# Python Guide Documentation - Read the Docs

Python Guide Documentation Publicación 0.0.1

Kenneth Reitz

07 de November de 2017

Índice general

1. Empezando con Python 1.1. Eligiendo un Interprete Python (3 vs. 2) 1.2. Instalando Python Correctamente . . . 1.3. Instalando Python 3 en Mac OS X . . . 1.4. Instalando Python 3 en Windows . . . 1.5. Instalando Python 3 en Linux . . . . . 1.6. Installing Python 2 on Mac OS X . . . 1.7. Instalando Python 2 en Windows . . . 1.8. Installing Python 2 on Linux . . . . . . 1.9. Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales . . . . . 1.10. Un nivel más bajo: virtualenv . . . . .

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3 3 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 17

2. Ambientes de Desarrollo de Python 2.1. Your Development Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Further Configuration of Pip and Virtualenv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21 21 26

3. Escribiendo Buen Código Python 3.1. Estructurando tu Proyecto . 3.2. Code Style . . . . . . . . . 3.3. Reading Great Code . . . . 3.4. Documentation . . . . . . . 3.5. Testing Your Code . . . . . 3.6. Logging . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7. Common Gotchas . . . . . 3.8. Choosing a License . . . . .

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4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python 4.1. Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. Web Applications & Frameworks . . . . 4.3. HTML Scraping . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4. Command-line Applications . . . . . . . 4.5. GUI Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6. Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7. Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8. Systems Administration . . . . . . . . . 4.9. Continuous Integration . . . . . . . . . . 4.10. Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11. Scientific Applications . . . . . . . . . .

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65 65 66 72 74 75 77 78 79 84 85 91

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I

4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. 4.16. 4.17. 4.18.

Image Manipulation . . . . . . . Data Serialization . . . . . . . . XML parsing . . . . . . . . . . . JSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cryptography . . . . . . . . . . . Machine Learning . . . . . . . . Interfacing with C/C++ Libraries

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. 93 . 95 . 95 . 96 . 97 . 98 . 100

5. Entregar Buen Código Python 103 5.1. Packaging Your Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.2. Freezing Your Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 6. Additional Notes 6.1. Introducción . . . . . 6.2. La Comunidad . . . . 6.3. Aprendiendo Python . 6.4. Documentación . . . . 6.5. News . . . . . . . . . 6.6. Contribute . . . . . . 6.7. License . . . . . . . . 6.8. The Guide Style Guide

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Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

Saludos, Terrícola! Bienvenido a la Guía Hitchhiker para Python. Esto es una guía activa. Si deseas contribuir, crea una copia en GitHub! Esta guía hecha a mano existe para proveer para ambos: novatos y expertos desarrolladores de Python un manual de mejores prácticas para instalación, configuración y uso de Python diariamente. Esta guía es obstinada en la manera que casi todo, pero no del todo, es diferente a la documentación oficial de Python. No encontrarás una lista de cada framwork web disponible aquí. Más bien, encontrarás una lista concisa de opciones altamente recomendadas. Nota: El uso de Python 3 es altamente preferido sobre Python 2. Considera actualizar tus aplicaciones e infraestructura si te encuentras aún usando Python 2 en producción. Si estas usando Python 3, felicitaciones — eres de hecho una persona de excelente gusto. —Kenneth Reitz Vamos a empezar! Pero primero, vamos a asegurarnos que sabes donde estas.

Índice general

1

Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

2

Índice general

CAPÍTULO 1

Empezando con Python

Nuevo con Python? Vamos a configurar correctamente tu ambiente Python.

Eligiendo un Interprete Python (3 vs. 2) El estado de Python (3 & 2) Cuando vamos a elegir un interprete de Python, una pregunta esta siempre presente: “Debo elegir Python 2 o Python 3”? La respuesta no esta tan obvia como uno podría pensar. La esencia básica de las cosas es la siguiente: 1. La mayoría de aplicación en producción de hoy usan Python 2.7. 2. Python 3 está listo para despliegues en producción de aplicaciones de hoy en día. 3. Python 2.7 sólo recibirá actualizaciones de seguridad necesarias hasta el 2020 6 . 4. La marca “Python” encapsúla ambos Python 3 y Python 2.

Recommendaciones Nota: El uso de Python 3 es altamente preferido sobre Python 2. Considera actualizar tus aplicaciones e infraestructura si aún te encuentras usando Python 2 en producción ahora. Si estás usando Python 3, felicitaciones — ya eres una persona con excelente gusto. —Kenneth Reitz Voy a ser franco: Usa Python 3 para nuevas aplicaciones Python. Si estás aprendiendo Python por primera vez, familiarizarte con Python 2.7 será muy útil, pero no más útil que aprender Python 3. Aprende ambos. Ambos son “Python”. Software que ya esta creado a menudo depende de Python 2.7. 6

http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0373/#id2

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Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

Si estas escribiendo una nueva librería open source de Python, lo mejor es escribirla para ambos Python 2 y 3 simultáneamente. Sólo soportar Python 3 para una nueva librería que deseas que sea ampliamente adoptada es una desición política y alejará a muchos usuarios. Esto no es un problema — lentamente, durante los próximos tres años, estos casos serán menos.

Asi que.... 3? Si esta eligiendo un interprete de Python para usar, Te recomiendo usar el Python 3.x más nuevo, ya que cada versión trae nuevos y mejorados módulos de la librería estandar, seguridad y correcciones de errores. Dado esto, sólo usa Python 2 si tienes una fuerte razón para, tal como código base pre existente, una librería exclusiva de Python 2, simplicidad/familiaridad, o, de seguro, tu absolutamente lo amas y estás inspirado por Python 2. No hay daño en eso. Revisa Puedo usar Python 3? para ver si el software del que dependes bloqueará tu adopción de Python 3. Otras lecturas Es posible escribir código que funcionará en Python 2.6, 2.7, y Python 3. Estos rangos de trivial a difícil dependerá del tipo de software que estás escribiendo; si eres principiante hay cosas más importantes por las que preocuparse.

4

http://pypy.org/compat.html

Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python

Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

Jython Jython es una implementación de Python que compila código Python a Java bytecode que es ejecutado por la JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Adicionalmente, esta habilitado para importar y usar cualquier clase de Java como un módulo de Python. Si necesitas interactuar con código Java o tienes otras razones para escribir código Python para la JVM, Jython es tu mejor opción. Jython actualmente soporta hasta Python 2.7. 2 IronPython IronPython es una implementación de Python para el framework .NET. Puede ser usada por ambas librerías Python y .NET framework, y también puede exponer código Pytohn para otros lenguajes en el framwork .NET. Python Tools para Visual Studio integra IronPython directamente en el ambiente de desarrollo Visual Studio,convirtiéndolo en una elección ideal para desarrolladores Windows. IronPython soporta Python 2.7. 3 PythonNet Python for .NET es un paquete que provee una integración sin puntos rotos de una instalación de Python con una instalación de .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR). Es un enfoque inverso al tomado por IronPython (ver antes), lo que es es más complementario que competitivo. Junto con Mono, pythonnet activa soporte nativo de instalaciones de Python en sistemas operativos no-Windows, tales como OS X y Linux, para operar con el framework .NET. Puede ser ejecutado junto con IronPython sin conflicto. Pythonnet soporta desde Python 2.6 hasta Python 3.5. 4

5

Instalación de Python

1.2 Instalando Python Correctamente Hay una buena oportunidad que ya tengas instalado Python en tu sistema operativo. Si es así, no necesitas instalar o configurar nada más para usar Python. Dicho esto, te recomiendo que instales las herramientas y librerías descritas más abajo en la guía libraries antes de empezar a construir applicaciones Python para el uso en el mundo real. En particular, siempre debes instalar Setuptools, Pip, y Virtualenv — hacen más fácil para ti usar otras librerías Python de terceros. Nota: El uso de Python 3 es altamente preferido sobre Python 2. Considera actualizar tus aplicaciones e infraestructura si te encuentras aún usando Python 2 en producción hoy. Si ya estas usando Python 3, felicitaciones — ya eres una persona con excelente gusto. —Kenneth Reitz 2 3 4 5

http://hg.python.org/jython/file/412a8f9445f7/NEWS http://ironpython.codeplex.com/releases/view/81726 http://travis-ci.org/pythonnet/pythonnet http://ci.appveyor.com/project/TonyRoberts/pythonnet-480xs

1.2. Instalando Python Correctamente

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Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

Guías de Instalación Esta guía trata sobre la correcta instalación de Python para propósitos de desarrollo, tanto como instalación de setuptools, pip y virtualenv.

Python 3 en MacOS. Python 3 en Windows. Python 3 en Linux. Legacy Python 2 Guías de Instalación Python 2 en MacOS. Python 2 en Microsoft Windows. Python 2 en Linux.

Instalando Python 3 en Mac OS X La última versión de Mac OS X, Sierra, viene con Python 2.7 por defecto. Tu no necesitas instalar o configurar nada más para usar Python 2. Estas instrucciones documentan la instalación de Python 3. La versión que viene con OS X está bien para aprendizaje, pero no es lo mejor para desarrollo. La versión enviada con OS X puede estar desactualizada de la publicación oficial actual de Python, que es considerada la versión estable para producción.

Hacerlo Bien Vamos a instalar una versión real de Python. Antes de instalar Python, necesitarás instalar GCC. GCC puede obtenerse descargandolo desde XCode, las pequeñas Herramientas de línea de comandos (debes tener una cuenta Apple) o incluso el más pequeño paquete Instalador-OSX-GCC. Nota: Si ya tienes instalado XCode, no necesitas instalar OSX-GCC. En combinación, el software puede causar problemas que son difíciles de diagnosticar.

Nota: Si realizas una instalación nueva de XCode, también necesitarás agregar las herramientas de línea de comandos ejecutando xcode-select --install en el terminal. Mientras OS X viene con un gran número de utilidades UNIX, quienes están familiarizados con sistemas Linux se darán cuenta que hay un componente que falta: un manejador de paquetes. Homebrew resuelve este problema. Para instalar Homebrew, abrir Terminal o tu emulador de terminal favorito para OSX y ejecutar

6

Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python

Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

$ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL http://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

El script explicará que cambios hará y te preguntará antes que la instalación inicie. Una vez que has instalado Homebrew, inserta el directorio de Homebrew al inicio de tu variable de ambiente PATH. Puedes hacer esto agregando la siguiente línea al final de tu archivo ~/.profile export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH Ahora, podemos instalar Python 3:$ brew install python3

Esto tomará uno o dos minutos.

Pip Homebrew instala pip3 por ti. pip3 es un alias para pip apuntando al Python 3 de Homebrew.

Trabajando con Python 3 A este punto, tiene Python 2.7 disponible, potencialmente la versión Homebrew de Python 2 instalado, y la versión Homebrew de Python 3 también. $python lanzará el interprete de Python.$ python2

lanzará el interprete homebrew de Python 2 (si hay alguno). $python3 lanzará el interprete homebrew de Python 3 instalado. Si la versión Homebrew de Python 2 está instalada entonces pip2 apuntará a Python 2. Si la versión Homebrew de Python 3 está instalada entonces pip3 apuntará a Python 3. Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales El siguiente paso es instalar Pipenv, con esto puedes instalar dependencias y manejar ambientes virtuales. Un ambiente virtual es una herramienta para mantener las dependencias requeridas por diferentes proyectos en lugares separados, creando ambientes virtuales para esos proyectos. Resuelve el dilema de “El Proyecto X depende de la versión 1.x pero, el Proyecto Y necesita 4.x”, y mantiene tu directorio global site-packages limpio y administrable. Por ejemplo, puedes trabajar en un proyecto que requiere Django 1.10 mientras también mantienes un proyecto que requiere Django 1.8. Por lo que en adelante, la documentación para Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales Esta página es un mezcla de otra guía, que está disponible bajo la misma licencia. 1.3. Instalando Python 3 en Mac OS X 7 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Instalando Python 3 en Windows Primero, descarga la última versión de Python 3.6 desde el sitio oficial. Si deseas estar seguro que esas instalando una versión totalmente actualizada, clic en en link de Downloads > Windows de la página inicial de sitio web de Python.org . Por diseño, Python instala en un directorio con la versión embebida p.ej. la versión de Python 3.6 se instalará en C:\Python36\, así que puedes tener múltiples versiones de Python en el mismo sistema sin conflictos. De seguro, sólo un interprete puede ser la aplicación por defecto para los archivos de tipo Python. Esto no modifica automáticamente la variable de ambiente PATH, así que siempre tienes el control sobre que copia de Python correr. Escribir la ruta completa para el interprete de Python interpreter puede convertirse en algo tedioso, así que agregar los directorios de tu versión por defecto de Python a la variable PATH. Asumiendo que tu instalación de Python está en C:\Python36\, agrega esto a tu PATH: C:\Python36\;C:\Python36\Scripts\ Tu puedes hacerlo facilmente ejecutando lo siguiente en powershell: [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("Path", "$env:Path;C:\Python36\;C:\Python36\Scripts\", "Us

Esto también es una opción durante el proceso de instalación. El segundo (Scripts) directorio recibe archivos de comandos cuando algunos paquetes son instalados, es muy útil agregarlo. Tu no necesitas instalar o configurar nada mas para usar Python. Dicho eso, Te recomiendo que instales las herramientas y librerías descritas en la siguiente sección antes de empezar a construir aplicaciones Python para uso en el mundo real. En particular, siempre debes instalar Setuptools, ya que hace mucho más fácil usar librerías Python de terceros.

Trabajando con Python 3 En este punto, también debes tener instalado Python 2.7. $python Esto ejecutará el interprete de Python 2.$ python3

Esto ejecutará el interprete de Python 3.

Setuptools + Pip El software Python de terceros más crucial de todos es Setuptools, que extiende las facilidaes de empaquetado e instalación entregadas por disutils en la librería estandar. Una vez que agregas Setuptools a tu sistema Python puedes descargar e instalar cualquier software Python compatible con solo un comando. También te permite agregar capacidades de instalación en red a tu software Pytohn con muy poco trabajo. Para obtener la última versión de Setuptools para Windows, ejecuta el script de Python disponible aquí: ez_setup.py Ahora tendrás un nuevo comando disponible: easy_install. Es considerado por muchos obsoleto, asi que vamos a instalar su reemplazo: pip. Pip te permite desinstalar paquetes, y es activamente mantenido, no como easy_install. Para instalar pip, ejecuta el script de Python disponible aquí: get-pip.py 8

Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python

Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1

Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales El siguiente paso es instalar Pipenv, así puedes instalar dependencias y gestionar ambientes virtuales. Un ambiente virtual, es una herramienta para mantener las dependencias requeridas por diferentes proyectos en lugares separados, creando un ambiente virtual de Python para cada uno. Resuelve el dilema de “el Projecto X depende de la versión 1.x pero, el Proyecto Y necesita 4.x”, y mantiene tu directorio de site-packages limpio y administrable. Por ejemplo, puedes trabajar en un proyecto que requiere Django 1.10 mientras también mantienes un proyecto que requiere Django 1.8. Entonces, adelante! a la documentación de Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales

Esta página es una mezcla de la versión another guide, que está disponible bajo la misma licencia.

Instalando Python 3 en Linux Este documento describe como instalar Python 3.6 en máquinas Ubuntu Linux. Para ver que versión de Python 3 tienes instalada, abre una terminal y ejecuta $python3 --version Si estás usando Ubuntu 16.10 o uno más nuevo, entonces puedes fácilmente instalar Python 3.6 con los siguientes comandos:$ sudo apt-get update $sudo apt-get install python3.6 Si estás usando otra versión de Ubuntu (p.ej. el último release LTS), recomendamos usar el deadsnakes PPA para instalar Python 3.6:$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:fkrull/deadsnakes $sudo apt-get update$ sudo apt-get install python3.6

Si estáß usando otra distribución de Linux, hay posibilidades que ya tengas Python 3 pre-instalado también. Si no, usa el manejador de paquetes de tu dsitribución. Por ejemplo en Fedora, deberás usar dnf : $sudo dnf install python3 Mira si la versión del paquete de python3 no es lo suficientemente actual para ti, habrá modos de instalar versiones más recientes también, dependiendo de tu distribución. Por ejemplo instalando el paquete python36 en Fedora 25 para tener Python 3.6. Si eres un usuario Fedora, talvez quieras leer sobre ‘multiple Python versions available in Fedora‘_. Trabajando con Python 3 En este punto, puedes tener Python 2.7 disponible también.$ python

Esto lanzará el interprete de Python 2.

1.5. Instalando Python 3 en Linux

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$python3 Esto lanzará el interprete de Python 3. Setuptools & Pip Los dos paquetes de terceros de Python más cruciales son setuptools y pip. Una vez instalado, puedes descargar, instalar y desinstalar cualquier software de Python compatible con sólo un comando. También agrega capacidad para instalación sobre red para tu softwware Python con muy poco trabajo. Python 2.7.9 y posteriores (en la serie python2), y Python 3.4 y posteriores incluido pip por defecto. Para ver si pip está instalado, abre una terminal y ejecuta$ command -v pip

Para instalar pip, sigue la guía oficial de instalación de pip - esto instalará automáticamente la última versión de setuptools. Ten en cuenta que en algunas distribuciones Linux incluida Ubuntu y Fedora el comando pip funciona con Python 2, mientras que el comando pip3 funciona para Python 3. $command -v pip3 Sin embargo, cuando usas ambientes virtuales (descritos a continuación), no necesitas preocuparte sobre eso. Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales El siguiente paso es instalar Pipenv, con esto puedes instalar dependencias y manejar ambientes virtuales. Un ambiente virtual es una herramienta para mantener las dependencias requeridas por diferentes proyectos en lugares separados, creando ambientes virtuales para esos proyectos. Resuelve el dilema de “El Proyecto X depende de la versión 1.x pero, el Proyecto Y necesita 4.x”, y mantiene tu directorio global site-packages limpio y administrable. Por ejemplo, puedes trabajar en un proyecto que requiere Django 1.10 mientras también mantienes un proyecto que requiere Django 1.8. Por lo que en adelante, la documentación para Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales Esta página es un mezcla de otra guía, que está disponible bajo la misma licencia. Installing Python 2 on Mac OS X Nota: Check out our guide for installing Python 3 on OS X. The latest version of Mac OS X, Sierra, comes with Python 2.7 out of the box. You do not need to install or configure anything else to use Python. Having said that, I would strongly recommend that you install the tools and libraries described in the next section before you start building 10 Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Python applications for real-world use. In particular, you should always install Setuptools, as it makes it much easier for you to install and manage other third-party Python libraries. The version of Python that ships with OS X is great for learning, but it’s not good for development. The version shipped with OS X may be out of date from the official current Python release, which is considered the stable production version. Doing it Right Let’s install a real version of Python. Before installing Python, you’ll need to install a C compiler. The fastest way is to install the Xcode Command Line Tools by running xcode-select --install. You can also download the full version of Xcode from the Mac App Store, or the minimal but unofficial OSX-GCC-Installer package. Nota: If you already have XCode installed, do not install OSX-GCC-Installer. In combination, the software can cause issues that are difficult to diagnose. Nota: If you perform a fresh install of XCode, you will also need to add the commandline tools by running xcode-select --install on the terminal. While OS X comes with a large number of UNIX utilities, those familiar with Linux systems will notice one key component missing: a decent package manager. Homebrew fills this void. To install Homebrew, open Terminal or your favorite OSX terminal emulator and run$ /usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL http://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/insta The script will explain what changes it will make and prompt you before the installation begins. Once you’ve installed Homebrew, insert the Homebrew directory at the top of your PATH environment variable. You can do this by adding the following line at the bottom of your ~/.profile file export PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH

Now, we can install Python 2.7: $brew install python or Python 3:$ brew install python3

This will take a minute or two. Homebrew names the executable python2 so that you can still run the system Python via the executable python. $python -V$ python2 -V $python3 -V # system Python interpreter # Homebrew installed Python 2 interpreter # Homebrew installed Python 3 interpreter (if installed) Setuptools & Pip Homebrew installs Setuptools and pip for you. 1.6. Installing Python 2 on Mac OS X 11 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Setuptools enables you to download and install any compliant Python software over a network (usually the Internet) with a single command (easy_install). It also enables you to add this network installation capability to your own Python software with very little work. pip is a tool for easily installing and managing Python packages, that is recommended over easy_install. It is superior to easy_install in several ways, and is actively maintained.$ pip2 -V $pip3 -V # pip pointing to the Homebrew installed Python 2 interpreter # pip pointing to the Homebrew installed Python 3 interpreter (if installed) Virtual Environments A Virtual Environment (commonly referred to as a ‘virtualenv’) is a tool to keep the dependencies required by different projects in separate places, by creating virtual Python environments for them. It solves the “Project X depends on version 1.x but, Project Y needs 4.x” dilemma, and keeps your global site-packages directory clean and manageable. For example, you can work on a project which requires Django 1.10 while also maintaining a project which requires Django 1.8. To start using this and see more information: Virtual Environments docs. This page is a remixed version of another guide, which is available under the same license. Instalando Python 2 en Windows Primero, descarga la última versión de Python 2.7 del sitio oficial. Si deseas estar seguro que estas instalando una versión totalmente actualizada, clic el link de Descargas > Windows desde la página oficial Python.org web site . La versión de Windows se entrega com un paquete MSI. Para instalarlo manualmente, sólo da doble clic al archivo. El paquete de formato MSI permite a los administradores Windows automatizar la instalación con sus herramientas estándar. Por diseño, Python se instala en un directorio con el número de versión embebido, p.ej. Python 2.7 se instalará en C:\Python27\, así tu puedes tener multiples versiones de Python en el mimso sistema sin conflictos. De seguro, solo un interprete puede ejecutar por defecto los archivos de tipo Python. Eso tampoco se hace automáticamente modificar la PATH variable de ambiente, así tu puedes tener siempre el control sobre que copia de Python esta corriendo. Escribir la ruta completa del interprete Python cada vez es tedioso, así que agrega los directorios para tu versión por defecto de Python a PATH. Asumiendo que tu instalación de Python está en C:\Python27\, agrega esto a tu PATH: C:\Python27\;C:\Python27\Scripts\ Puedes ahcer rápidamente ejecutando lo siguiente en powershell: [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("Path", "$env:Path;C:\Python27\;C:\Python27\Scripts\", "Us

Esta también es una opción durante el proceso de instalación. El segundo (Scripts) directorio recibe archivos de comando cuando ciertos paquetes están instalados, así que es algo muy útil. No necesitas instalar o configurar nada más para usar Python. Dicho eso, voy a recomendar que instales las herramientas y librerías descritas en la siguiente sección antes de empezar 12

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a constriur aplicaciones Python para su uso en el mundo real. En particular, tu siempre debes instalar Setuptools, ya que lo hace mucho más fácil para ti usar otras librerías Python de terceros.

