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International Journal of Applied Sociology p-ISSN: 2169-9704 e-ISSN: 2169-9739 2016; 6(2): 23-28 doi:10.5923/j.ijas.20160602.02
Social Support, Multiple Role Conflict, Motivation and Commitment to Organization of Female Staff Islamic Banks
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Alifiulahtin Utaminingsih1 , Darsono Wisadirana 2 , Sanggar Kanto 2 , Sholih Mu’Adi 2 1 Doktoral Program of Political and Social Science Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia 2 Lecturer of Political and Social Science Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
Correspondence to: Alifiulahtin Utaminingsih, Doktoral Program of Political and Social Science Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
Copyright © 2016 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Abstract The purpose of the study is to reconstruct structural model of social support for career woman in developing social support-based commitment to organization as well as motivation to work for female staffs of the Islamic bank in Malang. The study is categorized as an explanatory study or hypotesis-testing with quantitative approach. The subjects or respondents are 146 married Islamic banking female staffs. Questionnaire is the primary tool for data collection. The data analysis used the SEM data analysis and GeSCA. The findings show percentage of the combination of social support, multiple role conflict and working motivation to describe commitment to organization is 67.0%. The structural model reveals that commitment to organization has significant influence towards and is increased due to high social support and working motivation. However, it does not have any significant influence towards multiple role conflict. Based on the coefficient line, working motivation is the most dominant factor that influences commitment to organization. Keywords: Social support, Organizational commitment, Islamic bank Cite this paper: Alifiulahtin Utaminingsih, Darsono Wisadirana, Sanggar Kanto, Sholih Mu’Adi, Social Support, Multiple Role Conflict, Motivation and Commitment to Organization of Female Staff Islamic Banks, International Journal of Applied Sociology, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2016, pp. 23-28. doi: 10.5923/j.ijas.20160602.02.
Article Outline 1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Research Method 4. Findings and Discussion 4.1. Result of GeSCA Analysis 4.2. Model of Measurement 4.3. Result of Hipothesis Testing and Discussion 5. Conclusions 6. Recommendations
1. Introduction Career woman is a common phenomenon both in developing or developed country . It causes a shift in women’s role from domestic into public domain, and as the consequence, there is some pressure to balance family and work. The pressure career women have that appears based on the demand to balance family and work is known as work-family conflict [2-4]. The society especially one with partiarchical way of thinking has yet been able to embrace the concept of multiple roles (both domestic and public domain) for woman. Working woman may be the cause of the shift in woman’s role and function in a family. One example of the change is one in structural functional in a family, for example assigning roles within the family which involves amount of time being spent for family, housework, job, social economic activity, self development, and time being spent to be actively participate in the society . Patriarchical way of thinking is mainly and frequently related with Islamic teaching. It will create various effects. One of the effects is gender bias in Islamic teaching that eventually will create some misconception about Islamic teaching as the one giving strict limitation towards women role and their empowerement in public areas. Therefore, changing perspective towards role of woman in Islamic perspective is needed so that people will have similar concerns us about the concept of gender equity from Islamic perspective. There should be critical and comprehensive effort to bridge different ideas Moslem and non-Moslem people have about the role of women in Islam. The end goal is that people understand proportionally what career woman actually is and eventually develop social support system for the career woman. Based on the explanation above, the researcher is interested in conducting the study because of several considerations. First, social change in role of women from domestic to public creates a movement about gender equity for men and women. Second, studies and movements about woman start to appear and provide opportunity for woman to be able to present herself in the world society, which once was traditionally dominated by men (patricarchy), equally as man. Unfortunately, the movement results in multiple roles of woman that cannot be fully accepted by the society and its cultural value especially in Javanese culture. Third, human resource is the ultimate resources especially in the banking field. Banking is dominated by female workers and it cannot be separated from role of female staff that holds the key of great service or successful service in the middle of the sharp competition in banking industry. Finally, in order to raise the motivation to build female staff’s commitment in Islamic banks, social support is needed especially from the closest people such as husband and family, working partner, employer or supervisor. Maximum social support requires good communication from all parties involved such as family and institutions (banks) where the women are working. Management of the banks needs to provide an open-minded working atmosphere for female staffs to perform their best so that social support from family (especially husband and kids) can reduce the multiple role conflict since the support will carry important role for female to do their role as a wife, mother and career woman. Based on the background and current condition, the research question is “how to reconstruct multidimentional structural model about the effect of social support toward career woman; the structural model is related to the effect of social support, multiple role conflict and working motivation towards commitment to organization of married female staff of Islamic banks in Malang.”
