that cause the value to decrease with use. 2. Use the cost to the merchant (wholesale cost) of goods stolen from retail establishments, warehouses, etc. In other words, use the dollar value representing the actual cash loss to the victim without any markup or profit added. 3. Use the victim’s evaluation of items such as jewelry, watches, and other similar goods that decrease in value slightly or not at all with use or age. 4. Use the replacement cost or actual cash cost to the victim for new or almost new clothes, auto accessories, bicycles, etc. 5. Use common sense and good judgment to dictate a fair market value of the stolen items when the victim obviously exaggerates the value of stolen property for insurance or other purposes. In most instances, the reporting agency can accept the victim’s evaluation. The reporting agency scores the theft of nonnegotiable instruments, such as traveler’s checks, personal checks, credit cards, debit cards, money orders, stocks, bonds, and food stamps, but record no value. Negotiable instruments, such as bonds payable to the bearer, are valued at the current market price at the time of theft. Values are rounded to the nearest whole dollar. Often the condition of property is different at recovery than it was when stolen. The market value at the time of recovery is used even if it is less than the value reported at the time of the theft. An agency records only the value of property stolen in its jurisdiction. Likewise, the agency records only the monetary value of recovered property originally stolen from its jurisdiction regardless of who recovers the property or where it was recovered. In other words, even if 123

another LEA recovers the stolen property, only the jurisdiction from which the property was stolen reports the value of the recovered property on its Supplement to Return A. This procedure applies to all stolen property including automobiles. Some agencies find it valuable, of course, to maintain separate records on property recovered by them for another jurisdiction.

SUPPLEMENT TO RETURN A MONTHLY OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE

This form deals with the nature of crime and the monetary value of property stolen and recovered. The total offenses recorded on the form should be the same as the number of actual offenses listed in Column 4 of the Return A for each crime class. Include attempted crimes on this form, but do not include unfounded offenses. If you cannot complete the report in all areas, please record as much information as is available. Tally sheets will be sent upon request.

PROPERTY BY TYPE AND VALUE

Type of Property

(1)

Data Entry

Monetary Value of Property Stolen in Your Jurisdiction

(A) Currency, Notes, Etc.

01

(B) Jewelry and Precious Metals

02

(C) Clothing and Furs

03

(D) Locally Stolen Motor Vehicles

04

(E) Office Equipment

05

(F) Televisions, Radios, Stereos, Etc.

06

(G) Firearms

07

(H) Household Goods

08

( I ) Consumable Goods

09

(J) Livestock

10

(K) Miscellaneous

11

TOTAL

00

$

Stolen

Recovered

(2)

(3)

$

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Property by Type and Value The Supplement asks for the type of property stolen and the monetary value of property stolen and recovered. In recording the monetary value, agencies record amounts rounded to the nearest dollar. Agencies should consider the primary use of the stolen item when recording the item in one of the 11 classifications provided on the Supplement. The location of the theft is not necessarily a consideration for identifying an item’s classification since items may be stolen from a truck, a residence, a business establishment, or other location. Using the following guidelines, the reporting agency can classify all property in one of these property types: (A) Currency, Notes, Etc. Property stolen in this category includes currency and legal documents that are considered negotiable (payable without restriction) in the open market. Examples are legal tender, i.e., coins and paper currency, endorsed checks, endorsed money orders, endorsed traveler’s checks, bearer checks and bonds, and stamp and coin collections. Checks that are not negotiable because they have not been properly countersigned and stolen credit/debit cards are not included in this classification, they are included in Miscellaneous (K). (B) Jewelry and Precious Metals. Items to be considered in this category are watches, bracelets, rings, necklaces, and other articles that have real value and are generally used for personal adornment. Metals that, in and of themselves, have a high intrinsic value such as gold, silver, and platinum are also included. Common metals such as iron, aluminum, and copper are not considered precious metals. (C) Clothing and Furs. All items of wearing apparel for human use, including pelts or skins to be used as wearing apparel, are counted in this category. Accessories such as purses, handbags, belts, wallets, shoes, scarves, and ties are also included. (D) Locally Stolen Motor Vehicles. A motor vehicle is defined as a self-propelled vehicle that runs on the land surface and not on rails. Vehicles in this category will include automobiles, sport utility vehicles, trucks, minivans, buses, motorcycles, snowmobiles, golf carts, motor scooters, mopeds, all-terrain vehicles, trail bikes, motor homes, Segways®, etc. (E) Office Equipment. In this category are included such devices as typewriters, calculators, cash registers, copying machines, facsimile machines, computer hardware or software, computers, computer peripherals, e.g., tape and disk drives and printers, and storage media, e.g., magnetic tapes, magnetic, shredders, and optical disks. (F) Televisions, Radios, Stereos, Etc. All items designed for the specific purpose of reproducing photographic images or sound are included in this category, e.g., television cameras and receivers, still picture cameras, motion picture cameras and projectors, radios (receiving and sending), digital video disc players, MP3 players, camcorders, tape

125

recorders, cassettes (tape or video), videotape recorders, stereo equipment, compact disc players, and compact discs. (G) Firearms. Items in this category are weapons that fire a shot by the force of an explosion, e.g., all handguns, rifles, shotguns, and other such devices commonly referred to as firearms. Notable exceptions to this category are BB, pellet, air, or gas-powered guns. Ammunition for firearms should not be reported in this category, but in Miscellaneous (K). (H) Household Goods. This category includes general household items, such as beds, sofas, chairs, washers, dryers, furnaces, desks, tables, bookcases, air conditioners, and antique furniture. Agencies classify electronic equipment such as computers, scanners, and printers stolen from home offices or dens as Office Equipment (E). (I) Consumable Goods. Items such as alcoholic beverages (e.g., beer, wine, and liquor), foods, cigarettes, gasoline, grooming products (e.g., deodorants, aftershave lotion, and perfume), beverages, firewood, and drugs/narcotics are listed in this category. Consumable should be defined broadly as expendable items that are used up or consumed by humans for nutrition, enjoyment, or hygiene. (J) Livestock. Such animals as live cattle, hogs, horses, sheep, goats, chickens, turkeys, and other animals commonly raised as farm stock are included in this category. Common household pets, such as dogs, cats, and birds are included in Miscellaneous (K). (K) Miscellaneous. Items not accounted for in the above listing would fall into this category. Some general examples are ammunition, shrubbery, vehicle parts/accessories, watercraft, e.g., motorboats, sailboats, houseboats, jet skis, trailers, aircraft, books, household pets, credit/debit cards, cellular phones, farm equipment, tools, bicycles, and air rifles.

126

CLASSIFICATION

DATA ENTRY

Property Stolen by Classification Number of Actual Monetary Offenses (Column 4 Value of Property Stolen Return A)

1. MURDER AND NONNEGLIGENT MANSLAUGHTER

12

$

2. RAPE

20

$

3. ROBBERY (a) HIGHWAY (streets, alleys, etc.)

31

(b) COMMERCIAL HOUSE (except c, d, and f)

32

(c) GAS OR SERVICE STATION

33

(d) CONVENIENCE STORE

34

(e) RESIDENCE (anywhere on premises)

35

(f) BANK

36

(g) MISCELLANEOUS

37

TOTAL ROBBERY

30

$

The Property Stolen by Classification portion of the Supplement requires the reporting agency to provide the total number of actual offenses from Column 4 of the Return A and the monetary value of the property stolen for six of the Part I offenses. (Aggravated assault is omitted since UCR standard definitions stipulate that when property is taken through the use of force or threat of force, the offense is classified as Robbery. Arson is excluded because information about this offense is collected separately.) 1. Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter requires the number of offenses from Column 4 of the Return A and the value of property stolen incidental to the offense. If no property was stolen, the reporting agency enters a zero (0) in the value column. 2. Rape is completed in the same manner as Classification 1 (murder and nonnegligent manslaughter). 3. Robbery includes seven general locations that describe where the offense took place. (a) Highway—includes Robberies that occur on streets, in alleys, and generally in view of law enforcement patrol but outside structures.

127

(b) Commercial house—includes Robberies that occur within commercial establishments, such as payday lenders, supermarkets, department stores, restaurants, taverns, finance companies, motels, and hotels. Gas stations, convenience stores, and banking institutions are excluded because separate categories for each are provided. (c) Gas or service station—includes Robberies that occur in all gas stations with the primary function of selling gasoline, petroleum, and related products. (d) Convenience store—includes Robberies that occur in a neighborhood store that specializes in the sale of consumable items, is easily accessible, and generally has extended hours of operation. (e) Residence—includes Robberies of dwellings used for human habitation. The reporting agency includes Robberies occurring anywhere on the dwelling premises as residential, but excludes those that occur at hotels, motels, lodging houses, and other places where lodging of transients is the main purpose. The reporting agency scores Robberies in these excluded locations as Robbery in commercial houses. (f) Bank—includes Robberies of banks, savings and loan associations, building and loan associations, credit unions, and other such institutions. The responding agency does not include lending institutions and finance companies where the function is lending money only. These are included as Robberies in commercial houses. (g) Miscellaneous—encompasses Robberies that are not included in categories (a) through (f). The reporting agency includes Robberies occurring on or at waterways, houses of worship, union halls, schools, government buildings, subways, trains, airplanes, professional offices such as doctors’ or lawyers’ offices, and wooded areas. The reporting agency enters the monetary value of the property stolen and the actual number of Robberies in the appropriate corresponding areas on the Property Stolen by Classification portion of the Supplement. The total number of actual Robberies is the same as the total number of actual Robberies in Column 4 on the Return A.

128

DATA ENTRY

CLASSIFICATION

Number of Actual Monetary Offenses (Column 4 Value of Property Stolen Return A)

5. BURGLARY - BREAKING OR ENTERING

(a) RESIDENCE (dwelling)

(1) NIGHT (6 p.m. - 6 a.m.)

51

(2) DAY (6 a.m. - 6 p.m.)

52

(3) UNKNOWN

53

(b) NONRESIDENCE (store, office, etc.)

(1) NIGHT (6 p.m. - 6 a.m.)

54

(2) DAY (6 a.m. - 6 p.m.)

55

(3) UNKNOWN

56

TOTAL BURGLARY

50 $

5. Burglary—Breaking or Entering includes breakdowns for residence and nonresidence and time of day: (a) Residence (dwelling) (1) Night (6 p.m. - 6 a.m.) (2) Day (6 a.m. - 6 p.m.) (3) Unknown (b) Nonresidence (store, office, etc.) (1) Night (6 p.m. - 6 a.m.) (2) Day (6 a.m. - 6 p.m.) (3) Unknown As a general guideline, agencies can consider any burglary occurring exactly at 6 a.m. as (2) Day and exactly at 6 p.m. as (1) Night. In some instances, it is difficult for law enforcement to 129

determine the time a burglary occurred. For example, a burglary discovered in a mountain cabin after the snow has melted could have occurred at any time during the owner’s absence of several months. In this instance, the reporting agency scores the burglary as (a) Residence, (3) Unknown.