Setuptools + Pip La librería Python de terceros más crucial de toda es Setuptools, que extiende las facilidades de empaquetado e instalación entregadas por distutils en la librería estándar. Una vez que agregas Setuptools a tu sistema Python tu puedes descargar e instalar cualquier software Python compatible con un simple comando. También te permite capacidades de instalación en red a tu propio software Python con muy poco trabajo. Para obtener la última versión de Setuptools para Windows, corre el script Python disponible aquí: ez_setup.py Tu ahora tienes un nuevo comando disponible: easy_install. Es considerado por muchos como obsoleto, así que instalaremos su reemplazo: pip. Pip permite desinstalación de paquetes, y esta siendo activamente mantenido, no como easy_install. Para instalar pip, ejecuta el script de Python disponible aquí: get-pip.py

Ambientes Virtuales Un ambiente virtual es una herramienta para mantener lsa dependencias requeridas por diferentes proyectos en lugares separados, creando ambientes Python virtuales para ellos. Esto resuelve el dilema de “El Proyecto X depende de la versión 1.x pero, el Proyecto Y necesita 4.x”, y mantiene tu directorio site-packages global limpio y administrable. Por ejemplo, puedes trabajar en un proyecto que requiere Django 1.10 mientras también mantener un proyecto que require Django 1.8. Para empezar a usarlo y ver más imformación: Virtual Environments documentación.

Esta página es una mezcla de otra guía, que esta disponible bajo la misma licencia.

Installing Python 2 on Linux The latest versions of CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and Ubuntu come with Python 2.7 out of the box. To see which version of Python you have installed, open a command prompt and run $python2 --version However, with the growing popularity of Python 3, some distributions, such as Fedora, don’t come with Python 2 pre-installed. You can install the python2 package with your distribution package manager:$ sudo dnf install python2

You do not need to install or configure anything else to use Python. Having said that, I would strongly recommend that you install the tools and libraries described in the next section before you start building Python applications for real-world use. In particular, you should always install Setuptools and pip, as it makes it much easier for you to use other third-party Python libraries.

1.8. Installing Python 2 on Linux

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Setuptools & Pip The two most crucial third-party Python packages are setuptools and pip. Once installed, you can download, install and uninstall any compliant Python software product with a single command. It also enables you to add this network installation capability to your own Python software with very little work. Python 2.7.9 and later (on the python2 series), and Python 3.4 and later include pip by default. To see if pip is installed, open a command prompt and run $command -v pip To install pip, follow the official pip installation guide - this will automatically install the latest version of setuptools. Virtual Environments A Virtual Environment is a tool to keep the dependencies required by different projects in separate places, by creating virtual Python environments for them. It solves the “Project X depends on version 1.x but, Project Y needs 4.x” dilemma, and keeps your global site-packages directory clean and manageable. For example, you can work on a project which requires Django 1.10 while also maintaining a project which requires Django 1.8. To start using this and see more information: Virtual Environments docs. You can also use virtualenvwrapper to make it easier to manage your virtual environments. This page is a remixed version of another guide, which is available under the same license. Usando Virtualenvs con Pipenv: Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales Este tutorial te llevará a traves de la instalación y uso de paquetes Python. Te va a mostrar como instalar y usar las herramientas necesarias y hacerte fuertes recomendaciones en las mejores prácticas. Ten en cuenta que Python es usado para grandes y diferentes propósitos, y precisamente cómo deseas manejar tus dependencias puede cambiar basado en como decides publicar tu software. La guía presentada está directamente aplicada al desarrollo y despliegue de servicios de red (incluyendo aplicaciones web), pero también esta muy adecuada para administrar ambientes de prueba y desarrollo para cualquier tipo de proyecto. Nota: Esta guía está escrita para Python 3, aunque, estas instrucciones deberían trabajar bien en Python 2.7—si aún lo estas usando, por alguna razón. Asegúrate que tienes Python & pip Antes de ir más lejos, asegurate que tienes Python y que está disponible desde tu línea de comandos. Puedes revisar esto sólo ejecutando: 14 Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1$ python --version

Debes obtener algún resultado como 3.6.2. Si no tienes Python, por favor instala la última versión desde python.org o refierete a la sección ‘Instalando Python‘_ de esta guía. Nota: Si eres novato y tienes un error como este: >>> python Traceback (most recent call last): File "", line 1, in NameError: name 'python' is not defined

Es porque este comando esta tratando de ser ejecutado en una shell (también llamada terminal o consola). Mira la sección Para Novatos getting started tutorial para una introducción de cómo usar tu shell del sistema operativo e interactuar con Python. Además, necesitarás asegurarte que tienes pip disponible. Puedes revisar esto ejecutando: $pip --version Si instalaste Python desde la fuente, con un instalador desde python.org, o vía Homebrew ya deberías tener pip. Si estas usando Linux e instalaste usando tu manejador de paquetes del sistema operativo, talves tengas que instalar pip por separado. Instalando Pipenv Pipenv es un manejador de dependencias para proyectos Python. Si estas familiarizado con Node.js’ npm o bundler de Ruby, es similiar en el espíritu de estas herramientas. Mientras pip puede instalar paquetes Python, Pipenv es recomendado como una herramienta de lato nivel que simplifica la gestión de dependencias como casos de uso común. Usa pip para instalar Pipenv:$ pip install --user pipenv

Instalando Paquetes para tu Proyecto Pipenv manages dependencies on a per-project basis. To install packages, change into your project’s directory (or just an empty directory for this tutorial) and run:

1.9. Pipenv & Ambientes Virtuales

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$cd myproject$ pipenv install requests

Pipenv will install the excellent Requests library and create a Pipfile for you in your project’s directory. The Pipfile is used to track which dependencies your project needs in case you need to re-install them, such as when you share your project with others. You should get output similar to this (although the exact paths shown will vary): Creating a Pipfile for this project... Creating a virtualenv for this project... Using base prefix '/usr/local/Cellar/python3/3.6.2/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.6' New python executable in ~/.local/share/virtualenvs/tmp-agwWamBd/bin/python3.6 Also creating executable in ~/.local/share/virtualenvs/tmp-agwWamBd/bin/python Installing setuptools, pip, wheel...done. Virtualenv location: ~/.local/share/virtualenvs/tmp-agwWamBd Installing requests... Collecting requests Using cached requests-2.18.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl Collecting idna<2.7,>=2.5 (from requests) Using cached idna-2.6-py2.py3-none-any.whl Collecting urllib3<1.23,>=1.21.1 (from requests) Using cached urllib3-1.22-py2.py3-none-any.whl Collecting chardet<3.1.0,>=3.0.2 (from requests) Using cached chardet-3.0.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl Collecting certifi>=2017.4.17 (from requests) Using cached certifi-2017.7.27.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl Installing collected packages: idna, urllib3, chardet, certifi, requests Successfully installed certifi-2017.7.27.1 chardet-3.0.4 idna-2.6 requests-2.18.4 urllib3-1.22 Adding requests to Pipfile's [packages]... P.S. You have excellent taste!

Usando Paquetes Instalados Now that Requests is installed you can create a simple main.py file to use it: import requests response = requests.get('http://httpbin.org/ip') print('Your IP is {0}'.format(response.json()['origin']))

Then you can run this script using pipenv run: $pipenv run python main.py You should get output similar to this: Your IP is 8.8.8.8 Using$ pipenv run ensures that your installed packages are available to your script. It’s also possible to spawn a new shell that ensures all commands have access to your installed packages with $pipenv shell. Siguientes Pasos Congratulations, you now know how to install and use Python packages! 16 Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Un nivel más bajo: virtualenv virtualenv is a tool to create isolated Python environments. virtualenv creates a folder which contains all the necessary executables to use the packages that a Python project would need. It can be used standalone, in place of Pipenv. Install virtualenv via pip:$ pip install virtualenv

Test your installation $virtualenv --version 1. Create a virtual environment for a project:$ cd my_project_folder $virtualenv my_project virtualenv my_project will create a folder in the current directory which will contain the Python executable files, and a copy of the pip library which you can use to install other packages. The name of the virtual environment (in this case, it was my_project) can be anything; omitting the name will place the files in the current directory instead. This creates a copy of Python in whichever directory you ran the command in, placing it in a folder named my_project. You can also use the Python interpreter of your choice (like python2.7).$ virtualenv -p /usr/bin/python2.7 my_project

or change the interpreter globally with an env variable in ~/.bashrc: $export VIRTUALENVWRAPPER_PYTHON=/usr/bin/python2.7 2. To begin using the virtual environment, it needs to be activated:$ source my_project/bin/activate

The name of the current virtual environment will now appear on the left of the prompt (e.g. (my_project)Your-Computer:your_project UserName$) to let you know that it’s active. From now on, any package that you install using pip will be placed in the my_project folder, isolated from the global Python installation. Install packages as usual, for example:$ pip install requests

3. If you are done working in the virtual environment for the moment, you can deactivate it: $deactivate This puts you back to the system’s default Python interpreter with all its installed libraries. To delete a virtual environment, just delete its folder. (In this case, it would be rm -rf my_project.) After a while, though, you might end up with a lot of virtual environments littered across your system, and its possible you’ll forget their names or where they were placed. 1.10. Un nivel más bajo: virtualenv 17 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Running virtualenv with the option --no-site-packages will not include the packages that are installed globally. This can be useful for keeping the package list clean in case it needs to be accessed later. [This is the default behavior for virtualenv 1.7 and later.] In order to keep your environment consistent, it’s a good idea to “freeze” the current state of the environment packages. To do this, run$ pip freeze > requirements.txt

This will create a requirements.txt file, which contains a simple list of all the packages in the current environment, and their respective versions. You can see the list of installed packages without the requirements format using “pip list”. Later it will be easier for a different developer (or you, if you need to re-create the environment) to install the same packages using the same versions: $pip install -r requirements.txt This can help ensure consistency across installations, across deployments, and across developers. Lastly, remember to exclude the virtual environment folder from source control by adding it to the ignore list. virtualenvwrapper virtualenvwrapper provides a set of commands which makes working with virtual environments much more pleasant. It also places all your virtual environments in one place. To install (make sure virtualenv is already installed):$ pip install virtualenvwrapper $export WORKON_HOME=~/Envs$ source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh

(Full virtualenvwrapper install instructions.) For Windows, you can use the virtualenvwrapper-win. To install (make sure virtualenv is already installed): $pip install virtualenvwrapper-win In Windows, the default path for WORKON_HOME is %USERPROFILE %Envs Uso Básico 1. Create a virtual environment:$ mkvirtualenv my_project

This creates the my_project folder inside ~/Envs. 2. Work on a virtual environment: $workon my_project Alternatively, you can make a project, which creates the virtual environment, and also a project directory inside$PROJECT_HOME, which is cd -ed into when you workon myproject. $mkproject myproject 18 Capítulo 1. Empezando con Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 virtualenvwrapper provides tab-completion on environment names. It really helps when you have a lot of environments and have trouble remembering their names. workon also deactivates whatever environment you are currently in, so you can quickly switch between environments. 3. Deactivating is still the same:$ deactivate

4. To delete: $rmvirtualenv venv Otros comandos útiles lsvirtualenv List all of the environments. cdvirtualenv Navigate into the directory of the currently activated virtual environment, so you can browse its site-packages, for example. cdsitepackages Like the above, but directly into site-packages directory. lssitepackages Shows contents of site-packages directory. Full list of virtualenvwrapper commands. virtualenv-burrito With virtualenv-burrito, you can have a working virtualenv + virtualenvwrapper environment in a single command. autoenv When you cd into a directory containing a .env, autoenv automagically activates the environment. Install it on Mac OS X using brew:$ brew install autoenv

And on Linux: $git clone git://github.com/kennethreitz/autoenv.git ~/.autoenv$ echo 'source ~/.autoenv/activate.sh' >> ~/.bashrc

1.10. Un nivel más bajo: virtualenv

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CAPÍTULO 2

Ambientes de Desarrollo de Python

Esta parte de la guía se enfoca en el ambiente de desarrollo de Python, y las mejoras prácticas que estan disponibles para escribir código Python.

Your Development Environment Text Editors Just about anything that can edit plain text will work for writing Python code, however, using a more powerful editor may make your life a bit easier. Vim Vim is a text editor which uses keyboard shortcuts for editing instead of menus or icons. There are a couple of plugins and settings for the Vim editor to aid Python development. If you only develop in Python, a good start is to set the default settings for indentation and line-wrapping to values compliant with PEP 8. In your home directory, open a file called .vimrc and add the following lines: set set set set set set set

textwidth=79 shiftwidth=4 tabstop=4 expandtab softtabstop=4 shiftround autoindent

" " " " " " "

lines longer than 79 columns will be broken operation >> indents 4 columns; << unindents 4 columns a hard TAB displays as 4 columns insert spaces when hitting TABs insert/delete 4 spaces when hitting a TAB/BACKSPACE round indent to multiple of 'shiftwidth' align the new line indent with the previous line

With these settings, newlines are inserted after 79 characters and indentation is set to 4 spaces per tab. If you also use Vim for other languages, there is a handy plugin called indent, which handles indentation settings for Python source files. There is also a handy syntax plugin called syntax featuring some improvements over the syntax file included in Vim 6.1. These plugins supply you with a basic environment for developing in Python. To get the most out of Vim, you should continually check your code for syntax errors and PEP8 compliance. Luckily pycodestyle and Pyflakes will do this for you. If your Vim is compiled with +python you can also utilize some very handy plugins to do these checks from within the editor. For PEP8 checking and pyflakes, you can install vim-flake8. Now you can map the function Flake8 to any hotkey or action you want in Vim. The plugin will display errors at the bottom of the screen, and provide an easy way to jump

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to the corresponding line. It’s very handy to call this function whenever you save a file. In order to do this, add the following line to your .vimrc: autocmd BufWritePost *.py call Flake8()

If you are already using syntastic, you can set it to run Pyflakes on write and show errors and warnings in the quickfix window. An example configuration to do that which also shows status and warning messages in the statusbar would be: set set set let let

statusline+=%#warningmsg# statusline+=%{SyntasticStatuslineFlag()} statusline+=%* g:syntastic_auto_loc_list=1 g:syntastic_loc_list_height=5

Python-mode

Python-mode is a complex solution for working with Python code in Vim. It has: Asynchronous Python code checking (pylint, pyflakes, pycodestyle, mccabe) in any combination Code refactoring and autocompletion with Rope Fast Python folding Virtualenv support Search through Python documentation and run Python code Auto pycodestyle error fixes And more. SuperTab

SuperTab is a small Vim plugin that makes code completion more convenient by using key or any other customized keys. Emacs Emacs is another powerful text editor. It is fully programmable (lisp), but it can be some work to wire up correctly. A good start if you’re already an Emacs user is Python Programming in Emacs at EmacsWiki. 1. Emacs itself comes with a Python mode. TextMate TextMate brings Apple’s approach to operating systems into the world of text editors. By bridging UNIX underpinnings and GUI, TextMate cherry-picks the best of both worlds to the benefit of expert scripters and novice users alike.

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Sublime Text Sublime Text is a sophisticated text editor for code, markup and prose. You’ll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features and amazing performance. Sublime Text has excellent support for editing Python code and uses Python for its plugin API. It also has a diverse variety of plugins, some of which allow for in-editor PEP8 checking and code “linting”. Atom Atom is a hackable text editor for the 21st century, built on atom-shell, and based on everything we love about our favorite editors. Atom is web native (HTML, CSS, JS), focusing on modular design and easy plugin development. It comes with native package control and plethora of packages. Recommended for Python development is Linter combined with linter-flake8.

IDEs PyCharm / IntelliJ IDEA PyCharm is developed by JetBrains, also known for IntelliJ IDEA. Both share the same code base and most of PyCharm’s features can be brought to IntelliJ with the free Python Plug-In. There are two versions of PyCharm: Professional Edition (Free 30-day trial) and Community Edition (Apache 2.0 License) with fewer features. Python (on Visual Studio Code) Python for Visual Studio is an extension for the Visual Studio Code IDE. This is a free, light weight, open source IDE, with support for Mac, Windows, and Linux. Built using open source technologies such as Node.js and Python, with compelling features such as Intellisense (autocompletion), local and remote debugging, linting, and the like. MIT licensed. Enthought Canopy Enthought Canopy is a Python IDE which is focused towards Scientists and Engineers as it provides pre installed libraries for data analysis. Eclipse The most popular Eclipse plugin for Python development is Aptana’s PyDev. Komodo IDE Komodo IDE is developed by ActiveState and is a commercial IDE for Windows, Mac, and Linux. KomodoEdit is the open source alternative.

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Spyder Spyder is an IDE specifically geared toward working with scientific Python libraries (namely Scipy). It includes integration with pyflakes, pylint and rope. Spyder is open-source (free), offers code completion, syntax highlighting, a class and function browser, and object inspection. WingIDE WingIDE is a Python specific IDE. It runs on Linux, Windows and Mac (as an X11 application, which frustrates some Mac users). WingIDE offers code completion, syntax highlighting, source browser, graphical debugger and support for version control systems. NINJA-IDE NINJA-IDE (from the recursive acronym: “Ninja-IDE Is Not Just Another IDE”) is a cross-platform IDE, specially designed to build Python applications, and runs on Linux/X11, Mac OS X and Windows desktop operating systems. Installers for these platforms can be downloaded from the website. NINJA-IDE is open-source software (GPLv3 licence) and is developed in Python and Qt. The source files can be downloaded from GitHub. Eric (The Eric Python IDE) Eric is a full featured Python IDE offering sourcecode autocompletion, syntax highlighting, support for version control systems, python 3 support, integrated web browser, python shell, integrated debugger and a flexible plug-in system. Written in python, it is based on the Qt gui toolkit, integrating the Scintilla editor control. Eric is an open-source software project (GPLv3 licence) with more than ten years of active development.

Interpreter Tools Virtual Environments Virtual Environments provide a powerful way to isolate project package dependencies. This means that you can use packages particular to a Python project without installing them system wide and thus avoiding potential version conflicts. To start using and see more information: Virtual Environments docs. pyenv pyenv is a tool to allow multiple versions of the Python interpreter to be installed at the same time. This solves the problem of having different projects requiring different versions of Python. For example, it becomes very easy to install Python 2.7 for compatibility in one project, whilst still using Python 3.4 as the default interpreter. pyenv isn’t just limited to the CPython versions - it will also install PyPy, anaconda, miniconda, stackless, jython, and ironpython interpreters. pyenv works by filling a shims directory with fake versions of the Python interpreter (plus other tools like pip and 2to3). When the system looks for a program named python, it looks inside the shims directory first, and uses the

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fake version, which in turn passes the command on to pyenv. pyenv then works out which version of Python should be run based on environment variables, .python-version files, and the global default. pyenv isn’t a tool for managing virtual environments, but there is the plugin pyenv-virtualenv which automates the creation of different environments, and also makes it possible to use the existing pyenv tools to switch to different environments based on environment variables or .python-version files.