2. Literature Review First, social changes that happen in society create movement about equal roles form man and woman based on the gender and feminism theories. Masculine role of man that is previously described as the main breadwinner and free from any household task starting to change. On the other hand, working woman may reduce her presence and her ability to finish house chores. The consequence is man will become more involved in family and their main priorities have shifted from their jobs to their families. The growing number of working woman will affect woman’s activities in marriage lives and the way housework is distributed in a family. Secondly, movement and study about woman (based on feminism theories) give chance for woman to carry out their roles in woman world society where once was traditionally dominated by man or is patriarchical. However, this phenomenon causes women to have multiple roles that cannot be fully accepted by the society especially Javanese culture . Therefore, the changing role of woman is analyzed based on the social exchange theories that put pressure on someone in interaction between people. Those theories put more possibility to consider for exchange in non work context. One of its forms is to exchange role in the family where a husbands do the house chores or replace their wives’ duties at home while their wives are working. Asriani states that, from the aspect of gender construction, it is caused by the fact that man is given certain privilege not to deal with domestic chores to perform their roles outside the house. On the other hand, woman is required to be able to do the house chores and fulfill her domestic roles perfectly although she is a working woman . Other obstacle involves psychological intelligence. In order to eliminate the obstacles, all individuals should realize that God creates man and woman as equal so woman is supposed to be able to do everything man is allowed to do including right to work outside the house for a married woman once she has finished her education as long as her husband allows her to do so. Role of woman has evolved in line with globalization and rapid growth of information. There is a demand for woman to be able to multitask. Women should keep fulfilling their domestic roles, but at the same time their social status and the economic demand encourage them to work outside the house as one form of emancipation. Discrimination against woman is an act against woman’s nature as a dignified and honorable living being God has created because one thing that sets woman apart from man is how much devotion he/she has to God. Third, human resource is the ultimate resource in every institution. Banking is dominated by female staffs and therefore women are the key of service excellence for banks to excel in the middle of tight business competition. Married female staffs of Islamic banking have to work professionally even though at the same time they are wives, mothers and managers of their families. Those multiple roles will affect their job especially in terms of job satisfaction, job motivation and commitment to organization . Based on that, Islamic banking has to taken the need of their married female staffs into account so that they can provide prime service through increasing human resource especially the marriage staffs. The effort to increase motivation to build Islamic banking’s female staff’s commitment needs some participation of and social support from the staff’s closest people such as husband and family , working partner, employer or supervisor. To gain maximum support, great communication from all related parties is needed. Management of the institutions where a woman works can provide an open-minded working atmosphere for female staff to fulfill her potential, and family (especially husband and children) can create social support. It is pivotal for female staffs to get all supports they need in order to reduce multiple role conflict as well as perform their roles as wives, mother and carreer women . Working environment needs to be conducive because working conflict will influence work-related outcomes such as job satisfaction, motivation, commitment to ogranization and working performance . Based on the elaboration, the object of the research is Islamic bank married female staffs. The study attempts at analyzing the effect of social support (family support and working environment) towards multiple role conflict or work-family conflict, job motivation and staff’s commitment to organization. To guarantee that the findings of the study represent the characteristics of the model testing of social support for career woman, all married female Islamic bank staffs in Malang become respondents and are asked to give an honest and objective description about what they feel and their experience working as staffs in the Islamic banks in Malang. Result of hypothesis testing is analyzed based on the theories of gender, feminism and conflict by the support of role exchange theory, job motivation and also orientation of cultural value existed in the society. The success of career woman can be achieved if there is strong social support to create a balance in domestic and public area that minimizes conflict because of multiple roles a career woman has. Social support is analyzed based on the forms of social supports female staffs have namely: a) emotional support, b) instrumental support, c) information support, and d) appraisal support that eventually result, job motivation and commitment toward organization. Multiple role conflict or work family conflict consist of three indicators. Those are time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavioral basedconflict in the accomplishment of job. As an addition, job motivation measured is based on the needs for achievement, power the female staff gain and afiliation. Finally, commitment to organization consists of three dimensions namely afective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment.
3. Research Method The study is categorized as explanatory research or hypothesis-testing through quantitative approach. The subjects or research populations are 146 married female staffs working in the Islamic banks located in Malang. The sampling method is census sampling method. The data collection methods are a closed-ended questionnaire instrument with the five- point Likert scale or an open questionnaire to enrich analysis for the discussion, documentation and interviews. Several enumerators, mentioned previously, are used to help the process of data collection. The data analysis process uses SEM analysis and GeSCA software. Social support is analyzed based on the four types of social support namely a) emotional support, b) instrumental support, c) information support and d) appraisal support that are expected to create job motivation and commitment to organization. Multiple role conflict or workfamily conflict consists of three indicators. Those are time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavioral-based conflict in their job accomplishment. Next, job motivation is measured based on the need for achievement, to gain power and for affiliation. Commitment to organization consists of three dimensions, afective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment.