CLASSIFICATION

DATA ENTRY

The total number of actual burglary offenses on the Supplement is the same as the total in Column 4 on the Return A.

Number of Actual Monetary Offenses (Column 4 Value of Property Stolen Return A)

6. LARCENY - THEFT (except Motor Vehicle Theft)

(a) $200 AND OVER

61

(b) $50 TO $199

62

(c) Under $50

63

TOTAL LARCENY (Same as Item 6X)

60

$

6. Larceny-theft includes breakdowns for the estimated value of the stolen items: (a) $200 and over (b) $50 to $199 (c) Under $50 (Reporting agencies include attempted larceny-thefts in this breakdown.)

130

CLASSIFICATION

DATA ENTRY

As a general guideline, agencies can consider any item valued at exactly $200 as (a) $200 and over. Number of Actual Monetary Offenses (Column 4 Value of Property Stolen Return A)

ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS OF LARCENY AND MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT

6X. NATURE OF LARCENIES UNDER ITEM 6

(a) POCKET-PICKING

(b)

PURSE-SNATCHING

(c) SHOPLIFTING

(d)

FROM MOTOR VEHICLES (except e)

(e)

MOTOR VEHICLE PARTS AND ACCESSORIES

(f )

BICYCLES

(g)

FROM BUILDING (except c and h)

(h)

FROM ANY COIN-OPERATED MACHINES (parking meters, etc.)

(i )

ALL OTHER

TOTAL LARCENIES (Same as Item 6)

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

80 $

6X. Nature of larcenies includes breakdowns for the types of larceny-thefts scored under Classification 6 and their associated values: (a) Pocket-picking (b) Purse-snatching (c) Shoplifting (d) From Motor Vehicles (includes suitcases, cameras, clothing, etc., and excludes those items in [e]) (e) Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories (includes batteries, hubcaps, tires, gasoline, etc.) (f) Bicycles

131

(g) From Building (includes structures where legal access is assumed or has been granted and excludes those items in [c] and [h]) (h) From Any Coin-operated Machines (parking meters, vending machines, etc.) (i) All Other

CLASSIFICATION

DATA ENTRY

The total number of actual larceny-thefts recorded in Classification 6 and Classification 6X is the same as the total number of actual larceny-thefts reported in Column 4 on the Return A.

7. MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT (Includes Alleged Joy Ride)

70

$

77

$

GRAND TOTAL - ALL ITEMS

Number of Actual Monetary Offenses (Column 4 Value of Property Stolen Return A)

7. Motor Vehicle Theft includes the number of actual motor vehicles stolen, or attempted to be stolen, and their value (the value of motor vehicles for attempts should be reported as $0). A common occurrence is the theft of a motor vehicle containing personal property. The reporting agency records only the vehicle theft and combines the value of the vehicle and the value of stolen personal property into one total and record the figure under Classification 7. When a stolen motor vehicle is recovered with personal property or accessories missing, the reporting agency records the value of the vehicle, less the value of the missing items. For example, if a motor vehicle containing a coat was stolen, the reporting agency records one actual motor vehicle theft and the values of the car and coat combined in Classification 7. These values are recorded separately on the type and value portion of the Supplement. The value of the stolen car is included on line (d) Locally Stolen Motor Vehicles, and the value of the coat is included on line (c) Clothing and Furs. If that motor vehicle was recovered, but the coat was missing from it, the reporting agency records the value of the vehicle less the value of the missing coat. NOTE: If a building is forcibly or unlawfully entered to steal a motor vehicle, agencies score the offense and the value of the vehicle under burglary, not motor vehicle theft. The value of motor vehicles stolen during burglaries is recorded on the type and value of Supplement, line (d) Locally Stolen Motor Vehicles. When multiple types of theft occur in one distinct operation (one offense), e.g., theft of motor vehicle parts and accessories and theft of property within a motor vehicle, the reporting agency scores the total theft value under the category that represents the greatest loss. For example, the 132

theft of a $70 automobile radio and a $20 gym bag from a motor vehicle would be recorded on the Property Stolen by Classification under item 6Xe as motor vehicle parts and accessories with a total value of $90. DATA ENTRY

Number of Actual

CLASSIFICATION

Offenses (Column 4 Return A)

7X. MOTOR VEHICLES RECOVERED

(a) STOLEN LOCALLY AND RECOVERED LOCALLY

91

(b)

92

STOLEN LOCALLY AND RECOVERED BY OTHER JURISDICTIONS

(c) TOTAL LOCALLY STOLEN MOTOR VEHICLES RECOVERED (a & b)

90

(d)

93

STOLEN IN OTHER JURISDICTIONS AND RECOVERED LOCALLY

7X. Motor Vehicles Recovered includes breakdowns to indicate the location of recovered motor vehicles: (a) Stolen locally and recovered locally (b) Stolen locally and recovered by other jurisdictions (c) Total locally stolen motor vehicles recovered (subtotal of [a] and [b]) (d) Stolen in other jurisdictions and recovered locally

Reporting agencies record all motor vehicles recovered regardless of the type of Part I offense committed when the vehicle was stolen. Reconciling the Supplement to Return A Agencies should note that the total number of actual larceny offenses for all the breakdowns under Classification 6X is the same as the total number of larceny-thefts recorded on the Return A and in Classification 6, Larceny-theft on the Property Stolen by Classification side of the Supplement. Agencies record the sum of the value of property stolen in the murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, Robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft categories on the Grand Total—All Items line of the Property Stolen by Classification side of the Supplement.

133

Agencies can obtain an electronic tally book to aid them in completing of the Supplement by visiting the FBI’s Web site at or contacting the Crime Statistics Management Unit, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module E-3, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (304) 625-4830 or facsimile (304) 625-3566.

MONTHLY RETURN OF ARSON OFFENSES KNOWN TO LAW ENFORCEMENT The Monthly Return of Arson Offenses Known to Law Enforcement solicits data on all arson offenses reported to law enforcement. As has been previously discussed in Chapter I, the Hierarchy Rule does not apply to arson. This crime is always reported, even in multiple-offense situations. When there are no arsons, attempted arsons, or clearances of arsons to be reported during a particular month, the reporting agency should report the zero according to SRS Technical Specification guidelines or in the electronic tally book. The following explains each column on the monthly arson report. Column 1 of the arson report contains a listing of the various property classifications, which were discussed in Chapter III. Columns 2 through 6 are identical to those on the Return A. In Column 7, the agency records the number of arsons occurring in structures that were uninhabited, abandoned, or not normally in use at the time of the incident. Finally, the agency records in Column 8 the estimated dollar value of property damage resulting from arson.

134

MONTHLY RETURN OF ARSON OFFENSES KNOWN TO LAW ENFORCEMENT This report is authorized by law Title 28, Section 534, United States Code, and the enactment of the fiscal year 1979, Department of Justice Authorization Bill S. 3151. While you are not required to respond, your cooperation in using this form to report all incidents of arson which become known to your department during the month will assist the FBI in compiling comprehensive, accurate data on a timely basis. Instructions appear on reverse side. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of

Total Offenses Cleared

Number of

Offenses Where

Estimated Value of

or Known to Police

False or Baseless

Actual Offenses

by Arrest or

Clearances

Structures

Property Damage

(Include Unfounded)

Complaints

(Column 2 Minus

Exceptional Means

Involving Only

Uninhabited,

Column 3)

(Include Column 6)

Persons Under

Abandoned, or not

18 Years of Age

Normally in Use

and attempts)

(Include Attempts)

S A. Single Occupancy Residential: T

R

Houses, Townhouses, Duplexes, etc.

$

B. Other Residential: $

Apartments, Tenements, Flats, Hotels, Motels, U C. Storage:

$

C D. Industrial/Manufacturing:

$

E. Other Commercial:

$

F. Community/Public:

$

T

U

R G. All Other Structure: A Out Buildings, Monuments, Buildings Under $ L TOTAL STRUCTURE

M O

$

H. Motor Vehicles: Automobiles, Trucks, Buses, Motorcycles, etc.

$

B I. Other Mobile Property: I

$

Trailers, Recreational Vehicles, Airplanes, Boats, etc. L E

$

TOTAL MOBILE

J. TOTAL OTHER

$

Crops, Timber, Fences, Signs, etc.

$

GRAND TOTAL

Agency Identifier ________________________

Month_________

Agency_______________________________

State _________

Prepared by______________________________

DO NOT WRITE HERE

________________________________________ ________________________________________ Edited Chief, Commissioner, Sheriff, or Superintendent Entered

Adjusted

Corres.

135

Whenever arson is committed in conjunction with another Part I offense involving the theft of money or property, the reporting agency enters the value of property stolen on the Supplement in the appropriate categories. The reporting agency enters the value of property damaged because of the arson on the arson report opposite the correct property classification. The following scenario illustrates an incident known to law enforcement that reporting agencies score as Arson (8e) and Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a): A man forcibly entered a restaurant, opened the safe, and removed its contents. He then poured gasoline on the floor and ignited it. The fire department extinguished the blaze. Investigation disclosed $2,000 in currency had been taken from the safe. Damage to the restaurant and property totaled $50,000 as a result of the arson.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PROPERTY CLASSIFICATION

Offenses Reported

Unfounded, i.e.

Number of

Total Offenses Cleared

Number of

Offenses Where

Estimated Value of

or Known to Police

False or Baseless

Actual Offenses

by Arrest or

Clearances

Structures

Property Damage

(Include Unfounded)

Complaints

(Column 2 Minus

Exceptional Means

Involving Only

Uninhabited,

Column 3)

(Include Column 6)

Persons Under

Abandoned, or not

18 Years of Age

Normally in Use

and attempts)

(Include Attempts)

A. Single Occupancy Residential: $

B. Other Residential: S T

$

Apartments, Tenements, Flats, Hotels, Motels, C. Storage:

$

R U C

D. Industrial/Manufacturing: E. Other Commercial:

T U

$

1

1

F. Community/Public:

$ 50,000 $

R G. All Other Structure: A

$

L TOTAL STRUCTURE

$

J. TOTAL OTHER

GRAND TOTAL

$

1

1

$50,000

The reporting agency records the information concerning the arson on the Monthly Return of Arson Offenses Known to Law Enforcement opposite the property classification Other Commercial: Stores, Restaurants, Offices, etc. The agency records ‘1’ in Columns 2 and 4 on line E and the estimated value of property damage to the restaurant ($50,000) in Column 8.

136

The Hierarchy Rule does not apply, therefore, the agency also makes an entry on the Return A showing one offense of Burglary—Forcible Entry (5a). In this case, property was both stolen in a burglary and destroyed as a result of the arson. The reporting agency enters the value of currency stolen as $2,000. On the Supplement under the section titled Property Stolen by Classification, the agency records the offense in the Burglary—Breaking or Entering NonResidence classification and indicate the time of the offense.

Data Entry

2

1 CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENSES

Offenses reported

4

5

6

3

Number of actual

Total offenses

Number of clearances

or known to police

Unfounded, i.e.