Other Tools IDLE IDLE is an integrated development environment that is part of Python standard library. It is completely written in Python and uses the Tkinter GUI toolkit. Though IDLE is not suited for full-blown development using Python, it is quite helpful to try out small Python snippets and experiment with different features in Python. It provides the following features: Python Shell Window (interpreter) Multi window text editor that colorizes Python code Minimal debugging facility IPython IPython provides a rich toolkit to help you make the most out of using Python interactively. Its main components are: Powerful Python shells (terminal- and Qt-based). A web-based notebook with the same core features but support for rich media, text, code, mathematical expressions and inline plots. Support for interactive data visualization and use of GUI toolkits. Flexible, embeddable interpreters to load into your own projects. Tools for high level and interactive parallel computing. $pip install ipython To download and install IPython with all it’s optional dependencies for the notebook, qtconsole, tests, and other functionalities$ pip install ipython[all]

BPython bpython is an alternative interface to the Python interpreter for Unix-like operating systems. It has the following features: In-line syntax highlighting. Readline-like autocomplete with suggestions displayed as you type. Expected parameter list for any Python function. “Rewind” function to pop the last line of code from memory and re-evaluate. Send entered code off to a pastebin.

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Save entered code to a file. Auto-indentation. Python 3 support. $pip install bpython ptpython ptpython is a REPL build on top of the prompt_toolkit library. It is considered to be an alternative to BPython. Features include: Syntax highlighting Autocompletion Multiline editing Emacs and VIM Mode Embedding REPL inside of your code Syntax Validation Tab pages Support for integrating with IPython‘s shell, by installing IPython pip install ipython and running ptipython.$ pip install ptpython

Further Configuration of Pip and Virtualenv Requiring an active virtual environment for pip By now it should be clear that using virtual environments is a great way to keep your development environment clean and keeping different projects’ requirements separate. When you start working on many different projects, it can be hard to remember to activate the related virtual environment when you come back to a specific project. As a result of this, it is very easy to install packages globally while thinking that you are actually installing the package for the virtual environment of the project. Over time this can result in a messy global package list. In order to make sure that you install packages to your active virtual environment when you use pip install, consider adding the following line to your ~/.bashrc file: export PIP_REQUIRE_VIRTUALENV=true

After saving this change and sourcing the ~/.bashrc file with source ~/.bashrc, pip will no longer let you install packages if you are not in a virtual environment. If you try to use pip install outside of a virtual environment pip will gently remind you that an activated virtual environment is needed to install packages. $pip install requests Could not find an activated virtualenv (required). You can also do this configuration by editing your pip.conf or pip.ini file. pip.conf is used by Unix and Mac OS X operating systems and it can be found at: 26 Capítulo 2. Ambientes de Desarrollo de Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1$HOME/.pip/pip.conf

Similarly, the pip.ini file is used by Windows operating systems and it can be found at: %HOME%\pip\pip.ini

If you don’t have a pip.conf or pip.ini file at these locations, you can create a new file with the correct name for your operating system. If you already have a configuration file, just add the following line under the [global] settings to require an active virtual environment: require-virtualenv = true

If you did not have a configuration file, you will need to create a new one and add the following lines to this new file: [global] require-virtualenv = true

You will of course need to install some packages globally (usually ones that you use across different projects consistently) and this can be accomplished by adding the following to your ~/.bashrc file: gpip() { PIP_REQUIRE_VIRTUALENV="" pip "[email protected]" }

After saving the changes and sourcing your ~/.bashrc file you can now install packages globally by running gpip install. You can change the name of the function to anything you like, just keep in mind that you will have to use that name when trying to install packages globally with pip.

Caching packages for future use Every developer has preferred libraries and when you are working on a lot of different projects, you are bound to have some overlap between the libraries that you use. For example, you may be using the requests library in a lot of different projects. It is surely unnecessary to re-download the same packages/libraries each time you start working on a new project (and in a new virtual environment as a result). Fortunately, you can configure pip in such a way that it tries to reuse already installed packages. On UNIX systems, you can add the following line to your .bashrc or .bash_profile file. export PIP_DOWNLOAD_CACHE=$HOME/.pip/cache You can set the path to anywhere you like (as long as you have write access). After adding this line, source your .bashrc (or .bash_profile) file and you will be all set. Another way of doing the same configuration is via the pip.conf or pip.ini files, depending on your system. If you are on Windows, you can add the following line to your pip.ini file under [global] settings: download-cache = %HOME%\pip\cache Similarly, on UNIX systems you should simply add the following line to your pip.conf file under [global] settings: download-cache =$HOME/.pip/cache

Even though you can use any path you like to store your cache, it is recommended that you create a new folder in the folder where your pip.conf or pip.ini file lives. If you don’t trust yourself with all of this path voodoo, just use the values provided here and you will be fine. 2.2. Further Configuration of Pip and Virtualenv

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CAPÍTULO 3

Escribiendo Buen Código Python

Esta parte de la guía esta enfocada en las mejores prácticas para escribir código Python.

Estructurando tu Proyecto Por “estructura” queremos decir las desiciones que conciernen en como tu proyecto cumple sus objetivos.. Necesitamos considerar como aprovechar mejor los atributos de Python para crear código efectivo y limpio. En términos prácticos, “estructura” significa hacer código limpio con lógica y dependencia son limpias tan bien como los archivos y directorios estan organizados en el sistema de archivos. Which functions should go into which modules? How does data flow through the project? What features and functions can be grouped together and isolated? By answering questions like these you can begin to plan, in a broad sense, what your finished product will look like. In this section we take a closer look at Python’s module and import systems as they are the central elements to enforcing structure in your project. We then discuss various perspectives on how to build code which can be extended and tested reliably.

Structure of the Repository It’s Important. Just as Code Style, API Design, and Automation are essential for a healthy development cycle, Repository structure is a crucial part of your project’s architecture. When a potential user or contributor lands on your repository’s page, they see a few things: Project Name Project Description Bunch O’ Files Only when they scroll below the fold will the user see your project’s README. If your repo is a massive dump of files or a nested mess of directories, they might look elsewhere before even reading your beautiful documentation. Dress for the job you want, not the job you have. Of course, first impressions aren’t everything. You and your colleagues will spend countless hours working with this repository, eventually becoming intimately familiar with every nook and cranny. The layout of it is important.

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Sample Repository tl;dr: This is what Kenneth Reitz recommends. This repository is available on GitHub. README.rst LICENSE setup.py requirements.txt sample/__init__.py sample/core.py sample/helpers.py docs/conf.py docs/index.rst tests/test_basic.py tests/test_advanced.py

Let’s get into some specifics. The Actual Module Location Purpose

./sample/ or ./sample.py The code of interest

Your module package is the core focus of the repository. It should not be tucked away: ./sample/

If your module consists of only a single file, you can place it directly in the root of your repository: ./sample.py

Your library does not belong in an ambiguous src or python subdirectory. License Location Purpose

This is arguably the most important part of your repository, aside from the source code itself. The full license text and copyright claims should exist in this file. If you aren’t sure which license you should use for your project, check out choosealicense.com. Of course, you are also free to publish code without a license, but this would prevent many people from potentially using your code. Setup.py Location Purpose

./setup.py Package and distribution management.

If your module package is at the root of your repository, this should obviously be at the root as well.

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Requirements File Location Purpose

./requirements.txt Development dependencies.

A pip requirements file should be placed at the root of the repository. It should specify the dependencies required to contribute to the project: testing, building, and generating documentation. If your project has no development dependencies, or you prefer development environment setup via setup.py, this file may be unnecessary. Documentation Location Purpose

./docs/ Package reference documentation.

There is little reason for this to exist elsewhere. Test Suite Location Purpose

./test_sample.py or ./tests Package integration and unit tests.

Starting out, a small test suite will often exist in a single file: ./test_sample.py

Once a test suite grows, you can move your tests to a directory, like so: tests/test_basic.py tests/test_advanced.py

Obviously, these test modules must import your packaged module to test it. You can do this a few ways: Expect the package to be installed in site-packages. Use a simple (but explicit) path modification to resolve the package properly. I highly recommend the latter. Requiring a developer to run setup.py develop to test an actively changing codebase also requires them to have an isolated environment setup for each instance of the codebase. To give the individual tests import context, create a tests/context.py file: import os import sys sys.path.insert(0, os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), '..'))) import sample

Then, within the individual test modules, import the module like so: from .context import sample

This will always work as expected, regardless of installation method. Some people will assert that you should distribute your tests within your module itself – I disagree. It often increases complexity for your users; many test suites often require additional dependencies and runtime contexts.

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Makefile Location Purpose

If you look at most of my projects or any Pocoo project, you’ll notice a Makefile laying around. Why? These projects aren’t written in C... In short, make is a incredibly useful tool for defining generic tasks for your project. Sample Makefile: init: pip install -r requirements.txt test: py.test tests .PHONY: init test

Other generic management scripts (e.g. manage.py or fabfile.py) belong at the root of the repository as well. Regarding Django Applications I’ve noticed a new trend in Django applications since the release of Django 1.4. Many developers are structuring their repositories poorly due to the new bundled application templates. How? Well, they go to their bare and fresh repository and run the following, as they always have: $django-admin.py startproject samplesite The resulting repository structure looks like this: README.rst samplesite/manage.py samplesite/samplesite/settings.py samplesite/samplesite/wsgi.py samplesite/samplesite/sampleapp/models.py Don’t do this. Repetitive paths are confusing for both your tools and your developers. Unnecessary nesting doesn’t help anybody (unless they’re nostalgic for monolithic SVN repos). Let’s do it properly:$ django-admin.py startproject samplesite .

Note the “.”. The resulting structure: README.rst manage.py samplesite/settings.py samplesite/wsgi.py samplesite/sampleapp/models.py

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Modules Python modules are one of the main abstraction layers available and probably the most natural one. Abstraction layers allow separating code into parts holding related data and functionality. For example, a layer of a project can handle interfacing with user actions, while another would handle low-level manipulation of data. The most natural way to separate these two layers is to regroup all interfacing functionality in one file, and all low-level operations in another file. In this case, the interface file needs to import the low-level file. This is done with the import and from ... import statements. As soon as you use import statements you use modules. These can be either built-in modules such as os and sys, third-party modules you have installed in your environment, or your project’s internal modules. To keep in line with the style guide, keep module names short, lowercase, and be sure to avoid using special symbols like the dot (.) or question mark (?). So a file name like my.spam.py is one you should avoid! Naming this way will interfere with the way Python looks for modules. In the case of my.spam.py Python expects to find a spam.py file in a folder named my which is not the case. There is an example of how the dot notation should be used in the Python docs. If you’d like you could name your module my_spam.py, but even our friend the underscore should not be seen often in module names. However, using other characters (spaces or hyphens) in module names will prevent importing (- is the subtract operator), so try to keep module names short so there is no need to separate words. And, most of all, don’t namespace with underscores, use submodules instead.

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# OK import library.plugin.foo # not OK import library.foo_plugin

Aside from some naming restrictions, nothing special is required for a Python file to be a module, but you need to understand the import mechanism in order to use this concept properly and avoid some issues. Concretely, the import modu statement will look for the proper file, which is modu.py in the same directory as the caller if it exists. If it is not found, the Python interpreter will search for modu.py in the “path” recursively and raise an ImportError exception if it is not found. Once modu.py is found, the Python interpreter will execute the module in an isolated scope. Any top-level statement in modu.py will be executed, including other imports if any. Function and class definitions are stored in the module’s dictionary. Then, the module’s variables, functions, and classes will be available to the caller through the module’s namespace, a central concept in programming that is particularly helpful and powerful in Python. In many languages, an include file directive is used by the preprocessor to take all code found in the file and ‘copy’ it into the caller’s code. It is different in Python: the included code is isolated in a module namespace, which means that you generally don’t have to worry that the included code could have unwanted effects, e.g. override an existing function with the same name. It is possible to simulate the more standard behavior by using a special syntax of the import statement: from modu import *. This is generally considered bad practice. Using import * makes code harder to read and makes dependencies less compartmentalized. Using from modu import func is a way to pinpoint the function you want to import and put it in the global namespace. While much less harmful than import * because it shows explicitly what is imported in the global namespace, its only advantage over a simpler import modu is that it will save a little typing. Very bad [...] from modu import * [...] x = sqrt(4) # Is sqrt part of modu? A builtin? Defined above?

Better from modu import sqrt [...] x = sqrt(4) # sqrt may be part of modu, if not redefined in between

Best import modu [...] x = modu.sqrt(4)

# sqrt is visibly part of modu's namespace

As mentioned in the Code Style section, readability is one of the main features of Python. Readability means to avoid useless boilerplate text and clutter, therefore some efforts are spent trying to achieve a certain level of brevity. But terseness and obscurity are the limits where brevity should stop. Being able to tell immediately where a class or function comes from, as in the modu.func idiom, greatly improves code readability and understandability in all but the simplest single file projects.

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Packages Python provides a very straightforward packaging system, which is simply an extension of the module mechanism to a directory. Any directory with an __init__.py file is considered a Python package. The different modules in the package are imported in a similar manner as plain modules, but with a special behavior for the __init__.py file, which is used to gather all package-wide definitions. A file modu.py in the directory pack/ is imported with the statement import pack.modu. This statement will look for an __init__.py file in pack, execute all of its top-level statements. Then it will look for a file named pack/modu.py and execute all of its top-level statements. After these operations, any variable, function, or class defined in modu.py is available in the pack.modu namespace. A commonly seen issue is to add too much code to __init__.py files. When the project complexity grows, there may be sub-packages and sub-sub-packages in a deep directory structure. In this case, importing a single item from a sub-sub-package will require executing all __init__.py files met while traversing the tree. Leaving an __init__.py file empty is considered normal and even a good practice, if the package’s modules and sub-packages do not need to share any code. Lastly, a convenient syntax is available for importing deeply nested packages: import very.deep.module as mod. This allows you to use mod in place of the verbose repetition of very.deep.module.

Object-oriented programming Python is sometimes described as an object-oriented programming language. This can be somewhat misleading and needs to be clarified. In Python, everything is an object, and can be handled as such. This is what is meant when we say, for example, that functions are first-class objects. Functions, classes, strings, and even types are objects in Python: like any object, they have a type, they can be passed as function arguments, and they may have methods and properties. In this understanding, Python is an object-oriented language. However, unlike Java, Python does not impose object-oriented programming as the main programming paradigm. It is perfectly viable for a Python project to not be object-oriented, i.e. to use no or very few class definitions, class inheritance, or any other mechanisms that are specific to object-oriented programming. Moreover, as seen in the modules section, the way Python handles modules and namespaces gives the developer a natural way to ensure the encapsulation and separation of abstraction layers, both being the most common reasons to use object-orientation. Therefore, Python programmers have more latitude to not use object-orientation, when it is not required by the business model. There are some reasons to avoid unnecessary object-orientation. Defining custom classes is useful when we want to glue together some state and some functionality. The problem, as pointed out by the discussions about functional programming, comes from the “state” part of the equation. In some architectures, typically web applications, multiple instances of Python processes are spawned to respond to external requests that can happen at the same time. In this case, holding some state into instantiated objects, which means keeping some static information about the world, is prone to concurrency problems or race-conditions. Sometimes, between the initialization of the state of an object (usually done with the __init__() method) and the actual use of the object state through one of its methods, the world may have changed, and the retained state may be outdated. For example, a request may load an item in memory and mark it as read by a user. If another request requires the deletion of this item at the same time, it may happen that the deletion actually occurs after the first process loaded the item, and then we have to mark as read a deleted object. This and other issues led to the idea that using stateless functions is a better programming paradigm.

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Another way to say the same thing is to suggest using functions and procedures with as few implicit contexts and sideeffects as possible. A function’s implicit context is made up of any of the global variables or items in the persistence layer that are accessed from within the function. Side-effects are the changes that a function makes to its implicit context. If a function saves or deletes data in a global variable or in the persistence layer, it is said to have a side-effect. Carefully isolating functions with context and side-effects from functions with logic (called pure functions) allow the following benefits: Pure functions are deterministic: given a fixed input, the output will always be the same. Pure functions are much easier to change or replace if they need to be refactored or optimized. Pure functions are easier to test with unit-tests: There is less need for complex context setup and data cleaning afterwards. Pure functions are easier to manipulate, decorate, and pass around. In summary, pure functions are more efficient building blocks than classes and objects for some architectures because they have no context or side-effects. Obviously, object-orientation is useful and even necessary in many cases, for example when developing graphical desktop applications or games, where the things that are manipulated (windows, buttons, avatars, vehicles) have a relatively long life of their own in the computer’s memory.

Decorators The Python language provides a simple yet powerful syntax called ‘decorators’. A decorator is a function or a class that wraps (or decorates) a function or a method. The ‘decorated’ function or method will replace the original ‘undecorated’ function or method. Because functions are first-class objects in Python, this can be done ‘manually’, but using the @decorator syntax is clearer and thus preferred. def foo(): # do something def decorator(func): # manipulate func return func foo = decorator(foo)

# Manually decorate

@decorator def bar(): # Do something # bar() is decorated

This mechanism is useful for separating concerns and avoiding external un-related logic ‘polluting’ the core logic of the function or method. A good example of a piece of functionality that is better handled with decoration is memoization or caching: you want to store the results of an expensive function in a table and use them directly instead of recomputing them when they have already been computed. This is clearly not part of the function logic.

Context Managers A context manager is a Python object that provides extra contextual information to an action. This extra information takes the form of running a callable upon initiating the context using the with statement, as well as running a callable upon completing all the code inside the with block. The most well known example of using a context manager is shown here, opening on a file:

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with open('file.txt') as f: contents = f.read()

Anyone familiar with this pattern knows that invoking open in this fashion ensures that f‘s close method will be called at some point. This reduces a developer’s cognitive load and makes the code easier to read. There are two easy ways to implement this functionality yourself: using a class or using a generator. Let’s implement the above functionality ourselves, starting with the class approach: class CustomOpen(object): def __init__(self, filename): self.file = open(filename) def __enter__(self): return self.file def __exit__(self, ctx_type, ctx_value, ctx_traceback): self.file.close() with CustomOpen('file') as f: contents = f.read()

This is just a regular Python object with two extra methods that are used by the with statement. CustomOpen is first instantiated and then its __enter__ method is called and whatever __enter__ returns is assigned to f in the as f part of the statement. When the contents of the with block is finished executing, the __exit__ method is then called. And now the generator approach using Python’s own contextlib: from contextlib import contextmanager @contextmanager def custom_open(filename): f = open(filename) try: yield f finally: f.close() with custom_open('file') as f: contents = f.read()

This works in exactly the same way as the class example above, albeit it’s more terse. The custom_open function executes until it reaches the yield statement. It then gives control back to the with statement, which assigns whatever was yield‘ed to f in the as f portion. The finally clause ensures that close() is called whether or not there was an exception inside the with. Since the two approaches appear the same, we should follow the Zen of Python to decide when to use which. The class approach might be better if there’s a considerable amount of logic to encapsulate. The function approach might be better for situations where we’re dealing with a simple action.

Dynamic typing Python is dynamically typed, which means that variables do not have a fixed type. In fact, in Python, variables are very different from what they are in many other languages, specifically statically-typed languages. Variables are not a segment of the computer’s memory where some value is written, they are ‘tags’ or ‘names’ pointing to objects. It is therefore possible for the variable ‘a’ to be set to the value 1, then to the value ‘a string’, then to a function.

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The dynamic typing of Python is often considered to be a weakness, and indeed it can lead to complexities and hardto-debug code. Something named ‘a’ can be set to many different things, and the developer or the maintainer needs to track this name in the code to make sure it has not been set to a completely unrelated object. Some guidelines help to avoid this issue: Avoid using the same variable name for different things. Bad a = 1 a = 'a string' def a(): pass # Do something

Good count = 1 msg = 'a string' def func(): pass # Do something

Using short functions or methods helps reduce the risk of using the same name for two unrelated things. It is better to use different names even for things that are related, when they have a different type: Bad items = 'a b c d' # This is a string... items = items.split(' ') # ...becoming a list items = set(items) # ...and then a set

There is no efficiency gain when reusing names: the assignments will have to create new objects anyway. However, when the complexity grows and each assignment is separated by other lines of code, including ‘if’ branches and loops, it becomes harder to ascertain what a given variable’s type is. Some coding practices, like functional programming, recommend never reassigning a variable. In Java this is done with the final keyword. Python does not have a final keyword and it would be against its philosophy anyway. However, it may be a good discipline to avoid assigning to a variable more than once, and it helps in grasping the concept of mutable and immutable types.