4. Findings and Discussion 4.1. Result of GeSCA Analysis Complete result of GeSCA model from each variable is presented in Table 4.1 as follow:
Table 4.1. Model of GeSCA
The structural model shows that combination of social support, work conflict and job motivation to explain variance in commitment to organization is 67.9%. Coeficient line of 0.373 (CR=3.97) from social support toward commitment to organization is considered significant. Commitment to organization will increase as the effect of high social support. Coeficient line of 0.097 (CR=1.86) from multiple role conflict towards commitment to organization is considered not significant. It means commitment to organization cannot be explained directly by role conflict. The result of the data analysis concering an increase in commitment to organization as the effect of an increase/ decrease in multiple role conflict cannot be generalized using other unalyzed samples. In other words, increasing commitment to organization does not always become the influence of high multiple role conflict. Coeficient line of 0.484 (CR=5.30) from job motivation toward commitment to organization is considered significant. It means commitment to organization increase as the result of high working motivation. Based on the coeficient line, the most dominant role that influences commitment to organization is job motivation.
4.2. Model of Measurement Purpose of the model of measurement is to test the connection between each indicator towards latent construction in the structural model. In terms of the connection between the indicators and the construct that with reflective nature, loading factor is derived from loading factors value. The biggest loading indicator explains that the strongest latent construct builds the indicator. In reflextive indicator, loading factor is 0.50 or shows that the indicator has great validation to measure the latent variable. The measurement of the SMC (Square Multiple Correlation) is only conducted to the reflextive indicator. Interpretation of SMC score is the amount of contribution the latent variable has to form indicator. Formative connection between indicator and construct will be taken from the weight value. The coeficient in each indicator cannot be compared since it is not standardized. The latent construct will be strongly built by significant indicator (CR>2). Table 4.2 describes the complete result.
Table 4.2. GeSCA Model of Measurement
Social support substantively is predicted by the amount of emotional support (X1.1), intrumental support (X1.2) and self appraisal support (X1.4). The coefficients of the three indicators are 0.255, 0.177 and 0.611. The fourth formative indicator can only be measured using the Cronbach Alpha and the coeficient is 0.844 (bigger than 0.60); thus, it is considered as acceptable. The main indicator that is used to measure social support is how big emotional, informative and appraisal support the married female staffs of the Islamic banks in Malang accept. Substantively role conflict measurement level is based upon conflict-based indicator (Y1.1), strain-based conflict (Y1.2), and behaviorbased conflict (Y1.3). The loading factors of the three indicators are 0.370, 0.338 and 0.342. The AVE of the three indicators is 0.908 (bigger than 0.50) and the Cronbach Alpha coefficient is 0.949 (bigger than 0.60); thus, it is considered as acceptable. To measure role conflict, the main indicators are used; they are the conflict that is related to time pressure, job pressure and behavior pressure from the job toward behavior of the Islamic banks married female staff in Malang. Job motivation is measured substantively based on the following indicators, need of achievement (Y 3.1), need of power (Y3.2) and need of affiliation (Y3.3). The loading factors for the three indicators are 0.455, 0.324 and 0.351. The AVE value for the three is 0.761 (more than 0.50) and the coeficient of Cronbach Alpha is 0.843 (more than 0.60); thus, it is considered acceptable. To measure job motivation, the main indicators used are how high the need of achievement, power and affiliation of the married female staffs of the Islamic banks in Malang are. Substantively, commitment to organization can be explained in a more detailed manner using afective commitment (Y4.1) and continuous commitment (Y4.2). The coefficients for both indicators are 0.305 and 0.47. The third formative indicator can only be measured using the coeficient of Cronbach Alpha that is 0.904 (bigger than 0.60); it is considered as acceptable. The main indicator used to measure the commitment to organization is how high affective and continuous commitments of the married female staffs of the Islamic banks in Malang.