Offenses (column 2

cleared by arrest or

involving only

(Include “unfounded”

false or baseless

minus Column 3)

exceptional means

persons under 18

and attempts)

complaints

(Include attempts)

(Include column 6)

years of age

50

5. BURGLARY TOTAL

51

a. Forcible Entry

1

1

52

b. Unlawful Entry - No Force

53

c. Attempted Forcible Entry

PROPERTY BY TYPE AND VALUE

Type of Property

(A) Currency, Notes, Etc.

Data Entry

(1)

Monetary Value of Property Stolen in Your Jurisdiction

Stolen

Recovered

(2)

(3)

01

$ 2,000

(B) Jewelry and Precious Metals

02

(C) Clothing and Furs

03

(D) Locally Stolen Motor Vehicles

04

(E) Office Equipment

05

(F) Televisions, Radios, Stereos, Etc.

06

(G) Firearms

07

(H) Household Goods

08

137

( I ) Consumable Goods

09

(J) Livestock

10

(K) Miscellaneous

11

TOTAL

00

$ 2,000

AGE, SEX, RACE, AND ETHNICITY (ASRE) OF PERSONS ARRESTED The UCR Program uses the ASRE to collect arrest data monthly from the nation’s LEAs. The ASRE provides a record of the total number of persons arrested, cited, or summoned (served) for criminal acts in all Part I and Part II crimes. In addition, they furnish basic data concerning the personal characteristics—age, sex, race, and ethnicity—of persons arrested in a particular month. (The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) authorized the FBI to collect ethnic origin data regarding persons arrested beginning in 1980. The FBI collected ethnicity data until 1987, when the OMB’s authorization expired.) There are two basic reports for which an agency can submit arrests: AGE, SEX, RACE, and ETHNICITY of Persons Arrested—Under 18 Years of Age and AGE, SEX, RACE, and ETHNICITY of Persons Arrested—18 Years of Age and Over. The two reports are similar in content except the report for persons under 18 years of age includes two additional categories— curfew and loitering law violations and runaways 7. ASRE reports collect data on the number of persons arrested, not the number of charges lodged. For example, a person may be arrested on several charges at one time, in this situation, the agency only scores one arrest under the most important offense category as determined by the agency. Likewise, one person may be arrested many times during a month for similar or different violations within a jurisdiction. Because of a separation of time between arrests, the agency scores each arrest separately. More than one charge could be lodged during each arrest, but the agency scores only one arrest for each instance. These reports also allow agencies to report the number of arrests by age, sex, race, and ethnicity. If an agency has no juvenile or adult arrests to report in a given month, indicate such on the Return A and should not submit the ASRE.

7

Arrest data on Runaways is no longer required by the FBI UCR Program due to the differences between jurisdictional statues. Specifically, not all jurisdictions consider runaway as a criminal offense. LEAs who have not updated their records management systems can still report runaways, however this data is no longer published by the FBI UCR Program.

138

Racial Designations The racial categories used in the UCR Program are designated by the OMB. The racial designations are defined as follows: White—A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Black or African American—A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. American Indian or Alaska Native—A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Asian—A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander – (Added per a 2003 OMB directive)—A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands, e.g., individuals who are Carolinian, Fijian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Ponapean (Pohnpelan), Polynesian, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tarawa Islander, Tokelauan, Tongan, Trukese (Chuukese), and Yapese. NOTE: The term “Native Hawaiian” does not include individuals who are native to the state of Hawaii simply by virtue of being born there. Classifying and Scoring Arrests To classify and score arrests, the UCR Program expands the scope of offenses to include both Part I and Part II crimes. The descriptive words and phrases listed under each of the Part II crime classifications were chosen from various state statute titles and/or common law and may aid the reporting agency in finding the proper classification. If an agency requires assistance in determining how to classify a certain offense, it may contact its UCR Program. Direct contributors may contact the FBI UCR Training Office, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module C-2, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (888) 827-6427, email: . The following guidelines are designed to help an agency properly classify and score arrests. 1. For each person arrested, reporting agencies use only one crime classification. If a person was arrested for several offenses, both Part I and Part II, agencies ignore the Part II crimes and score only the Part I crime appearing highest in the hierarchy.

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2. If a person was arrested for several Part II offenses, the agency itself should determine which one is the most serious offense and score only that one arrest. 3. Persons arrested as aiders, abettors, conspirators, solicitors, and accessories is included in the arrest for the offense classification in which they were involved. 4. Juvenile arrests are scored in one of the specific crime classifications. The reporting agency scores an arrest regardless of any general formal charge requirement, such as juvenile delinquency, when completing the ASRE. 5. The reporting agency counts one arrest for each separate occasion on which a person is arrested. 6. If two or more persons are arrested for committing one offense, the reporting agency counts each individual as a separate arrest. 7. If the reporting agency determines that an offender in custody has committed other crimes, it does not score additional arrests for those crimes, but only the original arrest. NOTE: Agencies count the number of persons arrested, not the number of charges placed against a person. Preparing the ASRE The reporting agency records all persons processed by arrest, citation, or summons (served) during the past month for committing an offense in its jurisdiction on the appropriate ASRE (according to age), including: 1. Those persons arrested and released without a formal charge being placed against them. (An arrest has occurred when a law enforcement officer detains an adult with the intention of seeking charges against the individual for a specific offense(s) and makes a record of the detention.) NOTE: Agencies should exercise caution when determining how to classify each adult arrest. If formal charges were filed, the agency would score the arrest in the appropriate crime category. In certain circumstances, if formal charges were not filed, the agency may score the arrest as the Part II offense, Suspicion. 2. Juveniles taken into custody or arrested but merely warned and released without being charged. The agency enters the number of persons taken into custody for each offense, listing them according to age and sex. Then, the agency enters the number of persons taken into custody according to race, without regard to sex.

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An agency does not score persons arrested for other jurisdictions to avoid duplication in counting. Although most agencies probably maintain a separate record of such arrests for departmental administrative use, they do not include the arrest in UCR submissions. Arrests for federal offenses is included only when the arrest is for a federal crime that occurred in the agency’s jurisdiction and the offense is also a crime under the state penal code. Juveniles The UCR Program considers a juvenile to be an individual under 18 years of age regardless of the state definition. An agency scores a juvenile arrest when the circumstances are such that if the individual were an adult, an arrest would have been counted. The reporting agency scores juvenile arrests opposite the classification of the offense for which the juvenile was taken into custody. Agencies do not score an arrest for incidents in which police contact a juvenile who has committed no offense or those situations in which police take a juvenile into custody for his or her own protection, e.g., neglect cases. The juvenile ASRE provides for agencies to enter arrests for the juvenile offenses of runaways and curfew and loitering law violations. Agencies score violations of local juvenile acts other than these two offenses in the All Other Offenses classification. Reporting agencies also score situations where a young person, in lieu of an actual arrest, is summoned, cited, or notified to appear before the juvenile or youth court or similar official for a violation of the law. Agencies include only juvenile violations where some police or official action is taken beyond a mere interview, warning, or admonishment. For example, children playing ball in the street who are instructed by an officer to go to the playground for such activity would not be counted as arrested any more than would an adult who is only warned against burning leaves on a windy day. Additionally, call backs or follow-up contacts with young offenders by officers for the purpose of determining their progress is not counted as arrests. Reporting agencies should keep in mind that statistics are being gathered to measure criminal activity, not juvenile court activity. The identities of individuals are not included in the UCR, the UCR Program uses the data to gather statistics. Therefore, rules or laws pertaining to the confidential treatment of the identity of juvenile offenders do not preclude the UCR Program or an agency from collecting data for administrative use. When juvenile records are not readily available because they are kept in a juvenile bureau, youth bureau, or other special office, the reporting agency should consolidate all juvenile arrest counts occurring within the agency’s jurisdiction.

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Police Disposition Of Juveniles (Not Including Neglect or Traffic Cases) Disposition data on the ASRE collects data concerning the law enforcement disposition of juveniles who are taken into custody or arrested. The reporting agency uses individual state age definitions of juveniles in completing disposition reports. An adult arrestee is usually held for prosecution for some charge or is released for future handling in court. However, depending on the seriousness of the offense and the offender’s prior criminal record, a juvenile may be warned by the police and released to parents, relatives, friends, or guardians. Juveniles may also be referred to the probation department or some other branch of the juvenile court, to welfare agencies, to other LEAs, or in the case of serious offenders, to criminal or adult court by waiver of the juvenile court. As previously stated, the word arrest as it applies to juveniles is intended to mean the law enforcement handling of all juveniles who have committed a crime and are taken into custody under such circumstances that, if the juvenile were an adult, an arrest would have been counted. Agencies do not include as arrests, police contacts with juveniles where no offense has been committed and instances wherein juveniles are taken into custody for their own protection. Agencies also do not include traffic offenses, whether juvenile or adult.

POLICE DISPOSITION OF JUVENILES—NOT TO INCLUDE NEGLECT OR TRAFFIC CASES

(Follow your State age definition for juveniles)

TOTAL

_____________________________________________________

1. Handled within Department and released. (Warning, released to parents, etc.)

______________________________________________________

2. Referred to juvenile court or probation department.

______________________________________________________

3. Referred to welfare agency.

______________________________________________________

4. Referred to other police agency.

_____________________________________________________

5. Referred to criminal or adult court.

_____________________________________________________

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The following specific guidelines are designed to help an agency complete each of the five entries in the Police Disposition of Juveniles section: 1.

Handled Within Department and Released.

Police take many juveniles into custody or arrest them for committing a violation but make no referral to juvenile court or do not file formal charges. In most cases, the juvenile is warned by the police and released, frequently to parents, relatives, or friends. Reporting agencies enter such cases on line 1—Handled within Department and released on the Police Disposition of Juveniles breakdown. 2.

Referred to Juvenile Court or Probation Department.

Reporting agencies enter the number of juveniles arrested and referred to the probation department or other individual, agency, or group working within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court on line 2. If a juvenile is arrested and referred more than once during the month, the agency counts each referral just as it would score each arrest for an adult. 3.

Referred to Welfare Agency.

The rules for completing line 2 also apply to line 3 except that the police refer the youth to a welfare agency, either public or private, rather than to juvenile court or the probation department. 4.

Referred to Other Police Agency.

In most instances, entries opposite line 4 include (1) juveniles arrested by a department at the request of another LEA, (2) juveniles who committed crimes in one jurisdiction but reside in another and are turned over for handling to their home jurisdiction, or (3) juveniles who commit crimes in one jurisdiction but have also committed crimes in their home jurisdictions and are turned over to the latter for handling. Although juveniles taken into custody for committing a crime in another jurisdiction are included in the disposition portion of the report, Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity of Persons Arrested— Under 18 Years of Age, they are excluded from the arrest figures. Agencies include in this category juveniles taken into custody as runaways, truants, curfew and loitering law violators, etc. 5.

Referred to Criminal or Adult Court.