Mutable and immutable types Python has two kinds of built-in or user-defined types. Mutable types are those that allow in-place modification of the content. Typical mutables are lists and dictionaries: All lists have mutating methods, like list.append() or list.pop(), and can be modified in place. The same goes for dictionaries. Immutable types provide no method for changing their content. For instance, the variable x set to the integer 6 has no “increment” method. If you want to compute x + 1, you have to create another integer and give it a name. my_list = [1, 2, 3] my_list[0] = 4 print my_list # [4, 2, 3] <- The same list has changed x = 6 x = x + 1

# The new x is another object

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Using properly mutable types for things that are mutable in nature and immutable types for things that are fixed in nature helps to clarify the intent of the code. For example, the immutable equivalent of a list is the tuple, created with (1, 2). This tuple is a pair that cannot be changed in-place, and can be used as a key for a dictionary. One peculiarity of Python that can surprise beginners is that strings are immutable. This means that when constructing a string from its parts, it is much more efficient to accumulate the parts in a list, which is mutable, and then glue (‘join’) the parts together when the full string is needed. One thing to notice, however, is that list comprehensions are better and faster than constructing a list in a loop with calls to append(). One other option is using the map function, which can ‘map’ a function (‘str’) to an iterable (‘range(20)’). This results in a map object, which you can then (‘join’) together just like the other examples. The map function can be even faster than a list comprehension in some cases. Bad # create a concatenated string from 0 to 19 (e.g. "012..1819") nums = "" for n in range(20): nums += str(n) # slow and inefficient print nums

Good # create a concatenated string from 0 to 19 (e.g. "012..1819") nums = [] for n in range(20): nums.append(str(n)) print "".join(nums) # much more efficient

Better # create a concatenated string from 0 to 19 (e.g. "012..1819") nums = [str(n) for n in range(20)] print "".join(nums)

Best # create a concatenated string from 0 to 19 (e.g. "012..1819") nums = map(str, range(20)) print "".join(nums)

One final thing to mention about strings is that using join() is not always best. In the instances where you are creating a new string from a pre-determined number of strings, using the addition operator is actually faster, but in cases like above or in cases where you are adding to an existing string, using join() should be your preferred method. foo = 'foo' bar = 'bar' foobar = foo + bar # This is good foo += 'ooo' # This is bad, instead you should do: foo = ''.join([foo, 'ooo'])

Nota: You can also use the % formatting operator to concatenate a pre-determined number of strings besides str.join() and +. However, PEP 3101, discourages the usage of the % operator in favor of the str.format() method.

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foo = 'foo' bar = 'bar' foobar = '%s%s' % (foo, bar) # It is OK foobar = '{0}{1}'.format(foo, bar) # It is better foobar = '{foo}{bar}'.format(foo=foo, bar=bar) # It is best

Vendorizing Dependencies Runners Further Reading http://docs.python.org/2/library/ http://www.diveintopython.net/toc/index.html

Code Style If you ask Python programmers what they like most about Python, they will often cite its high readability. Indeed, a high level of readability is at the heart of the design of the Python language, following the recognized fact that code is read much more often than it is written. One reason for the high readability of Python code is its relatively complete set of Code Style guidelines and “Pythonic” idioms. When a veteran Python developer (a Pythonista) calls portions of code not “Pythonic”, they usually mean that these lines of code do not follow the common guidelines and fail to express its intent in what is considered the best (hear: most readable) way. On some border cases, no best way has been agreed upon on how to express an intent in Python code, but these cases are rare.

General concepts Explicit code While any kind of black magic is possible with Python, the most explicit and straightforward manner is preferred. Bad def make_complex(*args): x, y = args return dict(**locals())

Good def make_complex(x, y): return {'x': x, 'y': y}

In the good code above, x and y are explicitly received from the caller, and an explicit dictionary is returned. The developer using this function knows exactly what to do by reading the first and last lines, which is not the case with the bad example.

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One statement per line While some compound statements such as list comprehensions are allowed and appreciated for their brevity and their expressiveness, it is bad practice to have two disjointed statements on the same line of code. Bad print 'one'; print 'two' if x == 1: print 'one' if and : # do something

Good print 'one' print 'two' if x == 1: print 'one' cond1 = cond2 = if cond1 and cond2: # do something

Function arguments Arguments can be passed to functions in four different ways. 1. Positional arguments are mandatory and have no default values. They are the simplest form of arguments and they can be used for the few function arguments that are fully part of the function’s meaning and their order is natural. For instance, in send(message, recipient) or point(x, y) the user of the function has no difficulty remembering that those two functions require two arguments, and in which order. In those two cases, it is possible to use argument names when calling the functions and, doing so, it is possible to switch the order of arguments, calling for instance send(recipient=’World’, message=’Hello’) and point(y=2, x=1) but this reduces readability and is unnecessarily verbose, compared to the more straightforward calls to send(’Hello’, ’World’) and point(1, 2). 2. Keyword arguments are not mandatory and have default values. They are often used for optional parameters sent to the function. When a function has more than two or three positional parameters, its signature is more difficult to remember and using keyword arguments with default values is helpful. For instance, a more complete send function could be defined as send(message, to, cc=None, bcc=None). Here cc and bcc are optional, and evaluate to None when they are not passed another value. Calling a function with keyword arguments can be done in multiple ways in Python, for example it is possible to follow the order of arguments in the definition without explicitly naming the arguments, like in send(’Hello’, ’World’, ’Cthulhu’, ’God’), sending a blind carbon copy to God. It would also be possible to name arguments in another order, like in send(’Hello again’, ’World’, bcc=’God’, cc=’Cthulhu’). Those two possibilities are better avoided without any strong reason to not follow the syntax that is the closest to the function definition: send(’Hello’, ’World’, cc=’Cthulhu’, bcc=’God’). As a side note, following YAGNI principle, it is often harder to remove an optional argument (and its logic inside the function) that was added “just in case” and is seemingly never used, than to add a new optional argument and its logic when needed.

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3. The arbitrary argument list is the third way to pass arguments to a function. If the function intention is better expressed by a signature with an extensible number of positional arguments, it can be defined with the *args constructs. In the function body, args will be a tuple of all the remaining positional arguments. For example, send(message, *args) can be called with each recipient as an argument:send(’Hello’, ’God’, ’Mom’, ’Cthulhu’), and in the function body args will be equal to (’God’, ’Mom’, ’Cthulhu’). However, this construct has some drawbacks and should be used with caution. If a function receives a list of arguments of the same nature, it is often more clear to define it as a function of one argument, that argument being a list or any sequence. Here, if send has multiple recipients, it is better to define it explicitly: send(message, recipients) and call it with send(’Hello’, [’God’, ’Mom’, ’Cthulhu’]). This way, the user of the function can manipulate the recipient list as a list beforehand, and it opens the possibility to pass any sequence, including iterators, that cannot be unpacked as other sequences. 4. The arbitrary keyword argument dictionary is the last way to pass arguments to functions. If the function requires an undetermined series of named arguments, it is possible to use the **kwargs construct. In the function body, kwargs will be a dictionary of all the passed named arguments that have not been caught by other keyword arguments in the function signature. The same caution as in the case of arbitrary argument list is necessary, for similar reasons: these powerful techniques are to be used when there is a proven necessity to use them, and they should not be used if the simpler and clearer construct is sufficient to express the function’s intention. It is up to the programmer writing the function to determine which arguments are positional arguments and which are optional keyword arguments, and to decide whether to use the advanced techniques of arbitrary argument passing. If the advice above is followed wisely, it is possible and enjoyable to write Python functions that are: easy to read (the name and arguments need no explanations) easy to change (adding a new keyword argument does not break other parts of the code) Avoid the magical wand A powerful tool for hackers, Python comes with a very rich set of hooks and tools allowing you to do almost any kind of tricky tricks. For instance, it is possible to do each of the following: change how objects are created and instantiated change how the Python interpreter imports modules it is even possible (and recommended if needed) to embed C routines in Python. However, all these options have many drawbacks and it is always better to use the most straightforward way to achieve your goal. The main drawback is that readability suffers greatly when using these constructs. Many code analysis tools, such as pylint or pyflakes, will be unable to parse this “magic” code. We consider that a Python developer should know about these nearly infinite possibilities, because it instills confidence that no impassable problem will be on the way. However, knowing how and particularly when not to use them is very important. Like a kung fu master, a Pythonista knows how to kill with a single finger, and never to actually do it. We are all responsible users As seen above, Python allows many tricks, and some of them are potentially dangerous. A good example is that any client code can override an object’s properties and methods: there is no “private” keyword in Python. This philosophy, very different from highly defensive languages like Java, which give a lot of mechanisms to prevent any misuse, is expressed by the saying: “We are all responsible users”.

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This doesn’t mean that, for example, no properties are considered private, and that no proper encapsulation is possible in Python. Rather, instead of relying on concrete walls erected by the developers between their code and other’s, the Python community prefers to rely on a set of conventions indicating that these elements should not be accessed directly. The main convention for private properties and implementation details is to prefix all “internals” with an underscore. If the client code breaks this rule and accesses these marked elements, any misbehavior or problems encountered if the code is modified is the responsibility of the client code. Using this convention generously is encouraged: any method or property that is not intended to be used by client code should be prefixed with an underscore. This will guarantee a better separation of duties and easier modification of existing code; it will always be possible to publicize a private property, but making a public property private might be a much harder operation. Returning values When a function grows in complexity it is not uncommon to use multiple return statements inside the function’s body. However, in order to keep a clear intent and a sustainable readability level, it is preferable to avoid returning meaningful values from many output points in the body. There are two main cases for returning values in a function: the result of the function return when it has been processed normally, and the error cases that indicate a wrong input parameter or any other reason for the function to not be able to complete its computation or task. If you do not wish to raise exceptions for the second case, then returning a value, such as None or False, indicating that the function could not perform correctly might be needed. In this case, it is better to return as early as the incorrect context has been detected. It will help to flatten the structure of the function: all the code after the return-because-oferror statement can assume the condition is met to further compute the function’s main result. Having multiple such return statements is often necessary. However, when a function has multiple main exit points for its normal course, it becomes difficult to debug the returned result, so it may be preferable to keep a single exit point. This will also help factoring out some code paths, and the multiple exit points are a probable indication that such a refactoring is needed. def complex_function(a, b, c): if not a: return None # Raising an exception might be better if not b: return None # Raising an exception might be better # Some complex code trying to compute x from a, b and c # Resist temptation to return x if succeeded if not x: # Some Plan-B computation of x return x # One single exit point for the returned value x will help # when maintaining the code.

Idioms A programming idiom, put simply, is a way to write code. The notion of programming idioms is discussed amply at c2 and at Stack Overflow. Idiomatic Python code is often referred to as being Pythonic. Although there usually is one — and preferably only one — obvious way to do it; the way to write idiomatic Python code can be non-obvious to Python beginners. So, good idioms must be consciously acquired. Some common Python idioms follow:

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Unpacking If you know the length of a list or tuple, you can assign names to its elements with unpacking. For example, since enumerate() will provide a tuple of two elements for each item in list: for index, item in enumerate(some_list): # do something with index and item

You can use this to swap variables as well: a, b = b, a

Nested unpacking works too: a, (b, c) = 1, (2, 3)

In Python 3, a new method of extended unpacking was introduced by PEP 3132: a, *rest = [1, 2, 3] # a = 1, rest = [2, 3] a, *middle, c = [1, 2, 3, 4] # a = 1, middle = [2, 3], c = 4

Create an ignored variable If you need to assign something (for instance, in Unpacking) but will not need that variable, use __: filename = 'foobar.txt' basename, __, ext = filename.rpartition('.')

Nota: Many Python style guides recommend the use of a single underscore “_” for throwaway variables rather than the double underscore “__” recommended here. The issue is that “_” is commonly used as an alias for the gettext() function, and is also used at the interactive prompt to hold the value of the last operation. Using a double underscore instead is just as clear and almost as convenient, and eliminates the risk of accidentally interfering with either of these other use cases.

Create a length-N list of the same thing Use the Python list * operator: four_nones = [None] * 4

Create a length-N list of lists Because lists are mutable, the * operator (as above) will create a list of N references to the same list, which is not likely what you want. Instead, use a list comprehension: four_lists = [[] for __ in xrange(4)]

Note: Use range() instead of xrange() in Python 3

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Create a string from a list A common idiom for creating strings is to use str.join() on an empty string. letters = ['s', 'p', 'a', 'm'] word = ''.join(letters)

This will set the value of the variable word to ‘spam’. This idiom can be applied to lists and tuples. Searching for an item in a collection Sometimes we need to search through a collection of things. Let’s look at two options: lists and sets. Take the following code for example: s = set(['s', 'p', 'a', 'm']) l = ['s', 'p', 'a', 'm'] def lookup_set(s): return 's' in s def lookup_list(l): return 's' in l

Even though both functions look identical, because lookup_set is utilizing the fact that sets in Python are hashtables, the lookup performance between the two is very different. To determine whether an item is in a list, Python will have to go through each item until it finds a matching item. This is time consuming, especially for long lists. In a set, on the other hand, the hash of the item will tell Python where in the set to look for a matching item. As a result, the search can be done quickly, even if the set is large. Searching in dictionaries works the same way. For more information see this StackOverflow page. For detailed information on the amount of time various common operations take on each of these data structures, see this page. Because of these differences in performance, it is often a good idea to use sets or dictionaries instead of lists in cases where: The collection will contain a large number of items You will be repeatedly searching for items in the collection You do not have duplicate items. For small collections, or collections which you will not frequently be searching through, the additional time and memory required to set up the hashtable will often be greater than the time saved by the improved search speed.

Zen of Python Also known as PEP 20, the guiding principles for Python’s design. >>> import this The Zen of Python, by Tim Peters Beautiful is better than ugly. Explicit is better than implicit. Simple is better than complex. Complex is better than complicated. Flat is better than nested. Sparse is better than dense. Readability counts.

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Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules. Although practicality beats purity. Errors should never pass silently. Unless explicitly silenced. In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess. There should be one-- and preferably only one --obvious way to do it. Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you're Dutch. Now is better than never. Although never is often better than *right* now. If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea. If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea. Namespaces are one honking great idea -- let's do more of those!

For some examples of good Python style, see these slides from a Python user group.

PEP 8 PEP 8 is the de-facto code style guide for Python. A high quality, easy-to-read version of PEP 8 is also available at pep8.org. This is highly recommended reading. The entire Python community does their best to adhere to the guidelines laid out within this document. Some project may sway from it from time to time, while others may amend its recommendations. That being said, conforming your Python code to PEP 8 is generally a good idea and helps make code more consistent when working on projects with other developers. There is a command-line program, pycodestyle (previously known as pep8), that can check your code for conformance. Install it by running the following command in your terminal: $pip install pycodestyle Then run it on a file or series of files to get a report of any violations.$ pycodestyle optparse.py optparse.py:69:11: E401 multiple imports on one line optparse.py:77:1: E302 expected 2 blank lines, found 1 optparse.py:88:5: E301 expected 1 blank line, found 0 optparse.py:222:34: W602 deprecated form of raising exception optparse.py:347:31: E211 whitespace before '(' optparse.py:357:17: E201 whitespace after '{' optparse.py:472:29: E221 multiple spaces before operator optparse.py:544:21: W601 .has_key() is deprecated, use 'in'

The program autopep8 can be used to automatically reformat code in the PEP 8 style. Install the program with: $pip install autopep8 Use it to format a file in-place with:$ autopep8 --in-place optparse.py

Excluding the --in-place flag will cause the program to output the modified code directly to the console for review. The --aggressive flag will perform more substantial changes and can be applied multiple times for greater effect.

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Check if variable equals a constant You don’t need to explicitly compare a value to True, or None, or 0 - you can just add it to the if statement. See Truth Value Testing for a list of what is considered false. Bad: if attr == True: print 'True!' if attr == None: print 'attr is None!'

Good: # Just check the value if attr: print 'attr is truthy!' # or check for the opposite if not attr: print 'attr is falsey!' # or, since None is considered false, explicitly check for it if attr is None: print 'attr is None!'

Access a Dictionary Element Don’t use the dict.has_key() method. Instead, use x in d syntax, or pass a default argument to dict.get(). Bad: d = {'hello': 'world'} if d.has_key('hello'): print d['hello'] # prints 'world' else: print 'default_value'

Good: d = {'hello': 'world'} print d.get('hello', 'default_value') # prints 'world' print d.get('thingy', 'default_value') # prints 'default_value' # Or: if 'hello' in d: print d['hello']

Short Ways to Manipulate Lists List comprehensions provide a powerful, concise way to work with lists. Also, the map() and filter() functions can perform operations on lists using a different, more concise syntax. Bad:

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# Filter elements greater than 4 a = [3, 4, 5] b = [] for i in a: if i > 4: b.append(i)

Good: a b # b

= [3, 4, 5] = [i for i in a if i > 4] Or: = filter(lambda x: x > 4, a)

Bad: # Add three to all list members. a = [3, 4, 5] for i in range(len(a)): a[i] += 3

Good: a a # a

= [3, 4, 5] = [i + 3 for i in a] Or: = map(lambda i: i + 3, a)

Use enumerate() keep a count of your place in the list. a = [3, 4, 5] for i, item in enumerate(a): print i, item # prints # 0 3 # 1 4 # 2 5

The enumerate() function has better readability than handling a counter manually. Moreover, it is better optimized for iterators. Read From a File Use the with open syntax to read from files. This will automatically close files for you. Bad: f = open('file.txt') a = f.read() print a f.close()

Good: with open('file.txt') as f: for line in f: print line

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Line Continuations When a logical line of code is longer than the accepted limit, you need to split it over multiple physical lines. The Python interpreter will join consecutive lines if the last character of the line is a backslash. This is helpful in some cases, but should usually be avoided because of its fragility: a white space added to the end of the line, after the backslash, will break the code and may have unexpected results. A better solution is to use parentheses around your elements. Left with an unclosed parenthesis on an end-of-line the Python interpreter will join the next line until the parentheses are closed. The same behavior holds for curly and square braces. Bad: my_very_big_string = """For a long time I used to go to bed early. Sometimes, \ when I had put out my candle, my eyes would close so quickly that I had not even \ time to say “I’m going to sleep.”""" from some.deep.module.inside.a.module import a_nice_function, another_nice_function, \ yet_another_nice_function

Good: my_very_big_string = ( "For a long time I used to go to bed early. Sometimes, " "when I had put out my candle, my eyes would close so quickly " "that I had not even time to say “I’m going to sleep.”" ) from some.deep.module.inside.a.module import ( a_nice_function, another_nice_function, yet_another_nice_function)

However, more often than not, having to split a long logical line is a sign that you are trying to do too many things at the same time, which may hinder readability.

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objects, HTTP utilities to handle entity tags, cache control headers, HTTP dates, cookie handling, file uploads, a powerful URL routing system and a bunch of community-contributed addon modules. Requests Requests is an Apache2 Licensed HTTP library, written in Python, for human beings. Tablib Tablib is a format-agnostic tabular dataset library, written in Python. Por hacer Include code examples of exemplary code from each of the projects listed. Explain why it is excellent code. Use complex examples.

Por hacer Explain techniques to rapidly identify data structures, algorithms and determine what the code is doing.

Documentation Readability is a primary focus for Python developers, in both project and code documentation. Following some simple best practices can save both you and others a lot of time.

Project Publication Depending on the project, your documentation might include some or all of the following components: An introduction should show a very short overview of what can be done with the product, using one or two extremely simplified use cases. This is the thirty-second pitch for your project. A tutorial should show some primary use cases in more detail. The reader will follow a step-by-step procedure to set-up a working prototype. An API reference is typically generated from the code (see docstrings). It will list all publicly available interfaces, parameters, and return values.

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Developer documentation is intended for potential contributors. This can include code convention and general design strategy of the project. Sphinx Sphinx is far and away the most popular Python documentation tool. Use it. It converts reStructuredText markup language into a range of output formats including HTML, LaTeX (for printable PDF versions), manual pages, and plain text. There is also great, free hosting for your Sphinx docs: Read The Docs. Use it. You can configure it with commit hooks to your source repository so that rebuilding your documentation will happen automatically. When run, Sphinx will import your code and using Python’s introspection features it will extract all function, method and class signatures. It will also extract the accompanying docstrings, and compile it all into well structured and easily readable documentation for your project. Nota: Sphinx is famous for its API generation, but it also works well for general project documentation. This Guide is built with Sphinx and is hosted on Read The Docs

reStructuredText Most Python documentation is written with reStructuredText. It’s like Markdown with all the optional extensions built in. The reStructuredText Primer and the reStructuredText Quick Reference should help you familiarize yourself with its syntax.

Code Documentation Advice Comments clarify the code and they are added with purpose of making the code easier to understand. In Python, comments begin with a hash (number sign) (#). In Python, docstrings describe modules, classes, and functions: def square_and_rooter(x): """Return the square root of self times self.""" ...

In general, follow the comment section of PEP 8#comments (the “Python Style Guide”). More information about docstrings can be found at PEP 0257#specification (The Docstring Conventions Guide). Commenting Sections of Code Do not use triple-quote strings to comment code. This is not a good practice, because line-oriented command-line tools such as grep will not be aware that the commented code is inactive. It is better to add hashes at the proper indentation level for every commented line. Your editor probably has the ability to do this easily, and it is worth learning the comment/uncomment toggle. Docstrings and Magic Some tools use docstrings to embed more-than-documentation behavior, such as unit test logic. Those can be nice, but you won’t ever go wrong with vanilla “here’s what this does.”