4.3. Result of Hipothesis Testing and Discussion Based on the result of the hypothesis testing result, the results and discussions are elaborated as follow: H1: High social support will reduce multiple role conflict. The coeficient line of -0.085 (CR=0.91) from social support towards multiple role conflict is not significant (CR<2). Negative coeficient line shows that high social support will reduce the level of multiple role conflict. However, the hypothesis testing also shows that higher social support (family and working environment) does not always reduce multiple role conflict. H1 in this research is not acceptable. The findings of the study support of equilibrium and feminism theory, that focussed on equality partner and harmonic in family. In order eliminate multiple role conflict female staffs in Islamic banks. It shows that social support from family or working environment does not automatically reduce multiple roles of the Islamic banking female staffs. It happens simply because multiple role conflict is mostly dominated by time-based conflict. No matter how big social support the staffs get, it cannot decrease multiple role conflict because of the pressure of working time towards family. Islamic banks have long hour; it starts 07.00 a.m. to 5 p.m. and sometimes the staffs have to work overtime. The result supported of role exchange theory between husband and wife. The findings do not support the studies conducted by ; , and also a meta-anlysis research that stated high social support in working environment will reduce work-family conflict.  reveals that long working hour conflict will cause high work-family conflict (WFC). The findings of the study supports Herlina’s study that states career woman who is not able to balance work and family must pay some cost that is inability to manage both family and career well. No matter how big social support one, multiple role conflict will still occur because of the limited time for their family . The findings also support findings of Cinnamon and Rich’s study that reveals it is easier for career woman to experience multiple role conflict or work-family conflict . H2: Higher social support will raise commitment to organization. The coefficient line is 0.373 that makes the influence of social support toward commitment to organization is significant (CR>2). Higher social support will raise commitment to organization, so the H2 hyphothesis is accepted. The findings of the study support that stated that the high of social support will affect commitment to organization level ; . The study support of expectation theory by Victor H. Vroom, that said that work to gain reward. So social supprt especallly husband will increase commitment to organization. H3: High job motivation will increase commitment to organization. The coefficient line is 0.484 that makes the influence of working motivation towards commitment to organization is significant (CR > 2). High job motivation is going to increase commitment to organization so that H3 is accepted. The findings of the study support role exchange theory likely husband subtitute wife role in family, so female staffs in Islamic banks high commitment to organization (affective commitment). Those of the previous studies conducted by ; . H4: Higher multiple role conflict will decrease commitment to organization. The coefficient line is 0.087 that makes the influence of multiple role conflict towards commitment to organization is not significant (CR < 2). High multiple role conflict does not necessarily increase commitment to organization or vice-versa so that H4 Hypothesis is rejected or not accepted. The result of Mc Clelland’s  motivation theory (n Ach), that job motivation of female staffs Islamic banks to achive in job and to increase organizational involvement. This findings show that the career women work in Islamic banking is logical. They think being a career woman is their life choice no matter risk it may take because working is devotion to God and the multiple role conflict is dominantly caused by the pressure of working hour towards family. It may reduce the time for family (it happens in terms of quantity but the quality is still well-managed since their husbands or parents are willing to replace their tasks at home through compromized role exchange between husband and wife). As a result, continuous commitment of the Islamic banks married female staffs is relatively high after weighing the profit and loss to stay in the organization and having the same vision and mission with the organization. Having the same vision and mission with the working place is the highest model of affective commitment of the female staffs toward organization . It supports Coleman’s rational choice theory that reveals clearly seen that someone act is derived from a goal, and the goal is able to be formulated into an act that is determined by some preferences or choices in order to fulfil their need and wishes . That is why even though higher multiple role conflict takes place, it cannot automatically reduce the commitment to organization (that is dominated by affective commitment. In other words, even though pressure of working hour happens continuously, their commitment remains high. It is based on the fact that female staff chooses to keep working as career woman in Islamic banks despite of all risks they have to bear because it has already become their choice.
5. Conclusions The findings of the study reveal that the higher social support is, the less multiple role conflict families with working mothers have (H1). H2 hypothesis states that the higher social support is, the higher commitment to organization the female staffs have. In addition, H3 hypothesis explains that high working motivation results in high commitment to organization. Finally, H4 hypothesis that reveals high multiple role conflict decreases commitment to organization is rejected.
6. Recommendations Some suggestions given by the researcher are as follow: The first is insignificant and negative effects of social support towards multiple roles of conflict show that an idea the individual characteristic (the Islamic bank female staffs) keeps in mind is the point of view that working means praying; the point of view is detrimental to build afective commitment in the future. It is expected that the affective commitment can be developed again. Next, the study should be conducted in conventional banks so that one can compare the result of social support analysis result in career woman, from multiple role conflict aspect (whether it is studied from work-family conflict or familywork conflict) working in Islamic banks and conventional bank. The second is insignificant effect between multiple role conflict towards job motivation and multiple role conflict toward commitment to organization. It requires careful consideration from Islamic bank management. The management, more particularly human resource department, should increase married woman’s career competence from (through education and training) in order to increase their commitment which is based on the same organizational vision and mission (affective commitment). Finally, Islamic banks should conduct product diversification of Islamic banking so that they can compete with the conventional banks which have already been established earlier and developed quickly.
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