Many jurisdictions have statutes that permit the waiving of juveniles for trial to criminal or adult court as adults. The reporting agency enters the number of juveniles referred or waived to adult court opposite line 5 and not opposite line 2. 143

Even if subsequent judicial actions transfer the case to another agency or court, the reporting agency scores the initial referral. TOTAL The total (the sum of the numbers entered on lines 1 through 5) includes all juvenile arrests by an agency for the month. The total on the Police Disposition of Juveniles may not equal the number of juveniles actually scored as arrested on the ASRE because juveniles who are picked up and turned over to another police agency are included, and only those youths who committed an offense in the reporting agency’s jurisdiction are scored.

SUPPLEMENTARY HOMICIDE REPORT The SHR is designed to collect additional details regarding the murder victim and offender, their relationship to one another, the weapon used, and the circumstances in each criminal homicide. Detailed data regarding the criminal homicide category can only be as comprehensive as the input provided by the individual contributing agency. Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter The reporting agency records details of all willful (Nonnegligent) killings (Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter [1a]). The agency includes any justifiable homicides as defined by the UCR Program. In the situation column, the reporting agency indicates whether the homicide involved single or multiple victims and offenders. The following are the codes agencies use to identify the type of situation: A–Single Victim/Single Offender B–Single Victim/Unknown Offender or Offenders C–Single Victim/Multiple Offenders D–Multiple Victims/Single Offender E–Multiple Victims/Multiple Offenders F–Multiple Victims/Unknown Offender or Offenders The reporting agency uses only one situation code per criminal homicide incident regardless of the number of victims. A new code signifies the beginning of a new murder situation. The reporting agency keys the situation codes to the victim, i.e., list each victim only once. In those situations where a single victim is killed by two or more offenders (Code C), the reporting agency records the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of the victim beside the same data for the first 144

offender. The agency enters information about the remaining offenders on separate lines under that of the first offender. In those situations where two or more victims are killed by a single offender (Code D), the agency records the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of each victim and also record opposite each victim the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of the offender. This practice will not result in the multiple counting of offenders inasmuch as the situation code employed indicates only one offender was involved. When multiple victims are killed by multiple offenders (Code E), the reporting agency enters the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of each victim followed by the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of the offender. If the offender or offenders are unknown (Codes B and F), all that is required is the appropriate data concerning the victim. ASRE Instructions for coding the age, sex, race, and ethnicity of both victims and offenders are provided on the SHR. Agencies are able to record ages between ‘01’ and ‘99’ years, with those aged 100 or older entered as 99. Newborns up to one week old are coded as ‘NB’, and victims between one week old and less than one year old are coded as ‘BB’. Unknown ages are shown as 00. Agencies use only two characters in the age columns. Reporting agencies record the gender of both victims and offenders as ‘M’ for male and ‘F’ for female. If the gender is unknown, the agency uses the letter designation ‘U’. Agencies use only one character in this column. Race designations for both victims and offenders are White—‘W’, Black—‘B’, American Indian or Alaskan Native—‘I’, Asian—‘A’, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander – ‘P’, and Unknown—‘U’. Agencies use only these race designations regardless of any additional race categories they may use in their agency’s records management systems. Ethnic designations for both victims and offenders are Hispanic/Latino – “H”, NonHispanic/Non-Latino – “N”, or Unknown – “U”. Agencies use only these ethnic designations regardless of any additional ethnic categories they may use in their agency’s records management systems. Weapon Used When describing the weapon used in a criminal homicide, the reporting agency gives as complete a description of the weapon as is available. If a weapon was used that could be employed in several ways, the agency states how it was used. For example, if a bottle was used in the commission of a murder, the agency states whether the person was killed by beating, cutting, or stabbing. Where firearms are used, the report indicates whether the firearm was a handgun, rifle, or shotgun. 145

Relationship of Victim to Offender The reporting agency reports the relationship of victims to offenders, not the offenders to the victims. For example, in a murder incident where a wife is killed by her husband, the reported relationship is wife. The relationship of the victim to each separate offender is shown. That is, for each offender listed in the age, sex, race, and ethnicity columns, the reporting agency enters the relationship of the victim to that person. Circumstances In this portion of the SHR, using as many lines as necessary, the reporting agency furnishes a brief statement as to the circumstances surrounding the victim’s death. For those killings that occur in conjunction with the commission of another felony such as a Robbery or a rape, the agency identifies the specific offense involved. In other criminal homicides, the agency provides as much information as possible so that murders resulting from lovers’ quarrels, drunkenness, arguments over money, revenge, narcotics, gangland killings, etc., can be identified. Statements of circumstances are based on information known to law enforcement following its investigation, not decisions of a grand jury, jury, decision of prosecutors, judge, or other agency outside law enforcement. Manslaughter by Negligence Agencies report deaths due to negligence (Manslaughter by Negligence [1b]). Agencies use the same instructions to complete Manslaughter by Negligence as they used to complete Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter to report the, age, sex, race, and ethnicity of victims and offenders, offense situation codes, weapons used, and relationship of victim to offender information. The circumstances for the manslaughter by negligence segment vary only in that, for obvious reasons, certain circumstances employed in the murder and nonnegligent manslaughter section would not apply. Manslaughter by negligence offenses commonly result from circumstances such as the following: victim shot in hunting accident, gun cleaning, and children playing with gun. NOTE: Reporting agencies do not include traffic fatalities, accidental deaths, or deaths of victims due to their own negligence on the SHR. Agencies provide information regarding all other negligent manslaughters, however, regardless of prosecutorial action taken.

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LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS KILLED AND ASSAULTED The UCR Program collects data from all contributing agencies through a subprogram called LEOKA on officer line-of-duty deaths and assaults. Reporting agencies submit data on Forms 1701, 1-701a, and 1-705 (explained in this section of the manual) on their own duly sworn officers feloniously or accidentally killed or assaulted in the line of duty. The purpose of this data collection is to identify situations in which officers are killed or assaulted, describe the incidents statistically, and publish the data to aid agencies in developing policies to improve officer safety. The FBI UCR Program considers a line-of-duty death to have occurred when the officer is on or off duty and acting in an official capacity while reacting to a situation which would ordinarily fall within the scope of his or her official duties as a law enforcement officer. Suicides and deaths caused by heart attacks or other natural causes as well as deaths occurring while the officer is acting in a military capacity are not included in this definition. A felonious death occurs when an officer is killed because of or while performing his or her official duties and as a direct result of a criminal act by a subject. An accidental death occurs when an officer dies as a result of an accident he or she is involved in while performing his or her duties. Some examples of accidental deaths include an officer being struck by a vehicle while directing traffic, receiving fatal injuries in a motor vehicle, airplane, or helicopter accident while on patrol or involved in a pursuit, or drowning during a rescue attempt. Agencies report data on officers who are killed or assaulted and who meet all of the following criteria: •

Be working in an official capacity



Have full arrest powers



Wear/carry a badge (ordinarily)



Carry a firearm (ordinarily)



Be paid from governmental funds set aside specifically for payment of sworn law enforcement representatives

Normally, these officers are employed by local, county, state, tribal, or federal entities in occupations such as municipal or county police, constables, state police, highway patrol officers, sheriffs and deputies, marshals, and special agents. Individuals employed in local, state, tribal, or federal criminal justice agencies, but involved in protective, prosecutorial, or confinement activities, such as federal judges, U.S. attorneys, probation officers, corrections officers, jailers, and prison officials, are not included.

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Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted (Form 1-705) The form titled Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted (Form 1-705) should be used by agencies to report line-of-duty felonious or accidental killings and assaults on their officers for a given month. If no officers are killed or assaulted during a given month, reporting agencies should not submit this form. However, the reporting agency should mark the NO LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS KILLED OR ASSAULTED REPORT box on the Return A. When an officer is killed or assaulted in another jurisdiction, the agency where the death or assault occurred reports the crime, e.g., homicide or aggravated assault, on the Return A. The agency where the officer actually is employed reports the death or assault on Form 1-705. In the section of Form 1-705 labeled OFFICERS KILLED, the reporting agency enters the number of sworn officers with full arrest powers killed in the line of duty by felonious acts and those killed by accident or negligence while acting in an official capacity. Reporting agencies should not include officers who are victims of nonfatal assaults on this section of the form. In the section of Form 1-705 labeled OFFICERS ASSAULTED, agencies record assaults on sworn officers. Reporting agencies count all assaults resulting in serious injury or assaults in which a weapon was used and could have caused serious injury or death. Such injuries usually include broken bones, internal injuries, or wounds requiring stitches. Other assaults not causing injury are also reported if the assault involved more than mere verbal abuse or minor resistance to an arrest, including abrasions, minor lacerations, contusions or other injuries requiring no more than usual first-aid treatment. In other words, reporting agencies include in this section all assaults on officers, whether or not the officers sustained injuries. NOTE: Agencies should follow the Hierarchy Rule in reporting those incidents involving aggravated assaults on law enforcement officers while they are responding to or taking necessary action at the scene of a crime. For example, if an officer is assaulted at the scene of a Robbery, the agency scores only the Robbery on the Return A, the agency records the assault on Form 1-705. However, if the officer is assaulted during a burglary incident, the agency, following the Hierarchy Rule, scores only the assault on both the Return A and Form 1-705.

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Analysis of Officers Feloniously Killed and Assaulted (Form 1-701) When an agency submits Form 1-705 to the FBI UCR Program indicating an officer sustained injury as a result of an assault with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument, the FBI UCR Program requests the agency to complete and submit Form 1-701, Analysis of Officers Feloniously Killed and Assaulted. There are two instances for which an agency should complete Form 1-701: 1. When an officer is feloniously killed 2. When an officer is assaulted and injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument Analysis of Officers Accidentally Killed (Form 1-701a) When an agency submits Form 1-705 to the FBI UCR Program indicating an officer was accidentally killed in the line of duty, FBI Special Agents request the victim officer’s agency to complete and submit Form 1-701a, Analysis of Officers Accidentally Killed. Guidelines for Completing Form 1-705 1. Each time an officer is assaulted in the line of duty, the reporting agency locates the appropriate line (1-11) which corresponds to the type of activity the officer was engaged in at the time of the assault and records the assault by making an entry on the line in one of the Columns (B–E) under Type of Weapon. If more than one type of weapon was used to commit a single assault, the reporting agency selects the weapon first encountered in moving from Column B to Column E. Agencies should not enter any other type of weapon which may have been used. 2. Next, the reporting agency makes an entry in one of the Columns (F–L) under Type of Assignment. Column F (Two-Officer Vehicle) and Columns G and H (OneOfficer Vehicle) pertain to uniformed officers, Columns I and J (Detective or Special Assignment) to nonuniformed officers, and Columns K and L (Other) to officers assaulted while working in other capacities, such as foot patrol, off duty, etc. The term Assisted refers to law enforcement assistance only. 3. If the assault has also been cleared, the agency records the clearance in Column M (Officer Assaults Cleared). 4. Next, the reporting agency makes an entry on either line 13 (Number with personal injury) or line 14 (Number without personal injury) in the appropriate Column (B–E). Finally, it marks the time of the assault in the appropriate AM or PM block of line 15. Reporting agencies should record each assault in the same manner. A tally sheet is available for agencies to report assaults of law enforcement officers and can be 149