3.4. Documentation

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Tools like Sphinx will parse your docstrings as reStructuredText and render it correctly as HTML. This makes it very easy to embed snippets of example code in a project’s documentation. Additionally, Doctest will read all embedded docstrings that look like input from the Python commandline (prefixed with “>>>”) and run them, checking to see if the output of the command matches the text on the following line. This allows developers to embed real examples and usage of functions alongside their source code, and as a side effect, it also ensures that their code is tested and works. def my_function(a, b): """ >>> my_function(2, 3) 6 >>> my_function('a', 3) 'aaa' """ return a * b

Docstrings versus Block comments These aren’t interchangeable. For a function or class, the leading comment block is a programmer’s note. The docstring describes the operation of the function or class: # This function slows down program execution for some reason. def square_and_rooter(x): """Returns the square root of self times self.""" ...

Unlike block comments, docstrings are built into the Python language itself. This means you can use all of Python’s powerful introspection capabilities to access docstrings at runtime, compared with comments which are optimised out. Docstrings are accessible from both the __doc__ dunder attribute for almost every Python object, as well as with the built in help() function. While block comments are usually used to explain what a section of code is doing, or the specifics of an algorithm, docstrings are more intended for explaining to other users of your code (or you in 6 months time) how a particular function can be used and the general purpose of a function, class, or module. Writing Docstrings Depending on the complexity of the function, method, or class being written, a one-line docstring may be perfectly appropriate. These are generally used for really obvious cases, such as: def add(a, b): """Add two numbers and return the result.""" return a + b

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def random_number_generator(arg1, arg2): """ Summary line. Extended description of function. Parameters ---------arg1 : int Description of arg1 arg2 : str Description of arg2 Returns ------int Description of return value """ return 42

The sphinx.ext.napoleon plugin allows Sphinx to parse this style of docstrings, making it easy to incorporate NumPy style docstrings into your project. At the end of the day, it doesn’t really matter what style is used for writing docstrings, their purpose is to serve as documentation for anyone who may need to read or make changes to your code. As long as it is correct, understandable and gets the relevant points across then it has done the job it was designed to do. For further reading on docstrings, feel free to consult PEP 257

Other Tools You might see these in the wild. Use Sphinx. Pycco Pycco is a “literate-programming-style documentation generator” and is a port of the node.js Docco. It makes code into a side-by-side HTML code and documentation. Ronn Ronn builds Unix manuals. It converts human readable textfiles to roff for terminal display, and also to HTML for the web. Epydoc Epydoc is discontinued. Use Sphinx instead. MkDocs MkDocs is a fast and simple static site generator that’s geared towards building project documentation with Markdown.

Testing Your Code Testing your code is very important. Getting used to writing testing code and running this code in parallel is now considered a good habit. Used wisely, this method helps you define more precisely your code’s intent and have a more decoupled architecture. Some general rules of testing: A testing unit should focus on one tiny bit of functionality and prove it correct. Each test unit must be fully independent. Each test must be able to run alone, and also within the test suite, regardless of the order that they are called. The implication of this rule is that each test must be loaded with a fresh 3.5. Testing Your Code

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The Basics Unittest unittest is the batteries-included test module in the Python standard library. Its API will be familiar to anyone who has used any of the JUnit/nUnit/CppUnit series of tools. Creating test cases is accomplished by subclassing unittest.TestCase. import unittest def fun(x): return x + 1 class MyTest(unittest.TestCase): def test(self): self.assertEqual(fun(3), 4)

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As of Python 2.7 unittest also includes its own test discovery mechanisms. unittest in the standard library documentation Doctest The doctest module searches for pieces of text that look like interactive Python sessions in docstrings, and then executes those sessions to verify that they work exactly as shown. Doctests have a different use case than proper unit tests: they are usually less detailed and don’t catch special cases or obscure regression bugs. They are useful as an expressive documentation of the main use cases of a module and its components. However, doctests should run automatically each time the full test suite runs. A simple doctest in a function: def square(x): """Return the square of x. >>> square(2) 4 >>> square(-2) 4 """ return x * x if __name__ == '__main__': import doctest doctest.testmod()

When running this module from the command line as in python module.py, the doctests will run and complain if anything is not behaving as described in the docstrings.

Tools py.test py.test is a no-boilerplate alternative to Python’s standard unittest module. $pip install pytest Despite being a fully-featured and extensible test tool, it boasts a simple syntax. Creating a test suite is as easy as writing a module with a couple of functions: # content of test_sample.py def func(x): return x + 1 def test_answer(): assert func(3) == 5 and then running the py.test command$ py.test =========================== test session starts ============================ platform darwin -- Python 2.7.1 -- pytest-2.2.1 collecting ... collected 1 items

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test_sample.py F ================================= FAILURES ================================= _______________________________ test_answer ________________________________

> E E

def test_answer(): assert func(3) == 5 assert 4 == 5 + where 4 = func(3)

test_sample.py:5: AssertionError ========================= 1 failed in 0.02 seconds =========================

is far less work than would be required for the equivalent functionality with the unittest module! py.test Nose nose extends unittest to make testing easier. $pip install nose nose provides automatic test discovery to save you the hassle of manually creating test suites. It also provides numerous plugins for features such as xUnit-compatible test output, coverage reporting, and test selection. nose tox tox is a tool for automating test environment management and testing against multiple interpreter configurations$ pip install tox

tox allows you to configure complicated multi-parameter test matrices via a simple ini-style configuration file. tox Unittest2 unittest2 is a backport of Python 2.7’s unittest module which has an improved API and better assertions over the one available in previous versions of Python. If you’re using Python 2.6 or below, you can install it with pip $pip install unittest2 You may want to import the module under the name unittest to make porting code to newer versions of the module easier in the future import unittest2 as unittest class MyTest(unittest.TestCase): ... This way if you ever switch to a newer Python version and no longer need the unittest2 module, you can simply change the import in your test module without the need to change any other code. 56 Capítulo 3. Escribiendo Buen Código Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 unittest2 mock unittest.mock is a library for testing in Python. As of Python 3.3, it is available in the standard library. For older versions of Python:$ pip install mock

It allows you to replace parts of your system under test with mock objects and make assertions about how they have been used. For example, you can monkey-patch a method: from mock import MagicMock thing = ProductionClass() thing.method = MagicMock(return_value=3) thing.method(3, 4, 5, key='value') thing.method.assert_called_with(3, 4, 5, key='value')

To mock classes or objects in a module under test, use the patch decorator. In the example below, an external search system is replaced with a mock that always returns the same result (but only for the duration of the test). def mock_search(self): class MockSearchQuerySet(SearchQuerySet): def __iter__(self): return iter(["foo", "bar", "baz"]) return MockSearchQuerySet() # SearchForm here refers to the imported class reference in myapp, # not where the SearchForm class itself is imported from @mock.patch('myapp.SearchForm.search', mock_search) def test_new_watchlist_activities(self): # get_search_results runs a search and iterates over the result self.assertEqual(len(myapp.get_search_results(q="fish")), 3)

Mock has many other ways you can configure it and control its behavior. mock

Logging The logging module has been a part of Python’s Standard Library since version 2.3. It is succinctly described in PEP 282. The documentation is notoriously hard to read, except for the basic logging tutorial. Logging serves two purposes: Diagnostic logging records events related to the application’s operation. If a user calls in to report an error, for example, the logs can be searched for context. Audit logging records events for business analysis. A user’s transactions can be extracted and combined with other user details for reports or to optimize a business goal.

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... or Print? The only time that print is a better option than logging is when the goal is to display a help statement for a command line application. Other reasons why logging is better than print: The log record, which is created with every logging event, contains readily available diagnostic information such as the file name, full path, function, and line number of the logging event. Events logged in included modules are automatically accessible via the root logger to your application’s logging stream, unless you filter them out. Logging can be selectively silenced by using the method logging.Logger.setLevel() or disabled by setting the attribute logging.Logger.disabled to True.

Logging in a Library Notes for configuring logging for a library are in the logging tutorial. Because the user, not the library, should dictate what happens when a logging event occurs, one admonition bears repeating: Nota: It is strongly advised that you do not add any handlers other than NullHandler to your library’s loggers. Best practice when instantiating loggers in a library is to only create them using the __name__ global variable: the logging module creates a hierarchy of loggers using dot notation, so using __name__ ensures no name collisions. Here is an example of best practice from the requests source – place this in your __init__.py import logging logging.getLogger(__name__).addHandler(logging.NullHandler())

Logging in an Application The twelve factor app, an authoritative reference for good practice in application development, contains a section on logging best practice. It emphatically advocates for treating log events as an event stream, and for sending that event stream to standard output to be handled by the application environment. There are at least three ways to configure a logger: Using an INI-formatted file: • Pro: possible to update configuration while logging.config.listen() to listen on a socket.

running

using

the

function

• Con: less control (e.g. custom subclassed filters or loggers) than possible when configuring a logger in code. Using a dictionary or a JSON-formatted file: • Pro: in addition to updating while running, it is possible to load from a file using the json module, in the standard library since Python 2.6. • Con: less control than when configuring a logger in code. Using code: • Pro: complete control over the configuration. • Con: modifications require a change to source code.

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Example Configuration via an INI File Let us say the file is named logging_config.ini. More details for the file format are in the logging configuration section of the logging tutorial. [loggers] keys=root [handlers] keys=stream_handler [formatters] keys=formatter [logger_root] level=DEBUG handlers=stream_handler [handler_stream_handler] class=StreamHandler level=DEBUG formatter=formatter args=(sys.stderr,) [formatter_formatter] format=%(asctime)s %(name)-12s %(levelname)-8s %(message)s

Then use logging.config.fileConfig() in the code: import logging from logging.config import fileConfig fileConfig('logging_config.ini') logger = logging.getLogger() logger.debug('often makes a very good meal of %s', 'visiting tourists')

Example Configuration via a Dictionary As of Python 2.7, you can use a dictionary with configuration details. PEP 391 contains a list of the mandatory and optional elements in the configuration dictionary. import logging from logging.config import dictConfig logging_config = dict( version = 1, formatters = { 'f': {'format': '%(asctime)s %(name)-12s %(levelname)-8s %(message)s'} }, handlers = { 'h': {'class': 'logging.StreamHandler', 'formatter': 'f', 'level': logging.DEBUG} }, root = { 'handlers': ['h'], 'level': logging.DEBUG,

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}, ) dictConfig(logging_config) logger = logging.getLogger() logger.debug('often makes a very good meal of %s', 'visiting tourists')

Example Configuration Directly in Code import logging logger = logging.getLogger() handler = logging.StreamHandler() formatter = logging.Formatter( '%(asctime)s %(name)-12s %(levelname)-8s %(message)s') handler.setFormatter(formatter) logger.addHandler(handler) logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG) logger.debug('often makes a very good meal of %s', 'visiting tourists')

Common Gotchas For the most part, Python aims to be a clean and consistent language that avoids surprises. However, there are a few cases that can be confusing to newcomers. Some of these cases are intentional but can be potentially surprising. Some could arguably be considered language warts. In general, what follows is a collection of potentially tricky behavior that might seem strange at first glance, but is generally sensible once you’re aware of the underlying cause for the surprise.

Mutable Default Arguments Seemingly the most common surprise new Python programmers encounter is Python’s treatment of mutable default arguments in function definitions. What You Wrote def append_to(element, to=[]): to.append(element) return to

What You Might Have Expected to Happen my_list = append_to(12) print my_list my_other_list = append_to(42) print my_other_list

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A new list is created each time the function is called if a second argument isn’t provided, so that the output is: [12] [42]

What Does Happen [12] [12, 42]

A new list is created once when the function is defined, and the same list is used in each successive call. Python’s default arguments are evaluated once when the function is defined, not each time the function is called (like it is in say, Ruby). This means that if you use a mutable default argument and mutate it, you will and have mutated that object for all future calls to the function as well. What You Should Do Instead Create a new object each time the function is called, by using a default arg to signal that no argument was provided (None is often a good choice). def append_to(element, to=None): if to is None: to = [] to.append(element) return to

Do not forget, you are passing a list object as the second argument. When the Gotcha Isn’t a Gotcha Sometimes you can specifically “exploit” (read: use as intended) this behavior to maintain state between calls of a function. This is often done when writing a caching function.

Late Binding Closures Another common source of confusion is the way Python binds its variables in closures (or in the surrounding global scope). What You Wrote def create_multipliers(): return [lambda x : i * x for i in range(5)]

What You Might Have Expected to Happen for multiplier in create_multipliers(): print multiplier(2)

A list containing five functions that each have their own closed-over i variable that multiplies their argument, producing:

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0 2 4 6 8

What Does Happen 8 8 8 8 8

Five functions are created; instead all of them just multiply x by 4. Python’s closures are late binding. This means that the values of variables used in closures are looked up at the time the inner function is called. Here, whenever any of the returned functions are called, the value of i is looked up in the surrounding scope at call time. By then, the loop has completed and i is left with its final value of 4. What’s particularly nasty about this gotcha is the seemingly prevalent misinformation that this has something to do with lambdas in Python. Functions created with a lambda expression are in no way special, and in fact the same exact behavior is exhibited by just using an ordinary def: def create_multipliers(): multipliers = [] for i in range(5): def multiplier(x): return i * x multipliers.append(multiplier) return multipliers

What You Should Do Instead The most general solution is arguably a bit of a hack. Due to Python’s aforementioned behavior concerning evaluating default arguments to functions (see Mutable Default Arguments), you can create a closure that binds immediately to its arguments by using a default arg like so: def create_multipliers(): return [lambda x, i=i : i * x for i in range(5)]

Alternatively, you can use the functools.partial function: from functools import partial from operator import mul def create_multipliers(): return [partial(mul, i) for i in range(5)]

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When the Gotcha Isn’t a Gotcha Sometimes you want your closures to behave this way. Late binding is good in lots of situations. Looping to create unique functions is unfortunately a case where they can cause hiccups.

Bytecode (.pyc) Files Everywhere! By default, when executing Python code from files, the Python interpreter will automatically write a bytecode version of that file to disk, e.g. module.pyc. These .pyc files should not be checked into your source code repositories. Theoretically, this behavior is on by default, for performance reasons. Without these bytecode files present, Python would re-generate the bytecode every time the file is loaded. Disabling Bytecode (.pyc) Files Luckily, the process of generating the bytecode is extremely fast, and isn’t something you need to worry about while developing your code. Those files are annoying, so let’s get rid of them! $export PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE=1 With the$PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE environment variable set, Python will no longer write these files to disk, and your development environment will remain nice and clean. I recommend setting this environment variable in your ~/.profile. Removing Bytecode (.pyc) Files Here’s nice trick for removing all of these files, if they already exist: $find . -type f -name "*.py[co]" -delete -or -type d -name "__pycache__" -delete Run that from the root directory of your project, and all .pyc files will suddenly vanish. Much better. Version Control Ignores If you still need the .pyc files for performance reasons, you can always add them to the ignore files of your version control repositories. Popular version control systems have the ability to use wildcards defined in a file to apply special rules. An ignore file will make sure the matching files don’t get checked into the repository. Git uses .gitignore while Mercurial uses .hgignore. At the minimum your ignore files should look like this. syntax:glob *.py[cod] __pycache__/ # This line is not needed for .gitignore files. # Will match .pyc, .pyo and .pyd files. # Exclude the whole folder You may wish to include more files and directories depending on your needs. The next time you commit to the repository, these files will not be included. 3.7. Common Gotchas 63 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Choosing a License Your source publication needs a license. In the US, if no license is specified, users have no legal right to download, modify, or distribute. Furthermore, people can’t contribute to your code unless you tell them what rules to play by. Choosing a license is complicated, so here are some pointers: Open source. There are plenty of open source licenses available to choose from. In general, these licenses tend to fall into one of two categories: 1. licenses that focus more on the user’s freedom to do with the software as they please (these are the more permissive open source licenses such as the MIT, BSD, & Apache). 2. licenses that focus more on making sure that the code itself — including any changes made to it and distributed along with it — always remains free (these are the less permissive free software licenses such as the GPL and LGPL). The latter are less permissive in the sense that they don’t permit someone to add code to the software and distribute it without also including the source code for their changes. To help you choose one for your project, there’s a license chooser, use it. More Permissive PSFL (Python Software Foundation License) – for contributing to Python itself MIT / BSD / ISC • MIT (X11) • New BSD • ISC Apache Less Permissive: LGPL GPL • GPLv2 • GPLv3 A good overview of licenses with explanations of what one can, cannot, and must do using a particular software can be found at tl;drLegal. 64 Capítulo 3. Escribiendo Buen Código Python CAPÍTULO 4 Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Esta parte de la guía está enfocada en herramientas y módulos basado en diferentes escenarios. Network Applications HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. Requests Python’s standard urllib2 module provides most of the HTTP capabilities you need, but the API is thoroughly broken. It was built for a different time — and a different web. It requires an enormous amount of work (even method overrides) to perform the simplest of tasks. Requests takes all of the work out of Python HTTP — making your integration with web services seamless. There’s no need to manually add query strings to your URLs, or to form-encode your POST data. Keep-alive and HTTP connection pooling are 100 % automatic, powered by urllib3, which is embedded within Requests. Documentation PyPi GitHub Distributed Systems ZeroMQ ØMQ (also spelled ZeroMQ, 0MQ or ZMQ) is a high-performance asynchronous messaging library aimed at use in scalable distributed or concurrent applications. It provides a message queue, but unlike message-oriented middleware, a ØMQ system can run without a dedicated message broker. The library is designed to have a familiar socket-style API. 65 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 RabbitMQ RabbitMQ is an open source message broker software that implements the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP). The RabbitMQ server is written in the Erlang programming language and is built on the Open Telecom Platform framework for clustering and failover. Client libraries to interface with the broker are available for all major programming languages. Homepage GitHub Organization Web Applications & Frameworks As a powerful scripting language adapted to both fast prototyping and bigger projects, Python is widely used in web application development. Context WSGI The Web Server Gateway Interface (or “WSGI” for short) is a standard interface between web servers and Python web application frameworks. By standardizing behavior and communication between web servers and Python web frameworks, WSGI makes it possible to write portable Python web code that can be deployed in any WSGI-compliant web server. WSGI is documented in PEP 3333. Frameworks Broadly speaking, a web framework consists of a set of libraries and a main handler within which you can build custom code to implement a web application (i.e. an interactive web site). Most web frameworks include patterns and utilities to accomplish at least the following: URL Routing Matches an incoming HTTP request to a particular piece of Python code to be invoked Request and Response Objects Encapsulate the information received from or sent to a user’s browser Template Engine Allows for separating Python code implementing an application’s logic from the HTML (or other) output that it produces Development Web Server Runs an HTTP server on development machines to enable rapid development; often automatically reloads server-side code when files are updated Django Django is a “batteries included” web application framework, and is an excellent choice for creating content-oriented websites. By providing many utilities and patterns out of the box, Django aims to make it possible to build complex, database-backed web applications quickly, while encouraging best practices in code written using it. Django has a large and active community, and many pre-built re-usable modules that can be incorporated into a new project as-is, or customized to fit your needs. There are annual Django conferences in the United States and in Europe. The majority of new Python web applications today are built with Django. 66 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Flask Flask is a “microframework” for Python, and is an excellent choice for building smaller applications, APIs, and web services. Building an app with Flask is a lot like writing standard Python modules, except some functions have routes attached to them. It’s really beautiful. Rather than aiming to provide everything you could possibly need, Flask implements the most commonly-used core components of a web application framework, like URL routing, request and response objects, and templates. If you use Flask, it is up to you to choose other components for your application, if any. For example, database access or form generation and validation are not built-in functions of Flask. This is great, because many web applications don’t need those features. For those that do, there are many Extensions available that may suit your needs. Or, you can easily use any library you want yourself! Flask is default choice for any Python web application that isn’t a good fit for Django. Tornado Tornado is an asyncronous web framework for Python that has its own event loop. This allows it to natively support WebSockets, for example. Well-written Tornado applications are known to have excellent performance characteristics. I do not recommend using Tornado unless you think you need it. Pyramid Pyramid is a very flexible framework with a heavy focus on modularity. It comes with a small number of libraries (“batteries”) built-in, and encourages users to extend its base functionality. Pyramid does not have a large user base, unlike Django and Flask. It’s a capable framework, but not a very popular choice for new Python web applications today. Web Servers Nginx Nginx (pronounced “engine-x”) is a web server and reverse-proxy for HTTP, SMTP and other protocols. It is known for its high performance, relative simplicity, and compatibility with many application servers (like WSGI servers). It also includes handy features like load-balancing, basic authentication, streaming, and others. Designed to serve high-load websites, Nginx is gradually becoming quite popular. WSGI Servers Stand-alone WSGI servers typically use less resources than traditional web servers and provide top performance 3 . 3 Benchmark of Python WSGI Servers 4.2. Web Applications & Frameworks 67 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Gunicorn Gunicorn (Green Unicorn) is a pure-python WSGI server used to serve Python applications. Unlike other Python web servers, it has a thoughtful user-interface, and is extremely easy to use and configure. Gunicorn has sane and reasonable defaults for configurations. However, some other servers, like uWSGI, are tremendously more customizable, and therefore, are much more difficult to effectively use. Gunicorn is the recommended choice for new Python web applications today. Waitress Waitress is a pure-python WSGI server that claims “very acceptable performance”. Its documentation is not very detailed, but it does offer some nice functionality that Gunicorn doesn’t have (e.g. HTTP request buffering). Waitress is gaining popularity within the Python web development community. uWSGI uWSGI is a full stack for building hosting services. In addition to process management, process monitoring, and other functionality, uWSGI acts as an application server for various programming languages and protocols - including Python and WSGI. uWSGI can either be run as a stand-alone web router, or be run behind a full web server (such as Nginx or Apache). In the latter case, a web server can configure uWSGI and an application’s operation over the uwsgi protocol. uWSGI’s web server support allows for dynamically configuring Python, passing environment variables and further tuning. For full details, see uWSGI magic variables. I do not recommend using uWSGI unless you know why you need it. Server Best Practices The majority of self-hosted Python applications today are hosted with a WSGI server such as Gunicorn, either directly or behind a lightweight web server such as nginx. The WSGI servers serve the Python applications while the web server handles tasks better suited for it such as static file serving, request routing, DDoS protection, and basic authentication. Hosting Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) is a type of cloud computing infrastructure which abstracts and manages infrastructure, routing, and scaling of web applications. When using a PaaS, application developers can focus on writing application code rather than needing to be concerned with deployment details. Heroku Heroku offers first-class support for Python 2.7–3.5 applications. Heroku supports all types of Python web applications, servers, and frameworks. Applications can be developed on Heroku for free. Once your application is ready for production, you can upgrade to a Hobby or Professional application. Heroku maintains detailed articles on using Python with Heroku, as well as step-by-step instructions on how to set up your first application. Heroku is the recommended PaaS for deploying Python web applications today. 68 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Eldarion Eldarion (formely known as Gondor) is a PaaS powered by Kubernetes, CoreOS, and Docker. They support any WSGI application and have a guide on deploying Django projects. Templating Most WSGI applications are responding to HTTP requests to serve content in HTML or other markup languages. Instead of generating directly textual content from Python, the concept of separation of concerns advises us to use templates. A template engine manages a suite of template files, with a system of hierarchy and inclusion to avoid unnecessary repetition, and is in charge of rendering (generating) the actual content, filling the static content of the templates with the dynamic content generated by the application. As template files are sometimes written by designers or front-end developers, it can be difficult to handle increasing complexity. Some general good practices apply to the part of the application passing dynamic content to the template engine, and to the templates themselves. Template files should be passed only the dynamic content that is needed for rendering the template. Avoid the temptation to pass additional content “just in case”: it is easier to add some missing variable when needed than to remove a likely unused variable later. Many template engines allow for complex statements or assignments in the template itself, and many allow some Python code to be evaluated in the templates. This convenience can lead to uncontrolled increase in complexity, and often make it harder to find bugs. It is often necessary to mix JavaScript templates with HTML templates. A sane approach to this design is to isolate the parts where the HTML template passes some variable content to the JavaScript code. Jinja2 Jinja2 is a very well-regarded template engine. It uses a text-based template language and can thus be used to generate any type markup, not just HTML. It allows customization of filters, tags, tests and globals. It features many improvements over Django’s templating system. Here some important html tags in Jinja2: {# This is a comment #} {# The next tag is a variable output: #} {{title}} {# Tag for a block, can be replaced through inheritance with other html code #} {% block head %} # This is the head! {% endblock %} {# Output of an array as an iteration #} {% for item in list %} • {{ item }} • {% endfor %} The next listings is an example of a web site in combination with the Tornado web server. Tornado is not very complicated to use. 4.2. Web Applications & Frameworks 69 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 # import Jinja2 from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader # import Tornado import tornado.ioloop import tornado.web # Load template file templates/site.html TEMPLATE_FILE = "site.html" templateLoader = FileSystemLoader( searchpath="templates/" ) templateEnv = Environment( loader=templateLoader ) template = templateEnv.get_template(TEMPLATE_FILE) # List for famous movie rendering movie_list = [[1,"The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy"],[2,"Back to future"],[3,"Matrix"]] # template.render() returns a string which contains the rendered html html_output = template.render(list=movie_list, title="Here is my favorite movie list") # Handler for main page class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler): def get(self): # Returns rendered template string to the browser request self.write(html_output) # Assign handler to the server root (127.0.0.1:PORT/) application = tornado.web.Application([ (r"/", MainHandler), ]) PORT=8884 if __name__ == "__main__": # Setup the server application.listen(PORT) tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start() The base.html file can be used as base for all site pages which are for example implemented in the content block. {{title}} - My Webpage Guarda ultimo episodio toddler retro 6 jordans {# In the next line the content from the site.html template will be added #} {% block content %}{% endblock %} The next listing is our site page (site.html) loaded in the Python app which extends base.html. The content block is automatically set into the corresponding block in the base.html page. 70 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 {% extends "base.html" %} {% block content %} ## {{title}} {{ list_title }} {% for item in list %} • {{ item[0]}} : {{ item[1]}} • {% endfor %} {% endblock %} Jinja2 is the recommended templating library for new Python web applications. Chameleon Chameleon Page Templates are an HTML/XML template engine implementation of the Template Attribute Language (TAL), TAL Expression Syntax (TALES), and Macro Expansion TAL (Metal) syntaxes. Chameleon is available for Python 2.5 and up (including 3.x and pypy), and is commonly used by the Pyramid Framework. Page Templates add within your document structure special element attributes and text markup. Using a set of simple language constructs, you control the document flow, element repetition, text replacement and translation. Because of the attribute-based syntax, unrendered page templates are valid HTML and can be viewed in a browser and even edited in WYSIWYG editors. This can make round-trip collaboration with designers and prototyping with static files in a browser easier. The basic TAL language is simple enough to grasp from an example: Guarda ultimo episodio toddler retro 6 jordans # Hello, World! The pattern for text insertion is common enough that if you do not require strict validity in your unrendered templates, you can replace it with a more terse and readable syntax that uses the pattern${expression}, as follows: Guarda ultimo episodio
toddler retro 6 jordans