obtained by contacting the Crime Statistics Management Unit, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Module E-3, Clarksburg, WV 26306, telephone (304) 625-4830 or facsimile (304) 625-3566. 5. At the end of the month, reporting agencies tabulate the totals for each category from the tally sheet or other work sheet and transfer the figures to Form 1-705. After recording the appropriate numbers on Form 1-705, the agency adds Columns B–L, lines 1–11, and enters each column’s total on line 12. Then, the agency adds Columns B–E for lines 1–12 across and records the totals in Column A (Total Assaults by Weapon). If the reporting agency has scored all assaults correctly, the total in Column A, line 12, will equal the total of Columns F–L (Type of Assignment), line 12. These totals should equal the number of officers assaulted for the month. 6. To report the total number of assaults cleared, agencies add lines 1–11 in Column M (Officer Assaults Cleared). Reporting agencies count the number of assaults on officers which have been cleared, including exceptional clearances as defined in this handbook. The number of persons arrested for such offenses should not be counted. 7. For lines 13 and 14, agencies add each line across and record the total in Column A (Total Assaults by Weapon). 8. When an agency has completed Form 1-705 correctly, the number in Column A, line 12 should equal the total number of officers assaulted for the month. The sum of lines B–E (Type of Weapon) on line 12 is also the total number of officers assaulted, as is the sum of lines F–L (Type of Assignment). Additionally, the sum of the figures on lines 13 and 14 is the total number of assaults. As a final check, agencies should total the figures on line 15 (Time of Assaults), both AM and PM, to assure these entries equal the total officer assaults. 9. If the information on line 13 indicates an officer was assaulted and injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument, the agency should provide the Incident or Case Number in the block on the bottom of the reverse side of Form 1-705. It is important agencies report all assaults whether the officer(s) sustained an injury or not. The importance of providing complete and correct information on Form 1-705 cannot be overemphasized. The data reported on this form are essential for analyzing assaults on law enforcement officers. Thus, the more complete the data, the better the analysis and the more valid the conclusions.

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Scoring Scenarios for Completing Form 1-705 Scenario 1: At about 10:20 p.m., a plainclothes detective driving alone in a police vehicle responded to a burglary in progress call. While attempting to arrest the offender, the detective was stabbed with a knife. Officers arrested the offender at the scene. Meanwhile, at 10:25 p.m., an officer was responding to the “officer needs assistance” call. While en route, the responding officer lost control of his police vehicle and struck a utility pole. The victim officer died at the accident scene. To score the accidental death in Scenario 1 on Form 1-705, the reporting agency completes the top portion, OFFICERS KILLED. The agency enters a 1 on the line indicating By accident or negligence. To score the assault in Scenario 1 on Form 1-705, the reporting agency begins by finding the column labeled Type of Activity. The appropriate activity can be found on line 2, Burglaries in progress or pursuing burglary suspects. Moving across this line, the agency places a 1 in Column C, Knife or Other Cutting Instrument, and places a 1 in Column I, Alone, to show the assaulted officer was unassisted. Also, the agency enters a 1 in Column M, Officer Assaults Cleared, to show the offender was arrested. No other entries are required. For each officer assaulted, the agency should select only one Type of Assignment (Columns F–L). Next, the reporting agency completes line 13 or 14 and line 15. Because the detective was injured, line 13, Number with personal injury, is the appropriate line to use. To score this scenario, the agency enters a 1 on this line in Column C to indicate the injury was inflicted with a knife. On line 15, Time of assaults, it is important the agency records appropriately the time of occurrence. The detective in this scenario was assaulted at 10:20 p.m., so the agency scores the time of assault on the bottom half of line 15 in the block indicating the time period 10:00–12:00.

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Form 1-705 Scenario 1:

OFFICERS KILLED

Number of your law enforcement officers

By felonious act

______

killed in the line of duty this month.

By accident or negligence

______1_______ _

OFFICERS ASSAULTED (Do not include officers killed) - See other side for instructions.

Type of Weapon

Type of Assignment

Knife or Total

Other

Other

Hands,

Officer

Assaults

Cutting

Danger-

Fists,

Vehicle

by

Instru-

ous

Feet,

Weapon

Firearm

ment

Weapon

etc.

A

B

C

D

E

Type of Activity

One - Officer

Detective or

Vehicle

Special Assign.

TwoOther Officer Assaults

F

Alone

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

Cleared

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

1. Responding to Disturbance calls (family quarrels, person with firearm, etc.)

2. Burglaries in progress or

1

pursuing burglary suspects

1

1

3. Robberies in progress or pursuing Robbery suspects

12. TOTAL (1 - 11)

1

13. Number with personal injury*

14. Number without personal injury 12 15. Time of assaults

:01

2 :00

4 :00

6 :00

8 :00

10 :00

12 :00

AM

PM

1

152

NOTE: Whenever the information on Form 1-705, line 13, reveals an officer was assaulted and injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument, the UCR Program sends Form 1-701 to the agency. It is very important agencies reporting on hard copy forms complete the block on the reverse side of Form 1-705, YOUR AGENCY’S INCIDENT OR CASE NUMBER(S). When sending Form 1-701, the UCR Program references the incident number to help the agency locate the required information. Because the officer in Scenario 1 was injured with a knife, the agency records the Incident or Case Number in the block located at the bottom of the reverse side of Form 1-705. YOUR AGENCY’S INCIDENT OR CASE NUMBER(S) (Complete this block only if the assaulted officer was injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument.) 120300012345

Scenario 2: Two uniformed officers on patrol in their cruiser responded to a Robbery in progress at a bank two blocks away. They were the first unit to arrive at approximately 2:30 p.m. as three armed subjects with weapons drawn exited the bank. A brief exchange of gunfire ensued during which one officer was killed and the other shot in the leg. Although one subject was wounded and apprehended at the scene, the other two escaped in their getaway car. To score Scenario 2 on Form 1-705, the reporting agency first completes the top portion, OFFICERS KILLED. The agency enters a 1 on the line indicating By felonious act. Next, the agency records in the lower portion of the form the assault occurring in the incident. The reporting agency scores the assault on the partner who received the leg wound by first determining the Type of Activity, in this case, line 3, Robberies in progress or pursuing Robbery suspects. The agency enters a 1 on this line in Column B to show the weapon used was a firearm, a 1 in Column F, Two-Officer Vehicle, to show the Type of Assignment, and a 1 in Column M, indicating the assault has been cleared by the arrest of at least one offender. Since the officer was injured, the agency enters a 1 on line 13 in Column B, again indicating the weapon used. The agency records the time of the assault by placing a 1 in the PM portion of line 15 in the block between 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.

153

Form 1-705 Scenario 2:

By felonious act

OFFICERS KILLED

1

______

Number of your law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty this month.

By accident or negligence

_____________ _

OFFICERS ASSAULTED (Do not include officers killed) - See other side for instructions.

Type of Weapon

Type of Assignment

Knife or

One -Officer

Detective or

Vehicle

Special Assign.

Total

Other

Other

Hands,

Assaults

Cutting

Danger-

Fists,

Two-

Officer

by

Instru-

ous

Feet,

Officer

Assaults

Vehicle Alone

Weapon

Firearm

ment

Weapon

etc.

A

B

C

D

E

Type of Activity

F

G

Other

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

H

I

J

K

L

Cleared M

1. Responding to Disturbance calls (family quarrels, person with firearm, etc.) 2. Burglaries in progress or pursuing burglary suspects 3. Robberies in progress or

1

pursuing Robbery suspects

1

1

12. TOTAL (1 - 11)

1

13. Number with personal injury*

14. Number without personal injury

12 15 Time of assaults

:01

2 :00

4 :00

6 :00

8 :00

10 :00

12 :00

AM

PM

1

154

Since one of the officers in Scenario 2 was injured with a firearm, the agency should record the Incident or Case Number in the block located at the bottom of the reverse side of Form 1-705. YOUR AGENCY’S INCIDENT OR CASE NUMBER(S) (Complete this block only if the assaulted officer was injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument.) 120300012346

Scenario 3: At 10:17 a.m., an officer alone in a patrol car answered a call from a woman threatened by her husband. An off-duty officer who lived nearby went to assist the responding officer. As the two officers attempted to talk to the man, he became enraged, and wielding a hammer and a knife, he attacked both officers. While subduing the individual and wrestling the weapons from him, one of the officers suffered a serious knife wound. The man was subsequently arrested. To score Scenario 3 in which two officers were assaulted, the reporting agency selects the Type of Activity, Responding to disturbance calls, line 1 and places a 2 in Column C. (Although the offender employed more than one weapon, the agency should record the knife as the weapon since it is the first weapon listed when moving from Column B to Column E.) Continuing on line 1, the agency shows both officers’ assignments by entering a 1 in Column H denoting one victim in a One-Officer Vehicle and a 1 in Column L to show the off-duty officer. Because the offender was arrested, both of these assaults are cleared, so the agency should report a 2 in Column M.

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Form 1-705 Scenario 3:

By felonious act

OFFICERS KILLED

______

Number of your law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty this month.

By accident or negligence

_____________ _

OFFICERS ASSAULTED (Do not include officers killed) - See other side for instructions.

Type of Weapon

Type of Assignment

Knife or Total

Other

Other

Hands,

Assaults

Cutting

Danger-

Fists,

One -Officer

Detective or

Vehicle

Special Assign.

Officer

Instru-

ous

Feet,

Officer

Weapon

Firearm

ment

Weapon

etc.

Vehicle Alone

A

B

C

D

E

by

Type of Activity

Other

Two-

F

Assaults

G

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

H

I

J

K

L

Cleared M

1. Responding to Disturbance calls (family quarrels, person

2

with firearm, etc.)

1

1

2

2. Burglaries in progress or pursuing burglary suspects

3. Robberies in progress or pursuing Robbery suspects

12. TOTAL (1 - 11)

13. Number with personal injury*

1

14. Number without personal injury

1

12

15. Time of assaults

:01

2 :00

4 :00

6 :00

8 :00

10 :00

12 :00

2

AM

PM

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Because one officer is injured and one is not, the reporting agency uses both lines 13 and 14. On line 13, the agency records a 1 in Column C to show one officer received a knife wound and a 1 on line 14 in Column C to indicate one officer was uninjured. Finally, the agency records the time of assault by placing a 2 in the AM portion of line 15 in the block between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00. One of the officers in Scenario 3 was injured with a knife, therefore, the agency should record the Incident or Case Number in the block located at the bottom of the reverse side of Form 1705. YOUR AGENCY’S INCIDENT OR CASE NUMBER(S) (Complete this block only if the assaulted officer was injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument.) 120300012347

Monthly LEOKA Report (Form 1-705) At the end of the month, the reporting agency should complete one Form 1-705 for submission to the FBI UCR Program. If the agency has been using a tally sheet to track assaults, it first transfers the figures from the worksheet to Form 1-705 and then calculates the totals. If the agency has recorded all of the assaults directly on the form, it should sum the totals and enter them on the appropriate lines and columns. If scenarios 1–3 reflected only the officers killed and assaulted during a month, the reporting agency would complete Form 1-705 as follows: First, the agency records in the top portion of the form the officers who were killed in the line of duty by placing a 1 on the top line, By felonious act, to record the officer who was feloniously killed (Scenario 2) and then by placing a 1 on the second line, By accident or negligence, to record the officer who was accidentally killed (Scenario 1). Next, the reporting agency completes the bottom portion of the form, which will include the assault data from scenarios 1–3. To begin, the agency adds Columns B–L down and enters each column’s total on line 12. Next, the agency adds Column M down to record the number of assaults cleared on line 12. Then the agency adds Columns B–E (Type of Weapon) across on lines 1, 2, and 3 and enters those totals on the appropriate line in Column A (Total Assaults by Weapon). For lines 13 and 14, the reporting agency adds each line across and enters the resulting numbers in Column A. Column A, line 12 should equal the agency’s total number of officers assaulted. If the agency has entered all numbers correctly, the sum of Columns F–L on line 12 will be the same as the number in Column A, line 12 (the sums of Columns B–E). Additionally, the sum of all entries on line 15, both AM and PM portions, should be the same as the total number of assaults entered in Column A, line 12.

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Form 1-705 Monthly Submission:

By felonious act

OFFICERS KILLED

1

______

Number of your law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty this month.

By accident or negligence

______1_______ _

OFFICERS ASSAULTED (Do not include officers killed) - See other side for instructions.

Type of Weapon

Type of Assignment

Knife or

One -Officer

Detective or

Vehicle

Special Assign.

Total

Other

Other

Hands,

Assaults

Cutting

Danger-

Fists,

Two-

Officer

by

Instru-

ous

Feet,

Officer

Assaults

Vehicle Alone

Weapon

Firearm

ment

Weapon

etc.

A

B

C

D

E

Type of Activity

F

G

Other

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

Alone

Assisted

H

I

J

K

L

Cleared M

1. Responding to Disturbance calls (family quarrels, person with firearm, etc.)

2

2

1

1

1

1

2

2. Burglaries in progress or pursuing burglary suspects

1

1

3. Robberies in progress or

1

1

12. TOTAL (1 - 11)

4

1

3

13. Number with personal injury*

3

1

2

14. Number without personal injury

1

pursuing Robbery suspects

12

15. Time of assaults

:01

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

2 :00

4 :00

6 :00

8

:00

10 :00

12:00

2

AM

PM

1

1

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Because officers in scenarios 1–3 were injured with a firearm or knife, the reporting agency should record the Incident or Case Numbers in the block located at the bottom of the reverse side of Form 1-705. YOUR AGENCY’S INCIDENT OR CASE NUMBER(S) (Complete this block only if the assaulted officer was injured with a firearm or a knife or other cutting instrument.) 120300012345

120300012347

120300012346

LAW ENFORCEMENT EMPLOYEES REPORT The Law Enforcement Employees Report, which is annually sent to LEAs throughout the country, asks that the agency provide a count of the employees on its payroll as of October 31 of a given year. The primary purpose of this collection is to gather information relating to the number of full-time law enforcement employees, both officers and civilians. The number of officers reported should include only all full-time, sworn personnel with full arrest powers. Agencies include the sheriff and deputies, constables, marshals, the chief and members of the police force, and other officers whose duties are to enforce and preserve the public peace. The report does not include persons performing guard or protection duties such as crossing guards, special or reserve officers, merchant police, or jailers at state correctional facilities and state prisons who are not paid from law enforcement funds. Agencies may include city and county jailers only if they are full-time employees and their salaries are paid out of law enforcement funds. Although some jailers may be sworn personnel, if their salaries are paid from a separate budget for the operation of the jail and they do not perform other law enforcement functions such as patrol, they are not included in the agency’s count. In reporting the number of civilian employees, agencies include persons such as clerks, radio dispatchers, meter attendants, stenographers, jailers, correctional officers, and mechanics provided they are all full-time employees of the agency. Employees who are on leave with pay should be included in the total. Again, agencies do not include in the count persons who are not paid from law enforcement funds. NOTE: If a small jurisdiction monthly reports offenses to the sheriff’s office or another larger agency, that larger agency should include the small jurisdiction’s officer and civilian employee counts with its own.

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CHAPTER V PART II OFFENSES The UCR Program divides offenses into two groups—Part I and Part II. The FBI UCR Program collects offense and arrest data on all Part I offenses that become known to law enforcement whether or not they involve arrests. However, the UCR Program only collects arrest data Part II offenses. One of the fundamental goals of the UCR Program is to maintain uniformity in the offense and arrest data. In November 1932, the UCR Program adopted a Standard Classification of Offenses for the compilation of criminal statistics.

9. Other Assaults An unlawful physical attack by one person upon another where neither the offender displays a weapon, nor the victim suffers obvious severe or aggravated bodily injury involving apparent broken bones, loss of teeth, possible internal injury, severe laceration, or loss of consciousness. To unlawfully place another person in reasonable fear of bodily harm through the use of threatening words and/or other conduct, but without displaying a weapon or subjecting the victim to actual physical attack (e.g., intimidation). Some examples of local jurisdiction offense titles that are included in Other Assaults are: Simple assault

Stalking

Minor assault

Intimidation

Assault and battery

Coercion

Injury by culpable negligence

Hazing

Resisting or obstructing an officer

Attempts to commit any of the above

10. Forgery and Counterfeiting The altering, copying, or imitating of something, without authority or right, with the intent to deceive or defraud by passing the copy or thing altered or imitated as that which is original or genuine, or the selling, buying, or possession of an altered, copied, or imitated thing with the intent to deceive or defraud. In the majority of states, forgery and counterfeiting are treated as allied offenses. Agencies include in this classification: Altering or forging public and other records

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Making, altering, forging, or counterfeiting bills, notes, drafts, tickets, checks, credit cards, etc. Forging wills, deeds, notes, bonds, seals, trademarks, etc. Counterfeiting coins, plates, banknotes, checks, etc. Possessing or uttering forged or counterfeited instruments Erasures Signing the name of another or fictitious person with intent to defraud Using forged labels Possession, manufacture, etc., of counterfeiting apparatuses Selling goods with altered, forged, or counterfeited trademarks Attempts to commit any of the above

11. Fraud The intentional perversion of the truth for the purpose of inducing another person or other entity in reliance upon it to part with something of value or to surrender a legal right. Fraudulent conversion and obtaining of money or property by false pretenses. Fraud involves either the offender receiving a benefit or the victim incurring a detriment. The benefit or detriment could be either “tangible” or “intangible.” Intangibles are anything which cannot be perceived by the sense of touch. They can be benefits, e.g., a right or privilege, a promotion, enhanced reputation, or a detriment, e.g., loss of reputation, injured feelings. Examples of common fraud cases are where something of value, such as a DVD player or an automobile, is rented for a period of time but is not returned. This offense, conversion of goods lawfully possessed by bailees, is classified as fraud and not larceny. In such cases, the offenders originally had lawful possession of the property (the property was either rented, loaned, or the person was in some way entrusted with its possession) and through deceit (they promised to return it) kept the property. Agencies include in this classification: Bad checks, except forgeries and counterfeiting False pretenses/swindle/confidence games Leaving a full-service gas station without paying attendant Credit card/Automatic Teller Machine Fraud Impersonation Welfare Fraud 161

Wire Fraud Attempts to commit any of the above

12. Embezzlement The unlawful misappropriation or misapplication by an offender to his/her own use or purpose of money, property, or some other thing of value entrusted to his/her care, custody, or control. Generally, the victims of embezzlement offenses are businesses, financial institutions, etc. Reporting agencies include attempts.

13. Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing Buying, receiving, possessing, selling, concealing, or transporting any property with the knowledge that it has been unlawfully taken, as by burglary, embezzlement, fraud, larceny, Robbery, etc. Reporting agencies include attempts to commit any of the above.

14. Vandalism To willfully or maliciously destroy, injure, disfigure, or deface any public or private property, real or personal, without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control by cutting, tearing, breaking, marking, painting, drawing, covering with filth, or any other such means as may be specified by local law. This offense covers a wide range of malicious behavior directed at property, such as cutting auto tires, drawing obscene pictures on public restroom walls, smashing windows, destroying school records, tipping over gravestones, and defacing library books. Reporting agencies include attempts to commit any of the above.

15. Weapons: Carrying, Possessing, Etc. The violation of laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, concealment, or use of firearms, cutting instruments, explosives, incendiary devices, or other deadly weapons. This classification encompasses weapon offenses that are regulatory in nature. Agencies include in this classification: Manufacture, sale, or possession of deadly weapons Carrying deadly weapons, concealed or openly 162

Using, manufacturing, etc., of silencers Furnishing deadly weapons to minors Aliens possessing deadly weapons Attempts to commit any of the above

16. Prostitution and Commercialized Vice The unlawful promotion of or participation in sexual activities in exchange for anything of value. To solicit customers or transport persons for prostitution purposes, to own, manage, or operate a dwelling or other establishment for the purpose of providing a place where prostitution is performed, or to otherwise assist or promote prostitution. The William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 requires the FBI UCR Program to distinguish between incidents of prostitution, assisting or promoting prostitution, and purchasing prostitution. In accordance with the law, the Part II crime of Prostitution and Commercialized Vice is now distinguished by three subcategories: A. Prostitution B. Assisting or Promoting Prostitution C. Purchasing Prostitution Agencies include in these classifications: Performing / purchasing prostitution Keeping a bawdy house, disorderly house, or house of ill fame Pandering, procuring, transporting, or detaining women for immoral purposes, etc. Attempts to commit any of the above

17. Sex Offenses (Except Rape and Prostitution and Commercialized Vice) This classification includes offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. The ability of the victim to give consent is a professional determination by the LEA. The age of the victim, of course, plays a critical role in this determination. Individuals do not mature mentally at the same rate. Certainly, no 4-year old is capable of consenting, where victims aged 10 or 12 may need to be assessed within the specific circumstances. Sexual attacks on males are included in this classification. However, depending on the nature of the crime and the extent of the injury, the offense could be classified as an assault. This classification includes all sex offenses except rape and prostitution and commercialized vice. 163

Agencies include in this classification: Adultery and fornication

Seduction

Buggery

Fondling

Incest

Statutory rape (no force)

Indecent exposure

Attempts to commit any of the above

Indecent liberties

18. Drug Abuse Violations The violation of laws prohibiting the production, distribution, and/or use of certain controlled substances. The unlawful cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale, purchase, use, possession, transportation, or importation of any controlled drug or narcotic substance. Arrests for violations of state and local laws, specifically those relating to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, manufacturing, and making of narcotic drugs. The UCR Program collects information on arrests for drug abuse violations based on the narcotics involved. Agencies include all arrests for violations, including attempts, and subdivide the arrests by differentiating between Sale/Manufacturing and Possession: Sale/Manufacturing a. Opium or cocaine and their derivatives (morphine, heroin, codeine) b. Marijuana c. Synthetic narcotics—manufactured narcotics which can cause true drug addiction (demerol, methadones) d. Dangerous nonnarcotic drugs (barbiturates, benzedrine) Possession e. Opium or cocaine and their derivatives (morphine, heroin, codeine) f. Marijuana g. Synthetic narcotics—manufactured narcotics which can cause true drug addiction (demerol, methadones) h. Dangerous nonnarcotic drugs (barbiturates, benzedrine)

164

19. Gambling To unlawfully bet or wager money or something else of value, assist, promote, or operate a game of chance for money or some other stake, possess or transmit wagering information, manufacture, sell, purchase, possess, or transport gambling equipment, devices, or goods, or tamper with the outcome of a sporting event or contest to gain a gambling advantage. To unlawfully stake money or something else of value on the happening of an uncertain event or on the ascertainment of a fact in dispute. To unlawfully operate, promote, or assist in the operation of a game of chance, lottery, or other gambling activity. To unlawfully manufacture, sell, buy, possess, or transport equipment, devices, and/or goods used for gambling purposes. To unlawfully alter, meddle in, or otherwise interfere with a sporting contest or event for the purpose of gaining a gambling advantage. Reporting agencies divide gambling arrests into three categories: Bookmaking (horse and sport book) Numbers and lottery All other (illegal gambling machines, etc.)