# Hello, ${world}! 4.2. Web Applications & Frameworks 71 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 ${row.capitalize()} ${col} But keep in mind that the full Default Text syntax also allows for default content in the unrendered template. Being from the Pyramid world, Chameleon is not widely used. Mako Mako is a template language that compiles to Python for maximum performance. Its syntax and api is borrowed from the best parts of other templating languages like Django and Jinja2 templates. It is the default template language included with the Pylons and Pyramid web frameworks. An example template in Mako looks like: <%inherit file="base.html"/> <% rows = [[v for v in range(0,10)] for row in range(0,10)] %> % for row in rows:${makerow(row)} % endfor
<%def name="makerow(row)"> % for name in row: ${name}\ % endfor To render a very basic template, you can do the following: from mako.template import Template print(Template("hello${data}!").render(data="world"))

Mako is well respected within the Python web community. References

HTML Scraping Web Scraping Web sites are written using HTML, which means that each web page is a structured document. Sometimes it would be great to obtain some data from them and preserve the structure while we’re at it. Web sites don’t always provide their data in comfortable formats such as csv or json. This is where web scraping comes in. Web scraping is the practice of using a computer program to sift through a web page and gather the data that you need in a format most useful to you while at the same time preserving the structure of the data. 72

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lxml and Requests lxml is a pretty extensive library written for parsing XML and HTML documents very quickly, even handling messed up tags in the process. We will also be using the Requests module instead of the already built-in urllib2 module due to improvements in speed and readability. You can easily install both using pip install lxml and pip install requests. Let’s start with the imports: from lxml import html import requests

Next we will use requests.get to retrieve the web page with our data, parse it using the html module and save the results in tree: page = requests.get('http://econpy.pythonanywhere.com/ex/001.html') tree = html.fromstring(page.content)

(We need to use page.content rather than page.text because html.fromstring implicitly expects bytes as input.) tree now contains the whole HTML file in a nice tree structure which we can go over two different ways: XPath and CSSSelect. In this example, we will focus on the former. XPath is a way of locating information in structured documents such as HTML or XML documents. A good introduction to XPath is on W3Schools . There are also various tools for obtaining the XPath of elements such as FireBug for Firefox or the Chrome Inspector. If you’re using Chrome, you can right click an element, choose ‘Inspect element’, highlight the code, right click again and choose ‘Copy XPath’. After a quick analysis, we see that in our page the data is contained in two elements - one is a div with title ‘buyername’ and the other is a span with class ‘item-price’:
Carson Busses
$29.95 Knowing this we can create the correct XPath query and use the lxml xpath function like this: #This will create a list of buyers: buyers = tree.xpath('//div[@title="buyer-name"]/text()') #This will create a list of prices prices = tree.xpath('//span[@class="item-price"]/text()') Let’s see what we got exactly: print 'Buyers: ', buyers print 'Prices: ', prices Buyers: ['Carson Busses', 'Earl E. Byrd', 'Patty Cakes', 'Derri Anne Connecticut', 'Moe Dess', 'Leda Doggslife', 'Dan Druff', 'Al Fresco', 'Ido Hoe', 'Howie Kisses', 'Len Lease', 'Phil Meup', 'Ira Pent', 'Ben D. Rules', 'Ave Sectomy', 'Gary Shattire', 'Bobbi Soks', 'Sheila Takya', 'Rose Tattoo', 'Moe Tell'] Prices: ['$29.95', '$8.37', '$15.26', '$19.25', '$19.25', '$13.99', '$31.57', '$8.49', '$14.47', '$15.86', '$11.11', '$15.98', '$16.27', '$7.50', '$50.85', '$14.26', '$5.68', '$15.00', '$114.07', '$10.09'] 4.3. HTML Scraping 73 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Congratulations! We have successfully scraped all the data we wanted from a web page using lxml and Requests. We have it stored in memory as two lists. Now we can do all sorts of cool stuff with it: we can analyze it using Python or we can save it to a file and share it with the world. Some more cool ideas to think about are modifying this script to iterate through the rest of the pages of this example dataset, or rewriting this application to use threads for improved speed. If you want to learn how to import data using python - this DataCamp course on Importing Data is a great place to start. Command-line Applications Command-line applications, also referred to as Console Applications, are computer programs designed to be used from a text interface, such as a shell. Command-line applications usually accept various inputs as arguments, often referred to as parameters or sub-commands, as well as options, often referred to as flags or switches. Some popular command-line applications include: Grep - A plain-text data search utility curl - A tool for data transfer with URL syntax httpie - A command line HTTP client, a user-friendly cURL replacement git - A distributed version control system mercurial - A distributed version control system primarily written in Python Clint clint is a Python module which is filled with very useful tools for developing command-line applications. It supports features such as; CLI colors and indents, simple and powerful column printer, iterator based progress bars and implicit argument handling. Click click is a Python package for creating command-line interfaces in a composable way with as little code as possible. This “Command-line Interface Creation Kit” is highly configurable but comes with good defaults out of the box. docopt docopt is a lightweight, highly Pythonic package that allows creating command-line interfaces easily and intuitively, by parsing POSIX-style usage instructions. Plac Plac is a simple wrapper over the Python standard library argparse, which hides most of its complexity by using a declarative interface: the argument parser is inferred rather than written down by imperatively. This module targets especially unsophisticated users, programmers, sys-admins, scientists and in general people writing throw-away scripts for themselves, who choose to create a command-line interface because it is quick and simple. 74 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Cliff Cliff is a framework for building command-line programs. It uses setuptools entry points to provide subcommands, output formatters, and other extensions. The framework is meant to be used to create multi-level commands such as subversion and git, where the main program handles some basic argument parsing and then invokes a sub-command to do the work. Cement Cement is an advanced CLI Application Framework. Its goal is to introduce a standard, and feature-full platform for both simple and complex command line applications as well as support rapid development needs without sacrificing quality. Cement is flexible, and it’s use cases span from the simplicity of a micro-framework to the complexity of a meg-framework. GUI Applications Alphabetical list of GUI Applications. Camelot Camelot provides components for building applications on top of Python, SQLAlchemy and Qt. It is inspired by the Django admin interface. The main resource for information is the website: http://www.python-camelot.com and the mailing list http://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/project-camelot Cocoa Nota: The Cocoa framework is only available on OS X. Don’t pick this if you’re writing a cross-platform application! GTk PyGTK provides Python bindings for the GTK+ toolkit. Like the GTK+ library itself, it is currently licensed under the GNU LGPL. It is worth noting that PyGTK only currently supports the Gtk-2.X API (NOT Gtk-3.0). It is currently recommended that PyGTK not be used for new projects and that existing applications be ported from PyGTK to PyGObject. PyGObject aka (PyGi) PyGObject provides Python bindings, which gives access to the entire GNOME software platform. It is fully compatible with GTK+ 3. Here is a tutorial to get started with Python GTK+ 3 Tutorial. API Reference 4.5. GUI Applications 75 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Kivy Kivy is a Python library for development of multi-touch enabled media rich applications. The aim is to allow for quick and easy interaction design and rapid prototyping, while making your code reusable and deployable. Kivy is written in Python, based on OpenGL and supports different input devices such as: Mouse, Dual Mouse, TUIO, WiiMote, WM_TOUCH, HIDtouch, Apple’s products and so on. Kivy is actively being developed by a community and is free to use. It operates on all major platforms (Linux, OSX, Windows, Android). The main resource for information is the website: http://kivy.org PyObjC Nota: Only available on OS X. Don’t pick this if you’re writing a cross-platform application. PySide PySide is a Python binding of the cross-platform GUI toolkit Qt. pip install pyside http://wiki.qt.io/Category:LanguageBindings::PySide::Downloads PyQt Nota: If your software does not fully comply with the GPL you will need a commercial license! PyQt provides Python bindings for the Qt Framework (see below). http://www.riverbankcomputing.co.uk/software/pyqt/download PyjamasDesktop (pyjs Desktop) PyjamasDesktop is a port of Pyjamas. PyjamasDesktop is application widget set for desktop and a cross-platform framework. (After release v0.6 PyjamasDesktop is a part of Pyjamas (Pyjs)). Briefly, it allows the exact same Python web application source code to be executed as a standalone desktop application. Python Wiki for PyjamasDesktop. The main website; pyjs Desktop. Qt Qt is a cross-platform application framework that is widely used for developing software with a GUI but can also be used for non-GUI applications. 76 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Tk Tkinter is a thin object-oriented layer on top of Tcl/Tk. It has the advantage of being included with the Python standard library, making it the most convenient and compatible toolkit to program with. Both Tk and Tkinter are available on most Unix platforms, as well as on Windows and Macintosh systems. Starting with the 8.0 release, Tk offers native look and feel on all platforms. There’s a good multi-language Tk tutorial with Python examples at TkDocs. There’s more information available on the Python Wiki. wxPython wxPython is a GUI toolkit for the Python programming language. It allows Python programmers to create programs with a robust, highly functional graphical user interface, simply and easily. It is implemented as a Python extension module (native code) that wraps the popular wxWidgets cross platform GUI library, which is written in C++. Install (Stable) wxPython go to http://www.wxpython.org/download.php#stable and download the appropriate package for your OS. Databases DB-API The Python Database API (DB-API) defines a standard interface for Python database access modules. It’s documented in PEP 249. Nearly all Python database modules such as sqlite3, psycopg and mysql-python conform to this interface. Tutorials that explain how to work with modules that conform to this interface can be found here and here. SQLAlchemy SQLAlchemy is a commonly used database toolkit. Unlike many database libraries it not only provides an ORM layer but also a generalized API for writing database-agnostic code without SQL.$ pip install sqlalchemy

Records Records is minimalist SQL library, designed for sending raw SQL queries to various databases. Data can be used programmatically, or exported to a number of useful data formats. $pip install records Also included is a command-line tool for exporting SQL data. Django ORM The Django ORM is the interface used by Django to provide database access. It’s based on the idea of models, an abstraction that makes it easier to manipulate data in Python. The basics: 4.6. Databases 77 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Each model is a Python class that subclasses django.db.models.Model. Each attribute of the model represents a database field. Django gives you an automatically-generated database-access API; see Making queries. peewee peewee is another ORM with a focus on being lightweight with support for Python 2.6+ and 3.2+ which supports SQLite, MySQL and Postgres by default. The model layer is similar to that of the Django ORM and it has SQL-like methods to query data. While SQLite, MySQL and Postgres are supported out-of-the-box, there is a collection of add-ons available. PonyORM PonyORM is an ORM that takes a different approach to querying the database. Instead of writing an SQL-like language or boolean expressions, Python’s generator syntax is used. There’s also an graphical schema editor that can generate PonyORM entities for you. It supports Python 2.6+ and Python 3.3+ and can connect to SQLite, MySQL, Postgres & Oracle SQLObject SQLObject is yet another ORM. It supports a wide variety of databases: Common database systems MySQL, Postgres and SQLite and more exotic systems like SAP DB, SyBase and MSSQL. It only supports Python 2 from Python 2.6 upwards. Networking Twisted Twisted is an event-driven networking engine. It can be used to build applications around many different networking protocols, including http servers and clients, applications using SMTP, POP3, IMAP or SSH protocols, instant messaging and much more. PyZMQ PyZMQ is the Python binding for ZeroMQ, which is a high-performance asynchronous messaging library. One great advantage of ZeroMQ is that it can be used for message queuing without a message broker. The basic patterns for this are: request-reply: connects a set of clients to a set of services. This is a remote procedure call and task distribution pattern. publish-subscribe: connects a set of publishers to a set of subscribers. This is a data distribution pattern. push-pull (or pipeline): connects nodes in a fan-out / fan-in pattern that can have multiple steps, and loops. This is a parallel task distribution and collection pattern. For a quick start, read the ZeroMQ guide. 78 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 gevent gevent is a coroutine-based Python networking library that uses greenlets to provide a high-level synchronous API on top of the libev event loop. Systems Administration Fabric Fabric is a library for simplifying system administration tasks. While Chef and Puppet tend to focus on managing servers and system libraries, Fabric is more focused on application level tasks such as deployment. Install Fabric:$ pip install fabric

The following code will create two tasks that we can use: memory_usage and deploy. The former will output the memory usage on each machine. The latter will ssh into each server, cd to our project directory, activate the virtual environment, pull the newest codebase, and restart the application server. from fabric.api import cd, env, prefix, run, task env.hosts = ['my_server1', 'my_server2'] @task def memory_usage(): run('free -m') @task def deploy(): with cd('/var/www/project-env/project'): with prefix('. ../bin/activate'): run('git pull') run('touch app.wsgi')

With the previous code saved in a file named fabfile.py, we can check memory usage with: $fab memory_usage [my_server1] Executing task 'memory' [my_server1] run: free -m [my_server1] out: total [my_server1] out: Mem: 6964 [my_server1] out: -/+ buffers/cache: [my_server1] out: Swap: 0 used 1897 1509 0 free 5067 5455 0 shared 0 buffers 166 cached 222 [my_server2] [my_server2] [my_server2] [my_server2] [my_server2] [my_server2] used 902 148 1 free 764 1517 894 shared 0 buffers 180 cached 572 Executing task 'memory' run: free -m out: total out: Mem: 1666 out: -/+ buffers/cache: out: Swap: 895 and we can deploy with:$ fab deploy

Additional features include parallel execution, interaction with remote programs, and host grouping. 4.8. Systems Administration

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Fabric Documentation

Salt Salt is an open source infrastructure management tool. It supports remote command execution from a central point (master host) to multiple hosts (minions). It also supports system states which can be used to configure multiple servers using simple template files. Salt supports Python versions 2.6 and 2.7 and can be installed via pip: $pip install salt After configuring a master server and any number of minion hosts, we can run arbitrary shell commands or use prebuilt modules of complex commands on our minions. The following command lists all available minion hosts, using the ping module.$ salt '*' test.ping