20. Offenses Against the Family and Children Unlawful nonviolent acts by a family member (or legal guardian) that threaten the physical, mental, or economic well-being or morals of another family member and that are not classifiable as other offenses, such as Assault or Sex Offenses. Agencies include in this classification: Nonviolent cruelty to other family members Nonviolent abuse Desertion, abandonment, or nonsupport of spouse or child Neglect or abuse of spouse or child (if injury is serious, score as aggravated assault) Nonpayment of alimony Attempts to commit any of the above NOTE: Agencies do not include victims of these charges who are merely taken into custody for their own protection.

165

21. Driving Under the Influence Driving or operating a motor vehicle or common carrier while mentally or physically impaired as the result of consuming an alcoholic beverage or using a drug or narcotic. Agencies include in this classification: Operating a motor vehicle while under the influence Operating an engine, train, streetcar, boat, etc., while under the influence

22. Liquor Laws The violation of state or local laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, or use of alcoholic beverages, not including driving under the influence and drunkenness. Agencies include in this classification: Manufacture, sale, transporting, furnishing, possessing, etc., of intoxicating liquor Maintaining unlawful drinking places Bootlegging Operating still Furnishing liquor to a minor or intemperate person Underage possession Using a vehicle for illegal transportation of liquor Drinking on train or public conveyance Open containers Attempts to commit any of the above

23. Drunkenness To drink alcoholic beverages to the extent that one’s mental faculties and physical coordination are substantially impaired. Exclude driving under the influence. Agencies include in this classification: Drunkenness

Common or habitual drunkard

Drunk and disorderly

Intoxication

166

24. Disorderly Conduct Any behavior that tends to disturb the public peace or decorum, scandalize the community, or shock the public sense of morality. Agencies include in this classification: Unlawful assembly Disturbing the peace Disturbing meetings Disorderly conduct in state institutions, at court, at fairs, on trains or public conveyances, etc. Blasphemy, profanity, and obscene language Refusing to assist an officer Attempts to commit any of the above

25. Vagrancy The violation of a court order, regulation, ordinance, or law requiring the withdrawal of persons from the streets or other specified areas, prohibiting persons from remaining in an area or place in an idle or aimless manner, or prohibiting persons from going from place to place without visible means of support. Agencies include in this classification: Suspicious person Begging Loitering (persons 18 and over) Vagabondage

26. All Other Offenses All violations of state or local laws not specifically identified as Part I or Part II offenses, except traffic violations. Agencies include in this classification: Admitting minors to improper places Bigamy and polygamy Blackmail and extortion 167

Bribery Combination in restraint of trade, trusts, monopolies Contempt of court Criminal anarchism Criminal syndicalism Discrimination, unfair competition Kidnapping Marriage within prohibited degrees Offenses contributing to juvenile delinquency, such as employment of children in immoral vocations or practices, and admitting minors to improper places. Perjury and subornation of perjury Possession, repair, manufacture, etc., of burglar’s tools Possession of drug paraphernalia Possession or sale of obscene literature, pictures, etc. Public nuisances Riot and rout Trespass Unlawfully bringing weapons into prisons, hospitals, airports, businesses, schools, etc. Unlawfully bringing drugs or liquor into state prisons, hospitals, etc., furnishing to convicts Unlawful disinterment of the dead and violation of sepulture Unlawful use, possession, etc., of explosives Violations of state regulatory laws and municipal ordinances that are not already included in this list Violation of quarantine All offenses not otherwise classified Attempts to commit any of the above

27. Suspicion Arrested for no specific offense and released without formal charges being placed.

168

Although suspicion is not an offense, it is the grounds for many arrests in those jurisdictions where the law permits. After law enforcement officers examine the situation, they will either formally charge the prisoner or release him/her. Reporting agencies classify the offense for which those individuals were formally charged as one of the Part I or II offenses. The suspicion classification is limited to suspicion arrests where persons arrested are released by the police.

28. Curfew and Loitering Laws (Persons under age 18) Violations by juveniles of local curfew or loitering ordinances.

29. Runaways (Persons under age 18) 8 Limited to juveniles taken into protective custody under the provisions of local statutes. Although running away does not constitute a criminal offense, agencies should report each handling of a runaway. Handling of runaways from one jurisdiction by another jurisdiction should be counted by the home jurisdiction.

30. Assisting and Promoting Prostitution Soliciting customers or transporting persons for prostitution purposes, to own, manage, or operate a dwelling for the purpose of providing a place where prostitution is performed, or to otherwise assist or promote prostitution.

31. Purchasing Prostitution Purchasing or trading anything of value for commercial sex acts.

8

Arrest data on Runaways is no longer required by the FBI UCR Program due to the differences between jurisdictional statues. Specifically, not all jurisdictions consider runaway as a criminal offense. LEAs who have not updated their records management systems can still report runaways, however this data is no longer published by the FBI UCR Program.

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GLOSSARY A goal of the UCR Program, as developed by law enforcement, was to provide a “common denominator” language that transcends the varying local and state laws. State statutes and local ordinances must be very specific in defining crimes so that persons facing prosecution will know the exact charges being placed against them. On the other hand, the definitions used in UCR are generic in order not to exclude varying state and federal statutes relating to the same type of crime. These definitions are not meant to be used for charging persons with crimes; to the contrary, they are meant to be categorical definitions for reporting crimes committed throughout the United States. Accordingly, the offense definitions in the UCR Program are based on the common-law definitions found in the Black’s Law Dictionary, the Program’s 1932 Standard Classification of Offenses, and the National Crime Information Center’s Uniform Offense Classifications. Adult—A person 18 years of age or older. Aggravated Assault—An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault usually is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. All Other Offenses—All violations of state or local laws not specifically identified as Part I or Part II offenses, except traffic violations. Arson—Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Assault—An unlawful attack by one person upon another. Autos—Sedans, station wagons, coupes, convertibles, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and other similar motor vehicles that serve the primary purpose of transporting people from one place to another. Burglary—The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. Carnal Knowledge—The act of a man having sexual bodily connections with a woman; sexual intercourse. The slightest penetration of the sexual organ of the female (vagina) by the sexual organ of the male (penis). Classifying—Determining the proper crime categories in which to report offenses in UCR. The offense’s classification is based on the facts of an agency’s investigation of crimes.

170

Cleared by Arrest—An offense is considered cleared when at least one person involved in the commission of the offense has been (1) arrested, (2) charged, and (3) turned over to the court for prosecution. Cleared by Exceptional Means—A clearance in which some element beyond law enforcement control prevents filing of formal charges against the offender. Agencies can clear an offense exceptionally if they can answer all of the following in the affirmative. (1) Has the investigation definitely established the identity of the offender? (2) Is there enough information to support an arrest, charge, and turning over to the court for prosecution? (3) Is the exact location of the offender known so that the subject could be taken into custody now? (4) Is there some reason outside law enforcement control that precludes arresting, charging, and prosecuting the offender (for example, suicide, deathbed confession, double murder, etc.)? Constructive Possession—The condition in which a person does not have physical custody or possession, but is in a position to exercise dominion or control over a thing. Conversion—An unauthorized assumption and exercise of the right of ownership over goods or personal chattels belonging to another to the alteration of their condition or the exclusion of the owner’s rights. Crime Against Property—Offenses in this category include robbery, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. One offense is counted for each distinct operation, except in the case of motor vehicle theft for which one offense is counted for each stolen vehicle. Crime Against Persons—Offenses in this category include criminal homicide, rape, aggravated assault, human trafficking–commercial sex acts, and human trafficking–involuntary servitude. One offense is scored for each victim. Criminal Homicide—The willful killing of one human being by another. Curfew and Loitering (Persons under age 18)—Violations by juveniles of local curfew or loitering ordinances. Disorderly Conduct—Any behavior that tends to disturb the public peace or decorum, scandalize the community, or shock the public sense of morality. Driving Under the Influence—Driving or operating a motor vehicle or common carrier while mentally or physically impaired as the result of consuming an alcoholic beverage or using a drug or narcotic. Drug Abuse Violations—The violation of laws prohibiting the production, distribution, and/or use of certain controlled substances and the equipment or devices utilized in their preparation and/or use. The unlawful cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale, purchase, use, possession, 171

transportation, or importation of any controlled drug or narcotic substance. Arrests for violations of state and local laws, specifically those relating to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, manufacturing, and making of narcotic drugs. Drunkenness—To drink alcoholic beverages to the extent that one’s mental faculties and physical coordination are substantially impaired. Exclude driving under the influence. Embezzlement—The unlawful misappropriation or misapplication by an offender to his/her own use or purpose of money, property, or some other thing of value entrusted to his/her care, custody, or control. Forcible Rape—The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Forgery and Counterfeiting—The altering, copying, or imitating of something without authority or right, with the intent to deceive or defraud by passing the copy or thing altered or imitated as that which is original or genuine; or the selling, buying, or possession of an altered, copied, or imitated thing with the intent to deceive or defraud. Fraud—The intentional perversion of the truth for the purpose of inducing another person or other entity in reliance upon it to part with something of value or to surrender a legal right. Fraudulent conversion and obtaining of money or property by false pretenses. Gambling—To unlawfully bet or wager money or something else of value; assist, promote, or operate a game of chance for money or some other stake; possess or transmit wagering information; manufacture, sell, purchase, possess, or transport gambling equipment, devices or goods; or tamper with the outcome of a sporting event or contest to gain a gambling advantage. Hate Crime—A criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin; also known as a bias crime. Hierarchy Rule—When more than one Part I offense is classified, the law enforcement agency must locate the offense that is highest on the hierarchy list and score that offense and not the other offense in the multiple-offense situation. There is a significance to the order in which the Part I offenses are presented, with murder being the highest in the hierarchy and arson being the lowest. The offenses of justifiable homicide, motor vehicle theft, and arson are exceptions to the Hierarchy Rule. Forcible Rape—The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. This definition is now only used for historical trend purposes. Hotel Rule—Burglaries of hotels, motels, lodging houses, and other places where lodging of transients is the main purpose are scored under provisions of the Hotel Rule. This principle of 172

scoring dictates that if a number of dwelling units under a single manager are burglarized and the offenses are most likely to be reported to the police by the manager rather than the individual tenants, the burglary must be scored as one offense. Human Trafficking, Commercial Sex Acts—Inducing a person by force, fraud, or coercion to participate in commercial sex acts, or in which the person induced to perform such act(s) has not attained 18 years of age. Human Trafficking, Involuntary Servitude— The obtaining of a person(s) through recruitment, harboring, transportation, or provision, and subjecting such persons by force, fraud, or coercion into involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery (not to include commercial sex acts). Justifiable Homicide—The killing of a felon by a peace officer in the line of duty or the killing of a felon, during the commission of a felony, by a private citizen. Juvenile—A person under 18 years of age. Larceny-theft—The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Liquor Laws—The violation of state or local laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, or use of alcoholic beverages, not including driving under the influence and drunkenness. Manslaughter by Negligence—The killing of another person through gross negligence. Motor Vehicle—A self-propelled vehicle that runs on land surface and not on rails. Motor Vehicle Theft—The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter—The willful (Nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another. Offenses Against the Family and Children—Unlawful nonviolent acts by a family member (or legal guardian) which threaten the physical, mental, or economic well-being or morals of another family member and which are not classifiable as other offenses, such as Assault or Sex Offenses. Other Vehicles—All other vehicles that meet the UCR definition for motor vehicles such as snowmobiles, motorcycles, motor scooters, trail bikes, mopeds, golf carts, and all-terrain vehicles.

173

Part I Offenses—The first of two main groupings of UCR crime classifications consisting of eight offenses (criminal homicide, forcible rape, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, larcenytheft, motor vehicle theft, and arson). Part II Offenses—The second of two main UCR groupings of crime classifications not already designated in Part I. Agencies are limited to reporting arrest information only for Part I offenses with the exception of simple assault. Prostitution and Commercialized Vice—The unlawful promotion of or participation in sexual activities for profit. Rape— Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim. Robbery—The taking or attempted taking of anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. Runaways (Persons under age 18)—Limited to juveniles taken into protective custody under the provisions of local statutes. Runaways is no longer required by the FBI UCR Program. Scoring—Counting the number of offenses after they have been classified and entering the total count on the appropriate reporting form. The appropriate scoring of Part I crimes is directly related to the two types of crimes involved: crimes against the person and crimes against property. Separation of Time and Place Rule—A standard UCR scoring practice that stipulates if there is a separation of time and place between the commission of several crimes, the reporting agency must handle each crime as a separate incident and must classify and score each offense individually. Sex Offenses—Offenses against chastity, common decency, morals, and the like. Simple Assault—All assaults and attempted assaults which are not of an aggravated nature and do not result in serious injury to the victim. Stolen Property: Buying, Receiving, Possessing—Buying, receiving, possessing, selling, concealing, or transporting any property with the knowledge that it has been unlawfully taken, as by burglary, embezzlement, fraud, larceny, robbery, etc. Structure—Includes, but is not limited to, apartments, barns, cabins, churches, condominiums, dwelling houses, factories, garages, house trailers or houseboats (used as a permanent dwelling), mills, offices, other buildings, outbuildings, public buildings, railroad cars, rooms, schools, stables, vessels (ships), and warehouses. 174

Suspicion—Arrested for no specific offense and released without formal charges being placed. Trucks and Buses—Vehicles specifically designed (but not necessarily used) to commercially transport people and cargo. Unfounded—False or baseless complaints. Vagrancy—The violation of a court order, regulation, ordinance, or law requiring the withdrawal of persons from the streets or other specified areas; prohibiting persons from remaining in an area or place in an idle or aimless manner; or prohibiting persons from going from place to place without visible means of support. Vandalism—To willfully or maliciously destroy, injure, disfigure, or deface any public or private property, real or personal, without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control by cutting, tearing, breaking, marking, painting, drawing, covering with filth, or any other such means as may be specified by local law. Weapons: Carrying, Possessing, Etc.—The violation of laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, concealment, or use of firearms, cutting instruments, explosives, incendiary devices, or other deadly weapons.

175

Index A Accidental Death, 31, 33, 71, 160, 161 Adjustments of Previous Returns, 128 Advisory Groups, 13, 14 Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity, 23, 151 Aggravated Assault, 22, 25, 30, 31, 41, 84 All Other Larceny, 51, 53, 54 All Other Offenses, 23, 182, 185 Arrests, 124, 127, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157 Arson, 24, 25, 27, 56, 57, 58, 109, 114, 147, 148, 149, 150, 185 ARSON OFFENSES KNOWN TO LAW ENFORCEMENT, MONTHLY RETURN, 147 Assault, 22, 25, 26, 27, 32, 41, 42, 43, 45, 61, 62, 84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95, 120, 131, 132, 134, 138, 162, 164, 165, 166, 168, 172, 175, 180, 185, 189, 190 Assault - Simple, Not Aggravated, 41, 43, 44, 45, 189

B Bicycles, 134, 137 Breaking or Entering, 141, 150 Buildings, Theft from. See Theft From Buildings. See also Larceny-Theft Burglary, 11, 12, 28, 39, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 53, 57, 63, 96, 97, 100, 121, 124, 125, 133, 141, 145, 146, 149, 150, 162, 166, 167, 169, 171, 173, 177, 186, 188, 189, 190

C Carjacking. See Robbery Carnal Knowledge, 37, 185 Classifying, 21, 30, 44, 58, 131, 136, 137, 152, 153, 185 Cleared by Arrest, 121, 122, 125, 186 Cleared by Exceptional Means, 125, 126, 186 Constructive Possession, 50 Conversion, 186 Crime Against Persons, 116, 186 Crime Against Property, 63, 186 Criminal Homicide, 21, 24, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 120, 122, 131, 158, 159, 162, 186 Curfew and Loitering Laws, 23, 184

D Data Needs, 19 Disorderly Conduct, 23, 182, 186 Disposition of Juveniles, 155 Driving Under the Influence, 23, 181, 186 Drug Abuse Violations, 22, 179, 187 Drunkenness, 23, 181, 182, 187

176

E Embezzlement, 22, 177, 187 Employees, Law Enforcement, 174

F Fetal deaths, 31 Forcible Rape, 146, 160, See Rape Fraud, 50, 54, 60, 61, 176, 177, 188, 190

G Gambling, 22, 180, 187 Gasoline, Theft of, 52, 54, 59, 112, 137, 139, 144, 149

H Hate Crime, 11 Hierarchy Rule, 11, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 38, 59, 147, 150, 153, 162, 187 Homicide. See Criminal Homicide Hotel Rule, 47, 96, 188

J Jurisdiction, 21, 23, 24, 44, 57, 121, 122, 126, 135, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 162, 174, 175, 184 Justifiable Homicide, 26, 31, 32, 33, 69, 70, 188 Juvenile Arrest, 154, 155 Juveniles, 126, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157

L Larceny-Theft, 11, 12, 40, 47, 50, 53, 54, 63, 102, 126, 134, 136, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 186, 189 Law Enforcement Employees Report, 174 Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 11, 13, 68 Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (Form 1-705), 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 173 Line-of-Duty Death, 161 Liquor Laws, 23, 181, 188

M Manslaughter by Negligence, 24, 30, 31, 33, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 110, 111, 123, 131, 160, 162, 167, 169, 171, 173, 188 Monthly Return of Arson Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, 27, 109, 147, 149 Motor Vehicle Theft, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 50, 55, 56, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 120, 136, 137, 141, 144, 145, 146, 161, 166, 188 Multiple-Offense Situation, 24, 26, 27, 45, 59, 147, 187 Murder and Nonnegligent Manslaughter, 24, 30, 31, 32, 64, 68, 69, 70, 123, 126, 131, 132, 139, 146, 158, 159, 160, 188

N NIBRS, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18

177

O Offender, 12, 13, 14, 15, 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 38, 41, 43, 51, 53, 64, 68, 72, 81, 89, 122, 125, 126, 153, 155, 158, 159, 160, 166, 168, 170, 175, 176, 177, 186, 187 Offenses, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 138, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 154 Part I offenses, 11, 12, 13, 14, 24, 25, 26, 27, 60, 119, 120, 121, 122, 138, 175, 187, 189 Part II offenses, 175 Offenses Against the Family and Children, 23, 180, 189 Officers Feloniously Killed, 164 Other Assaults, 41, 43, 45, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 112, 131, 175

P Part I offenses. See Offenses Part II offenses. See Offenses Pocket-Picking, 40, 51 Property by Type and Value, 136 Prostitution and Commercialized Vice, 22, 27, 178, 189 Publications, 11, 12 Purse-Snatching, 40, 51, 82

Q Quality Assurance Review (QAR), 15, 16

R Racial Designations, 152 Rape, 21, 22, 25, 35, 36, 37, 62, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 120, 139, 178, 187, 188, 189 Rapes Attempted, 35 Return A - Monthly Return of Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, 13, 27, 50, 59, 61, 62, 68, 69, 70, 72, 109, 110, 111, 112, 115, 119, 120, 122, 124, 127, 128, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150, 152, 162 Robbery, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 32, 38, 39, 40, 63, 70, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 120, 128, 129, 131, 139, 146, 160, 162, 167, 168, 169, 171, 173, 189, See Robbery Runaways, 23, 151, 154, 157, 184

S Scoring, 121, 122, 125, 128, 131, 134, 139, 141, 145, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 162, 166, 168, 170 Separation of Time and Place Rule, 26, 28, 102, 189, See Separation of Time and Place Rule Sex Offenses, 22, 37, 178, 179, 180, 189, 190 Shoplifting, 47, 51, 53 Simple Assault. See Assault - Simple, Not Aggravated State UCR Program, 11 Stolen Property, 22, 27, 134, 135, 177, 190 Structure, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 57, 109, 144, 147, 185, 190 Suicide, 31, 126 Supplement To Return A Form, 134, 135 Supplementary Homicide Report, 13, 59, 68, 72, 110, 111, 115, 123, 158, 159, 160 Suspicion, 23, 184, 190

178

T Theft From Buildings, 50, 53 Theft From Coin-operated Device, 50, 53 Theft From Motor Vehicles, 52 Theft of Bicycles, 49, 52 Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts and Accessories, 49, 51, 52 Traffic Fatalities, 31, 33, 71, 160 Training, 16, 29, 30, 47, 152

U Unfounded, 120, 190

V Vagrancy, 23, 182, 190 Valuation of Stolen Property, 134 Vandalism, 22, 177, 190

W Weapons, 12, 22, 38, 40, 42, 43, 45, 137, 160, 168, 170, 177, 178, 183, 190 Carrying, Possessing, etc, 22, 177, 190

179

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