The host filtering is accomplished by matching the minion id, or using the grains system. The grains system uses static host information like the operating system version or the CPU architecture to provide a host taxonomy for the Salt modules. The following command lists all available minions running CentOS using the grains system: $salt -G 'os:CentOS' test.ping Salt also provides a state system. States can be used to configure the minion hosts. For example, when a minion host is ordered to read the following state file, it will install and start the Apache server: apache: pkg: - installed service: - running - enable: True - require: - pkg: apache State files can be written using YAML, the Jinja2 template system or pure Python. Salt Documentation Psutil Psutil is an interface to different system information (e.g. CPU, memory, disks, network, users and processes). Here is an example to be aware of some server overload. If any of the tests (net, CPU) fail, it will send an email. # Functions to get system values: from psutil import cpu_percent, net_io_counters # Functions to take a break: from time import sleep # Package for email services: import smtplib import string MAX_NET_USAGE = 400000 MAX_ATTACKS = 4 80 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 attack = 0 counter = 0 while attack <= MAX_ATTACKS: sleep(4) counter = counter + 1 # Check the cpu usage if cpu_percent(interval = 1) > 70: attack = attack + 1 # Check the net usage neti1 = net_io_counters()[1] neto1 = net_io_counters()[0] sleep(1) neti2 = net_io_counters()[1] neto2 = net_io_counters()[0] # Calculate the bytes per second net = ((neti2+neto2) - (neti1+neto1))/2 if net > MAX_NET_USAGE: attack = attack + 1 if counter > 25: attack = 0 counter = 0 # Write a very important email if attack is higher than 4 TO = "[email protected]_email.com" FROM = "[email protected]_domain.com" SUBJECT = "Your domain is out of system resources!" text = "Go and fix your server!" BODY = string.join(("From: %s" %FROM,"To: %s" %TO,"Subject: %s" %SUBJECT, "",text), "\r\n") server = smtplib.SMTP('127.0.0.1') server.sendmail(FROM, [TO], BODY) server.quit() A full terminal application like a widely extended top which is based on psutil and with the ability of a client-server monitoring is glance. Ansible Ansible is an open source system automation tool. The biggest advantage over Puppet or Chef is it does not require an agent on the client machine. Playbooks are Ansible’s configuration, deployment, and orchestration language and are written in YAML with Jinja2 for templating. Ansible supports Python versions 2.6 and 2.7 and can be installed via pip:$ pip install ansible

Ansible requires an inventory file that describes the hosts to which it has access. Below is an example of a host and playbook that will ping all the hosts in the inventory file. Here is an example inventory file: hosts.yml [server_name] 127.0.0.1

Here is an example playbook: ping.yml --- hosts: all tasks:

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- name: ping action: ping

To run the playbook: ansible-playbook ping.yml -i hosts.yml --ask-pass The Ansible playbook will ping all of the servers in the hosts.yml file. You can also select groups of servers using Ansible. For more information about Ansible, read the Ansible Docs. An Ansible tutorial is also a great and detailed introduction to getting started with Ansible. Chef Chef is a systems and cloud infrastructure automation framework that makes it easy to deploy servers and applications to any physical, virtual, or cloud location. In case this is your choice for configuration management, you will primarily use Ruby to write your infrastructure code. Chef clients run on every server that is part of your infrastructure and these regularly check with your Chef server to ensure your system is always aligned and represents the desired state. Since each individual server has its own distinct Chef client, each server configures itself and this distributed approach makes Chef a scalable automation platform. Chef works by using custom recipes (configuration elements), implemented in cookbooks. Cookbooks, which are basically packages for infrastructure choices, are usually stored in your Chef server. Read the Digital Ocean tutorial series on chef to learn how to create a simple Chef Server. To create a simple cookbook the knife command is used: knife cookbook create cookbook_name Getting started with Chef is a good starting point for Chef Beginners and many community maintained cookbooks that can serve as a good reference or tweaked to serve your infrastructure configuration needs can be found on the Chef Supermarket. Chef Documentation Puppet Puppet is IT Automation and configuration management software from Puppet Labs that allows System Administrators to define the state of their IT Infrastructure, thereby providing an elegant way to manage their fleet of physical and virtual machines. Puppet is available both as an Open Source and an Enterprise variant. Modules are small, shareable units of code written to automate or define the state of a system. Puppet Forge is a repository for modules written by the community for Open Source and Enterprise Puppet. Puppet Agents are installed on nodes whose state needs to be monitored or changed. A designated server known as the Puppet Master is responsible for orchestrating the agent nodes. Agent nodes send basic facts about the system such as to the operating system, kernel, architecture, ip address, hostname etc. to the Puppet Master. The Puppet Master then compiles a catalog with information provided by the agents on how each node should be configured and sends it to the agent. The agent enforces the change as prescribed in the catalog and sends a report back to the Puppet Master. Facter is an interesting tool that ships with Puppet that pulls basic facts about the system. These facts can be referenced as a variable while writing your Puppet modules. 82 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 facter kernel Linux $facter operatingsystem Ubuntu Writing Modules in Puppet is pretty straight forward. Puppet Manifests together form Puppet Modules. Puppet manifest end with an extension of .pp. Here is an example of ‘Hello World’ in Puppet. notify { 'This message is getting logged into the agent node': #As nothing is specified in the body the resource title #the notification message by default. } Here is another example with system based logic. Note how the operating system fact is being used as a variable prepended with the$ sign. Similarly, this holds true for other facts such as hostname which can be referenced by $hostname notify{ 'Mac Warning': message =>$operatingsystem ? { 'Darwin' => 'This seems to be a Mac.', default => 'I am a PC.', }, }

There are several resource types for Puppet but the package-file-service paradigm is all you need for undertaking majority of the configuration management. The following Puppet code makes sure that the OpenSSH-Server package is installed in a system and the sshd service is notified to restart everytime the sshd configuration file is changed. package { 'openssh-server': ensure => installed, } file { '/etc/ssh/sshd_config': source => 'puppet:///modules/sshd/sshd_config', owner => 'root', group => 'root', mode => '640', notify => Service['sshd'], # sshd will restart # whenever you edit this # file require => Package['openssh-server'], } service { 'sshd': ensure => running, enable => true, hasstatus => true, hasrestart=> true, }

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Buildout Buildout is an open source software build tool. Buildout is created using the Python programming language. It implements a principle of separation of configuration from the scripts that do the setting up. Buildout is primarily used to download and set up dependencies in Python eggs format of the software being developed or deployed. Recipes for build tasks in any environment can be created, and many are already available.

Shinken Shinken is a modern, Nagios compatible monitoring framework written in Python. Its main goal is to give users a flexible architecture for their monitoring system that is designed to scale to large environments. Shinken is backwards-compatible with the Nagios configuration standard, and plugins.It works on any operating system, and architecture that supports Python which includes Windows, GNU/Linux, and FreeBSD.

Continuous Integration Why? Martin Fowler, who first wrote about Continuous Integration (short: CI) together with Kent Beck, describes the CI as follows: Continuous Integration is a software development practice where members of a team integrate their work frequently, usually each person integrates at least daily - leading to multiple integrations per day. Each integration is verified by an automated build (including test) to detect integration errors as quickly as possible. Many teams find that this approach leads to significantly reduced integration problems and allows a team to develop cohesive software more rapidly.

Jenkins Jenkins CI is an extensible continuous integration engine. Use it.

Buildbot Buildbot is a Python system to automate the compile/test cycle to validate code changes.

Tox tox is an automation tool providing packaging, testing and deployment of Python software right from the console or CI server. It is a generic virtualenv management and test command line tool which provides the following features: Checking that packages install correctly with different Python versions and interpreters Running tests in each of the environments, configuring your test tool of choice

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Acting as a front-end to Continuous Integration servers, reducing boilerplate and merging CI and shell-based testing.

Travis-CI Travis-CI is a distributed CI server which builds tests for open source projects for free. It provides multiple workers to run Python tests on and seamlessly integrates with GitHub. You can even have it comment on your Pull Requests whether this particular changeset breaks the build or not. So if you are hosting your code on GitHub, travis-ci is a great and easy way to get started with Continuous Integration. In order to get started, add a .travis.yml file to your repository with this example content: language: python python: - "2.6" - "2.7" - "3.2" - "3.3" # command to install dependencies script: python tests/test_all_of_the_units.py branches: only: - master

This will get your project tested on all the listed Python versions by running the given script, and will only build the master branch. There are a lot more options you can enable, like notifications, before and after steps and much more. The travis-ci docs explain all of these options, and are very thorough. In order to activate testing for your project, go to the travis-ci site and login with your GitHub account. Then activate your project in your profile settings and you’re ready to go. From now on, your project’s tests will be run on every push to GitHub.

Speed CPython, the most commonly used implementation of Python, is slow for CPU bound tasks. PyPy is fast. Using a slightly modified version of David Beazley’s CPU bound test code (added loop for multiple tests), you can see the difference between CPython and PyPy’s processing. # PyPy $./pypy -V Python 2.7.1 (7773f8fc4223, Nov 18 2011, 18:47:10) [PyPy 1.7.0 with GCC 4.4.3]$ ./pypy measure2.py 0.0683999061584 0.0483210086823 0.0388588905334 0.0440690517426 0.0695300102234 # CPython $./python -V Python 2.7.1$ ./python measure2.py 1.06774401665 1.45412397385

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1.51485204697 1.54693889618 1.60109114647

Context The GIL The GIL (Global Interpreter Lock) is how Python allows multiple threads to operate at the same time. Python’s memory management isn’t entirely thread-safe, so the GIL is required to prevent multiple threads from running the same Python code at once. David Beazley has a great guide on how the GIL operates. He also covers the new GIL in Python 3.2. His results show that maximizing performance in a Python application requires a strong understanding of the GIL, how it affects your specific application, how many cores you have, and where your application bottlenecks are. C Extensions The GIL Special care must be taken when writing C extensions to make sure you register your threads with the interpreter.

C Extensions Cython Cython implements a superset of the Python language with which you are able to write C and C++ modules for Python. Cython also allows you to call functions from compiled C libraries. Using Cython allows you to take advantage of Python’s strong typing of variables and operations. Here’s an example of strong typing with Cython: def primes(int kmax): """Calculation of prime numbers with additional Cython keywords""" cdef int n, k, i cdef int p[1000] result = [] if kmax > 1000: kmax = 1000 k = 0 n = 2 while k < kmax: i = 0 while i < k and n % p[i] != 0: i = i + 1 if i == k: p[k] = n k = k + 1 result.append(n) n = n + 1 return result

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This implementation of an algorithm to find prime numbers has some additional keywords compared to the next one, which is implemented in pure Python: def primes(kmax): """Calculation of prime numbers in standard Python syntax""" p = range(1000) result = [] if kmax > 1000: kmax = 1000 k = 0 n = 2 while k < kmax: i = 0 while i < k and n % p[i] != 0: i = i + 1 if i == k: p[k] = n k = k + 1 result.append(n) n = n + 1 return result

Notice that in the Cython version you declare integers and integer arrays to be compiled into C types while also creating a Python list: def primes(int kmax): """Calculation of prime numbers with additional Cython keywords""" cdef int n, k, i cdef int p[1000] result = [] def primes(kmax): """Calculation of prime numbers in standard Python syntax""" p = range(1000) result = []

What is the difference? In the upper Cython version you can see the declaration of the variable types and the integer array in a similar way as in standard C. For example cdef int n,k,i in line 3. This additional type declaration (i.e. integer) allows the Cython compiler to generate more efficient C code from the second version. While standard Python code is saved in *.py files, Cython code is saved in *.pyx files. What’s the difference in speed? Let’s try it! import time #activate pyx compiler import pyximport pyximport.install() #primes implemented with Cython import primesCy #primes implemented with Python import primes print "Cython:" t1= time.time() print primesCy.primes(500) t2= time.time()

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print "Cython time: %s" %(t2-t1) print "" print "Python" t1= time.time() print primes.primes(500) t2= time.time() print "Python time: %s" %(t2-t1)

These lines both need a remark: import pyximport pyximport.install()

The pyximport module allows you to import *.pyx files (e.g., primesCy.pyx) with the Cython-compiled version of the primes function. The pyximport.install() command allows the Python interpreter to start the Cython compiler directly to generate C-code, which is automatically compiled to a *.so C-library. Cython is then able to import this library for you in your Python code, easily and efficiently. With the time.time() function you are able to compare the time between these 2 different calls to find 500 prime numbers. On a standard notebook (dual core AMD E-450 1.6 GHz), the measured values are: Cython time: 0.0054 seconds Python time: 0.0566 seconds

And here the output of an embedded ARM beaglebone machine: Cython time: 0.0196 seconds Python time: 0.3302 seconds

Pyrex Shedskin?

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from concurrent.futures import ThreadPoolExecutor import requests def get_webpage(url): page = requests.get(url) return page pool = ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=5) my_urls = ['http://google.com/']*10

# Create a list of urls

for page in pool.map(get_webpage, my_urls): # Do something with the result print(page.text)

For even more control, the submit(func, *args, **kwargs) method will schedule a callable to be executed ( as func(*args, **kwargs)) and returns a Future object that represents the execution of the callable. The Future object provides various methods that can be used to check on the progress of the scheduled callable. These include: cancel() Attempt to cancel the call. cancelled() Return True if the call was successfully cancelled. running() Return True if the call is currently being executed and cannot be cancelled. done() Return True if the call was successfully cancelled or finished running. result() Return the value returned by the call. Note that this call will block until the scheduled callable returns by default. exception() Return the exception raised by the call. If no exception was raised then this returns None. Note that this will block just like result(). add_done_callback(fn) Attach a callback function that will be executed (as fn(future)) when the scheduled callable returns. from concurrent.futures import ProcessPoolExecutor, as_completed def is_prime(n): if n % 2 == 0: return n, False sqrt_n = int(n**0.5) for i in range(3, sqrt_n + 1, 2): if n % i == 0: return n, False return n, True PRIMES = [ 112272535095293, 112582705942171, 112272535095293, 115280095190773, 115797848077099, 1099726899285419] futures = [] with ProcessPoolExecutor(max_workers=4) as pool: # Schedule the ProcessPoolExecutor to check if a number is prime

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# and add the returned Future to our list of futures for p in PRIMES: fut = pool.submit(is_prime, p) futures.append(fut) # As the jobs are completed, print out the results for number, result in as_completed(futures): if result: print("{} is prime".format(number)) else: print("{} is not prime".format(number))

After calling join(), it is always a good idea to check whether the thread is still alive (because the join call timed out): if some_thread.is_alive(): print("join() must have timed out.") else: print("Our thread has terminated.")

Because multiple threads have access to the same section of memory, sometimes there might be situations where two or more threads are trying to write to the same resource at the same time or where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of certain events. This is called a data race or race condition. When this happens, the output will be garbled or you may encounter problems which are difficult to debug. A good example is this stackoverflow post. The way this can be avoided is by using a Lock that each thread needs to acquire before writing to a shared resource. Locks can be acquired and released through either the contextmanager protocol (with statement), or by using acquire() and release() directly. Here is a (rather contrived) example: from threading import Lock, Thread file_lock = Lock()

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def log(msg): with file_lock: open('website_changes.log', 'w') as f: f.write(changes) def monitor_website(some_website): """ Monitor a website and then if there are any changes, log them to disk. """ while True: changes = check_for_changes(some_website) if changes: log(changes) websites = ['http://google.com/', ... ] for website in websites: t = Thread(monitor_website, website) t.start()

Here, we have a bunch of threads checking for changes on a list of sites and whenever there are any changes, they attempt to write those changes to a file by calling log(changes). When log() is called, it will wait to acquire the lock with with file_lock:. This ensures that at any one time, only one thread is writing to the file. Spawning Processes Multiprocessing

Scientific Applications Context Python is frequently used for high-performance scientific applications. It is widely used in academia and scientific projects because it is easy to write and performs well. Due to its high performance nature, scientific computing in Python often utilizes external libraries, typically written in faster languages (like C, or FORTRAN for matrix operations). The main libraries used are NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib. Going into detail about these libraries is beyond the scope of the Python guide. However, a comprehensive introduction to the scientific Python ecosystem can be found in the Python Scientific Lecture Notes

Tools IPython IPython is an enhanced version of Python interpreter, which provides features of great interest to scientists. The inline mode allows graphics and plots to be displayed in the terminal (Qt based version). Moreover, the notebook mode supports literate programming and reproducible science generating a web-based Python notebook. This notebook allows you to store chunks of Python code along side the results and additional comments (HTML, LaTeX, Markdown). The notebook can then be shared and exported in various file formats.

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Libraries NumPy NumPy is a low level library written in C (and FORTRAN) for high level mathematical functions. NumPy cleverly overcomes the problem of running slower algorithms on Python by using multidimensional arrays and functions that operate on arrays. Any algorithm can then be expressed as a function on arrays, allowing the algorithms to be run quickly. NumPy is part of the SciPy project, and is released as a separate library so people who only need the basic requirements can use it without installing the rest of SciPy. NumPy is compatible with Python versions 2.4 through to 2.7.2 and 3.1+. Numba Numba is a NumPy aware Python compiler (just-in-time (JIT) specializing compiler) which compiles annotated Python (and NumPy) code to LLVM (Low Level Virtual Machine) through special decorators. Briefly, Numba uses a system that compiles Python code with LLVM to code which can be natively executed at runtime. SciPy SciPy is a library that uses NumPy for more mathematical functions. SciPy uses NumPy arrays as the basic data structure, and comes with modules for various commonly used tasks in scientific programming, including linear algebra, integration (calculus), ordinary differential equation solving and signal processing. Matplotlib Matplotlib is a flexible plotting library for creating interactive 2D and 3D plots that can also be saved as manuscriptquality figures. The API in many ways reflects that of MATLAB, easing transition of MATLAB users to Python. Many examples, along with the source code to re-create them, are available in the matplotlib gallery. Pandas Pandas is data manipulation library based on Numpy which provides many useful functions for accessing, indexing, merging and grouping data easily. The main data structure (DataFrame) is close to what could be found in the R statistical package; that is, heterogeneous data tables with name indexing, time series operations and auto-alignment of data. Rpy2 Rpy2 is a Python binding for the R statistical package allowing the execution of R functions from Python and passing data back and forth between the two environments. Rpy2 is the object oriented implementation of the Rpy bindings. PsychoPy PsychoPy is a library for cognitive scientists allowing the creation of cognitive psychology and neuroscience experiments. The library handles presentation of stimuli, scripting of experimental design and data collection.

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Resources Installation of scientific Python packages can be troublesome, as many of these packages are implemented as Python C extensions which need to be compiled. This section lists various so-called scientific Python distributions which provide precompiled and easy-to-install collections of scientific Python packages. Unofficial Windows Binaries for Python Extension Packages Many people who do scientific computing are on Windows, yet many of the scientific computing packages are notoriously difficult to build and install on this platform. Christoph Gohlke however, has compiled a list of Windows binaries for many useful Python packages. The list of packages has grown from a mainly scientific Python resource to a more general list. If you’re on Windows, you may want to check it out. Anaconda Continuum Analytics offers the Anaconda Python Distribution which includes all the common scientific Python packages as well as many packages related to data analytics and big data. Anaconda itself is free, and Continuum sells a number of proprietary add-ons. Free licenses for the add-ons are available for academics and researchers. Canopy Canopy is another scientific Python distribution, produced by Enthought. A limited ‘Canopy Express’ variant is available for free, but Enthought charges for the full distribution. Free licenses are available for academics.

Image Manipulation Most image processing and manipulation techniques can be carried out effectively using two libraries: Python Imaging Library (PIL) and OpenSource Computer Vision (OpenCV). A brief description of both is given below.

Python Imaging Library The Python Imaging Library, or PIL for short, is one of the core libraries for image manipulation in Python. Unfortunately, its development has stagnated, with its last release in 2009. Luckily for you, there’s an actively-developed fork of PIL called Pillow - it’s easier to install, runs on all operating systems, and supports Python 3. Installation Before installing Pillow, you’ll have to install Pillow’s prerequisites. Find the instructions for your platform in the Pillow installation instructions. After that, it’s straightforward: $pip install Pillow 4.12. Image Manipulation 93 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Example from PIL import Image, ImageFilter #Read image im = Image.open( 'image.jpg' ) #Display image im.show() #Applying a filter to the image im_sharp = im.filter( ImageFilter.SHARPEN ) #Saving the filtered image to a new file im_sharp.save( 'image_sharpened.jpg', 'JPEG' ) #Splitting the image into its respective bands, i.e. Red, Green, #and Blue for RGB r,g,b = im_sharp.split() #Viewing EXIF data embedded in image exif_data = im._getexif() exif_data There are more examples of the Pillow library in the Pillow tutorial. OpenSource Computer Vision OpenSource Computer Vision, more commonly known as OpenCV, is a more advanced image manipulation and processing software than PIL. It has been implemented in several languages and is widely used. Installation In Python, image processing using OpenCV is implemented using the cv2 and NumPy modules. The installation instructions for OpenCV should guide you through configuring the project for yourself. NumPy can be downloaded from the Python Package Index(PyPI):$ pip install numpy

Example from cv2 import * import numpy as np #Read Image img = cv2.imread('testimg.jpg') #Display Image cv2.imshow('image',img) cv2.waitKey(0) cv2.destroyAllWindows() #Applying Grayscale filter to image gray = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) #Saving filtered image to new file cv2.imwrite('graytest.jpg',gray)

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Data Serialization What is data serialization? Data serialization is the concept of converting structured data into a format that allows it to be shared or stored in such a way that its original structure to be recovered. In some cases, the secondary intention of data serialization is to minimize the size of the serialized data which then minimizes disk space or bandwidth requirements.

Pickle The native data serialization module for Python is called Pickle. Here’s an example: import pickle #Here's an example dict grades = { 'Alice': 89, 'Bob': 72, 'Charles': 87 } #Use dumps to convert the object to a serialized string serial_grades = pickle.dumps( grades ) #Use loads to de-serialize an object received_grades = pickle.loads( serial_grades )

Protobuf If you’re looking for a serialization module that has support in multiple languages, Google’s Protobuf library is an option.

XML parsing untangle untangle is a simple library which takes an XML document and returns a Python object which mirrors the nodes and attributes in its structure. For example, an XML file like this:

can be loaded like this: import untangle obj = untangle.parse('path/to/file.xml')

and then you can get the child elements name like this: obj.root.child['name']

untangle also supports loading XML from a string or an URL. 4.13. Data Serialization

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xmltodict xmltodict is another simple library that aims at making XML feel like working with JSON. An XML file like this: elements more elements element as well

can be loaded into a Python dict like this: import xmltodict with open('path/to/file.xml') as fd: doc = xmltodict.parse(fd.read())

and then you can access elements, attributes and values like this: doc['mydocument']['@has'] # == u'an attribute' doc['mydocument']['and']['many'] # == [u'elements', u'more elements'] doc['mydocument']['plus']['@a'] # == u'complex' doc['mydocument']['plus']['#text'] # == u'element as well'

xmltodict also lets you roundtrip back to XML with the unparse function, has a streaming mode suitable for handling files that don’t fit in memory and supports namespaces.

JSON The json library can parse JSON from strings or files. The library parses JSON into a Python dictionary or list. It can also convert Python dictionaries or lists into JSON strings.

Parsing JSON Take the following string containing JSON data: json_string = '{"first_name": "Guido", "last_name":"Rossum"}'

It can be parsed like this: import json parsed_json = json.loads(json_string)

and can now be used as a normal dictionary: print(parsed_json['first_name']) "Guido"

You can also convert the following to JSON:

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d = { 'first_name': 'Guido', 'second_name': 'Rossum', 'titles': ['BDFL', 'Developer'], } print(json.dumps(d)) '{"first_name": "Guido", "last_name": "Rossum", "titles": ["BDFL", "Developer"]}'

simplejson The JSON library was added to Python in version 2.6. If you’re using an earlier version of Python, the simplejson library is available via PyPI. simplejson mimics the json standard library. It is available so that developers that use older versions of Python can use the latest features available in the json lib. You can start using simplejson when the json library is not available by importing simplejson under a different name: import simplejson as json

After importing simplejson as json, the above examples will all work as if you were using the standard json library.

Cryptography Cryptography Cryptography is an actively developed library that provides cryptographic recipes and primitives. It supports Python 2.6-2.7, Python 3.3+ and PyPy. Cryptography is divided into two layers of recipes and hazardous materials (hazmat). The recipes layer provides simple API for proper symmetric encryption and the hazmat layer provides low-level cryptographic primitives. Installation $pip install cryptography Example Example code using high level symmetric encryption recipe: from cryptography.fernet import Fernet key = Fernet.generate_key() cipher_suite = Fernet(key) cipher_text = cipher_suite.encrypt(b"A really secret message. Not for prying eyes.") plain_text = cipher_suite.decrypt(cipher_text) PyCrypto PyCrypto is another library, which provides secure hash functions and various encryption algorithms. It supports Python version 2.1 through 3.3. 4.16. Cryptography 97 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Installation$ pip install pycrypto

Example from Crypto.Cipher import AES # Encryption encryption_suite = AES.new('This is a key123', AES.MODE_CBC, 'This is an IV456') cipher_text = encryption_suite.encrypt("A really secret message. Not for prying eyes.") # Decryption decryption_suite = AES.new('This is a key123', AES.MODE_CBC, 'This is an IV456') plain_text = decryption_suite.decrypt(cipher_text)

Machine Learning Python has a vast number of libraries for data analysis, statistics and Machine Learning itself, making it a language of choice for many data scientists. Some widely used packages for Machine Learning and other Data Science applications are enlisted below.

Scipy Stack The Scipy stack consists of a bunch of core helper packages used in data science, for statistical analysis and visualising data. Because of its huge number of functionalities and ease of use, the Stack is considered a must-have for most data science applications. The Stack consists of the following packages (link to documentation given): 1. NumPy 2. SciPy library 3. Matplotlib 4. IPython 5. pandas 6. Sympy 7. nose The stack also comes with Python bundled in, but has been excluded from the above list. Installation For installing the full stack, or individual packages, you can refer to the instructions given here. NB: Anaconda is highly preferred and recommended for installing and maintaining data science packages seamlessly.

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scikit-learn Scikit is a free and open-source machine learning library for Python. It offers off-the-shelf functions to implement many algorithms like linear regression, classifiers, SVMs, k-means, Neural Networks etc. It also has a few sample datasets which can be directly used for training and testing. Because of its speed, robustness and easiness to use, it’s one of the most widely-used libraries for many Machine Learning applications. Installation Through PyPI: pip install -U scikit-learn

Through conda: conda install scikit-learn

scikit-learn also comes in shipped with Anaconda (mentioned above). For more installation instructions, refer to this link. Example For this example, we train a simple classifier on the Iris dataset, which comes bundled in with scikit-learn. The dataset takes four features of flowers: sepal length, sepal width, petal length and petal width, and classifies them into three flower species (labels): setosa, versicolor or virginica. The labels have been represented as numbers in the dataset: 0 (setosa), 1 (versicolor) and 2 (virginica). We shuffle the Iris dataset, and divide it into separate training and testing sets: keeping the last 10 data points for testing and rest for training. We then train the classifier on the training set, and predict on the testing set. from sklearn.datasets import load_iris from sklearn import tree from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score import numpy as np #loading the iris dataset iris = load_iris() x = iris.data #array of the data y = iris.target #array of labels (i.e answers) of each data entry #getting label names i.e the three flower species y_names = iris.target_names #taking random indices to split the dataset into train and test test_ids = np.random.permutation(len(x)) #splitting data and labels into train and test #keeping last 10 entries for testing, rest for training x_train = x[test_ids[:-10]] x_test = x[test_ids[-10:]] y_train = y[test_ids[:-10]]

4.17. Machine Learning

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y_test = y[test_ids[-10:]] #classifying using decision tree clf = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier() #training (fitting) the classifier with the training set clf.fit(x_train, y_train) #predictions on the test dataset pred = clf.predict(x_test) print pred #predicted labels i.e flower species print y_test #actual labels print (accuracy_score(pred, y_test))*100 #prediction accuracy

Since we’re splitting randomly and the classifier trains on every iteration, the accuracy may vary. Running the above code gives: [0 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 2 2] [0 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 2 2] 100.0

The first line contains the labels (i.e flower species) of the testing data as predicted by our classifier, and the second line contains the actual flower species as given in the dataset. We thus get an accuracy of 100 % this time. More on scikit-learn can be read in the documentation.

Interfacing with C/C++ Libraries C Foreign Function Interface CFFI provides a simple to use mechanism for interfacing with C from both CPython and PyPy. It supports two modes: an inline ABI compatibility mode (example provided below), which allows you to dynamically load and run functions from executable modules (essentially exposing the same functionality as LoadLibrary or dlopen), and an API mode, which allows you to build C extension modules. ABI Interaction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

from cffi import FFI ffi = FFI() ffi.cdef("size_t strlen(const char*);") clib = ffi.dlopen(None) length = clib.strlen("String to be evaluated.") # prints: 23 print("{}".format(length))

ctypes ctypes is the de facto library for interfacing with C/C++ from CPython, and it provides not only full access to the native C interface of most major operating systems (e.g., kernel32 on Windows, or libc on *nix), but also provides support for loading and interfacing with dynamic libraries, such as DLLs or shared objects at runtime. It does bring along with it a whole host of types for interacting with system APIs, and allows you to rather easily define your own complex types, such as structs and unions, and allows you to modify things such as padding and alignment, if needed. 100

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It can be a bit crufty to use, but in conjunction with the struct module, you are essentially provided full control over how your data types get translated into something usable by a pure C(++) method. Struct Equivalents MyStruct.h 1 2 3 4

struct my_struct { int a; int b; };

MyStruct.py 1 2 3 4

import ctypes class my_struct(ctypes.Structure): _fields_ = [("a", c_int), ("b", c_int)]

SWIG SWIG, though not strictly Python focused (it supports a large number of scripting languages), is a tool for generating bindings for interpreted languages from C/C++ header files. It is extremely simple to use: the consumer simply needs to define an interface file (detailed in the tutorial and documentations), include the requisite C/C++ headers, and run the build tool against them. While it does have some limits, (it currently seems to have issues with a small subset of newer C++ features, and getting template-heavy code to work can be a bit verbose), it provides a great deal of power and exposes lots of features to Python with little effort. Additionally, you can easily extend the bindings SWIG creates (in the interface file) to overload operators and built-in methods, effectively re- cast C++ exceptions to be catchable by Python, etc. Example: Overloading __repr__ MyClass.h 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

#include class MyClass { private: std::string name; public: std::string getName(); };

myclass.i 1

%include "string.i"

2 3 4 5 6 7

%module myclass %{ #include #include "MyClass.h" %}

8 9 10 11

%extend MyClass { std::string __repr__() {

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return $self->getName(); 12 } 13 14 } 15 16 %include "MyClass.h" Boost.Python Boost.Python requires a bit more manual work to expose C++ object functionality, but it is capable of providing all the same features SWIG does and then some, to include providing wrappers to access PyObjects in C++, extracting SWIG- wrapper objects, and even embedding bits of Python into your C++ code. 102 Capítulo 4. Guía de Escenarios para Aplicaciones Python CAPÍTULO 5 Entregar Buen Código Python Esta parte de la guía esta enfocada en la entrega de tu código Python. Packaging Your Code Package your code to share it with other developers. For example to share a library for other developers to use in their application, or for development tools like ‘py.test’. An advantage of this method of distribution is its well established ecosystem of tools such as PyPI and pip, which make it easy for other developers to download and install your package either for casual experiments, or as part of large, professional systems. It is a well-established convention for Python code to be shared this way. If your code isn’t packaged on PyPI, then it will be harder for other developers to find it, and to use it as part of their existing process. They will regard such projects with substantial suspicion of being either badly managed or abandoned. The downside of distributing code like this is that it relies on the recipient understanding how to install the required version of Python, and being able and willing to use tools such as pip to install your code’s other dependencies. This is fine when distributing to other developers, but makes this method unsuitable for distributing applications to end-users. The Python Packaging Guide provides an extensive guide on creating and maintaining Python packages. Alternatives to Packaging To distribute applications to end-users, you should freeze your application. On Linux, you may also want to consider creating a Linux distro package (e.g. a .deb file for Debian or Ubuntu.) For Python Developers If you’re writing an open source Python module, PyPI , more properly known as The Cheeseshop, is the place to host it. Pip vs. easy_install Use pip. More details here 103 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Personal PyPI If you want to install packages from a source other than PyPI, (say, if your packages are proprietary), you can do it by hosting a simple http server, running from the directory which holds those packages which need to be installed. Showing an example is always beneficial For example, if you want to install a package called MyPackage.tar.gz, and assuming this is your directory structure: archive • MyPackage ∘ MyPackage.tar.gz Go to your command prompt and type:$ cd archive $python -m SimpleHTTPServer 9000 This runs a simple http server running on port 9000 and will list all packages (like MyPackage). Now you can install MyPackage using any Python package installer. Using Pip, you would do it like:$ pip install --extra-index-url=http://127.0.0.1:9000/ MyPackage

Having a folder with the same name as the package name is crucial here. I got fooled by that, one time. But if you feel that creating a folder called MyPackage and keeping MyPackage.tar.gz inside that, is redundant, you can still install MyPackage using: $pip install http://127.0.0.1:9000/MyPackage.tar.gz pypiserver Pypiserver is a minimal PyPI compatible server. It can be used to serve a set of packages to easy_install or pip. It includes helpful features like an administrative command (-U) which will update all its packages to their latest versions found on PyPI. S3-Hosted PyPi One simple option for a personal PyPi server is to use Amazon S3. A prerequisite for this is that you have an Amazon AWS account with an S3 bucket. 1. Install all your requirements from PyPi or another source 2. Install pip2pi pip install git+http://github.com/wolever/pip2pi.git 3. Follow pip2pi README for pip2tgz and dir2pi commands pip2tgz packages/ YourPackage (or pip2tgz packages/ -r requirements.txt) dir2pi packages/ 4. Upload the new files Use a client like Cyberduck to sync the entire packages folder to your s3 bucket Make sure you upload packages/simple/index.html as well as all new files and directories 104 Capítulo 5. Entregar Buen Código Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 5. Fix new file permissions By default, when you upload new files to the S3 bucket, they will have the wrong permissions set. Use the Amazon web console to set the READ permission of the files to EVERYONE. If you get HTTP 403 when trying to install a package, make sure you’ve set the permissions correctly. 6. All done You can now install your package with pip install --index-url=http://your-s3-bucket/packages/simple YourPackage For Linux Distributions Creating a Linux distro package is arguably the “right way” to distribute code on Linux. Because a distribution package doesn’t include the Python interpreter, it makes the download and install about 2MB smaller than freezing your application. Also, if a distribution releases a new security update for Python, then your application will automatically start using that new version of Python. The bdist_rpm command makes producing an RPM file for use by distributions like Red Hat or SuSE trivially easy. However, creating and maintaining the different configurations required for each distribution’s format (e.g. .deb for Debian/Ubuntu, .rpm for Red Hat/Fedora, etc) is a fair amount of work. If your code is an application that you plan to distribute on other platforms, then you’ll also have to create and maintain the separate config required to freeze your application for Windows and OSX. It would be much less work to simply create and maintain a single config for one of the cross platform freezing tools, which will produce stand-alone executables for all distributions of Linux, as well as Windows and OSX. Creating a distribution package is also problematic if your code is for a version of Python that isn’t currently supported by a distribution. Having to tell some versions of Ubuntu end-users that they need to add the ‘dead-snakes’ PPA using sudo apt-repository commands before they can install your .deb file makes for an extremely hostile user experience. Not only that, but you’d have to maintain a custom equivalent of these instructions for every distribution, and worse, have your users read, understand, and act on them. Having said all that, here’s how to do it: Fedora Debian and Ubuntu Arch Useful Tools fpm alien dh-virtualenv (for APT/DEB omnibus packaging) Freezing Your Code “Freezing” your code is creating a single-file executable file to distribute to end-users, that contains all of your application code as well as the Python interpreter. 5.2. Freezing Your Code 105 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Applications such as ‘Dropbox’, ‘Eve Online’, ‘Civilization IV’, and BitTorrent clients do this. The advantage of distributing this way is that your application will “just work”, even if the user doesn’t already have the required version of Python (or any) installed. On Windows, and even on many Linux distributions and OS X, the right version of Python will not already be installed. Besides, end-user software should always be in an executable format. Files ending in .py are for software engineers and system administrators. One disadvantage of freezing is that it will increase the size of your distribution by about 2–12MB. Also, you will be responsible for shipping updated versions of your application when security vulnerabilities to Python are patched. Alternatives to Freezing Packaging your code is for distributing libraries or tools to other developers. On Linux, an alternative to freezing is to create a Linux distro package (e.g. .deb files for Debian or Ubuntu, or .rpm files for Red Hat and SuSE.) Por hacer Fill in “Freezing Your Code” stub Comparison of Freezing Tools Solutions and platforms/features supported: Solution Windows bbFree- yes ze py2exe yes pyInsyes taller cx_Freeze yes py2app no Linux OS X License One-file mode Zipfile import Eggs pkg_resources support yes Python 3 no yes MIT no yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes MIT GPL yes yes yes no no yes no no yes no yes yes yes yes PSF MIT no no yes yes yes yes no yes Nota: Freezing Python code on Linux into a Windows executable was only once supported in PyInstaller and later dropped.. Nota: All solutions need MS Visual C++ dll to be installed on target machine, except py2app. Only Pyinstaller makes self-executable exe that bundles the dll when passing --onefile to Configure.py. Windows bbFreeze Prerequisite is to install Python, Setuptools and pywin32 dependency on Windows. 1. Install bbfreeze: 106 Capítulo 5. Entregar Buen Código Python Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1$ pip install bbfreeze

2. Write most basic bb_setup.py from bbfreeze import Freezer freezer = Freezer(distdir='dist') freezer.addScript('foobar.py', gui_only=True) freezer()

Nota: This will work for the most basic one file scripts. For more advanced freezing you will have to provide include and exclude paths like so freezer = Freezer(distdir='dist', includes=['my_code'], excludes=['docs'])

3. (Optionally) include icon freezer.setIcon('my_awesome_icon.ico')

4. Provide the Microsoft Visual C runtime DLL for the freezer. It might be possible to append your sys.path with Microsoft Visual Studio path but I find it easier to drop msvcp90.dll in the same folder where your script resides. 5. Freeze! $python bb_setup.py py2exe Prerequisite is to install Python on Windows. 1. Download and install http://sourceforge.net/projects/py2exe/files/py2exe/ 2. Write setup.py (List of configuration options): from distutils.core import setup import py2exe setup( windows=[{'script': 'foobar.py'}], ) 3. (Optionally) include icon 4. (Optionally) one-file mode 5. Generate .exe into dist directory:$ python setup.py py2exe

6. Provide the Microsoft Visual C runtime DLL. Two options: globally install dll on target machine or distribute dll alongside with .exe. PyInstaller Prerequisite is to have installed Python, Setuptools and pywin32 dependency on Windows. Most basic tutorial

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Manual

OS X py2app PyInstaller PyInstaller can be used to build Unix executables and windowed apps on Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard) or newer. To install PyInstaller, use pip: $pip install pyinstaller To create a standard Unix executable, from say script.py, use:$ pyinstaller script.py

This creates, a script.spec file, analogous to a make file a build folder, that holds some log files a dist folder, that holds the main executable script, and some dependent Python libraries, all in the same folder as script.py. PyInstaller puts all the Python libraries used in script.py into the dist folder, so when distributing the executable, distribute the whole dist folder. The script.spec file can be edited to customise the build, with options such as bundling data files with the executable including run-time libraries (.dll or .so files) that PyInstaller can’t infer automatically adding Python run-time options to the executable, Now script.spec can be run with pyinstaller (instead of using script.py again): $pyinstaller script.spec To create a standalone windowed OS X application, use the --windowed option$ pyinstaller --windowed script.spec

This creates a script.app in the dist folder. Make sure to use GUI packages in your Python code, like PyQt or PySide, to control the graphical parts of the app. There are several options in script.spec related to Mac OS X app bundles here. For example, to specify an icon for the app, use the icon=\path\to\icon.icns option.

Linux bbFreeze PyInstaller

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CAPÍTULO 6

Esta parte de la guía, que es en su mayoría texto, inicia con algunos antecedentes acerca de Python, se enfoca en los siguientes pasos.

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Acerca de Esta Guía Propósito La Guía de Hitchhiker para Python existe para proporcionar tanto a novatos y expertos desarrolladores de Python un manual de las mejores prácticas para instalación, configuración, y uso de Python diariamente. Por la Comunidad Esta guía es diseñada y mantenida por Kenneth Reitz de manera abierta. Esto es un esfuerzo comunitario que tiene un propósito: servir a la comunidad. Para la Comunidad Todas las contribuciones a la guía son bienvenidas, desde Pythonistas de todos los niveles. Si crees que hay una brecha en lo que cubre la Guía, crea un fork en Github y envía una solicitud de cambio. Contribuciones son bienvenidas de todo el mundo, ya sea un veterano o Pythonista nuevo, y los autores de la Guía con mucho gusto te ayudarán si tienes algunas preguntas acerca de la adecuación, integridad, o exactitud de una contribución. Para empezar a trabajar en la Guía de Hitchhiker, mira la página Contribute.

La Comunidad BDFL Guido van Rossum, creador de Python, es a menudo referido como el BDFL — el Benevolent Dictator For Life.

Python Software Foundation La misión de la Fundación de Software Python es promover, proteger, y mejorar el lenguaje de programación Python, y soportar y facilitar el crecimiento de las diversas e internacionales comunidades de programadores Python. Learn More about the PSF.

PEPs PEPs son Python Enhancement Proposals (Propuestas de mejora de Python). Describen cambiar Python, o los estandares alrededor del lenguaje en sí. Hay diferentes tipos de PEPs (as defined by PEP 1): Standards Describes a new feature or implementation. Informational Describes a design issue, general guidelines, or information to the community. Process Describes a process related to Python.

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Notable PEPs There are a few PEPs that could be considered required reading: PEP 8: The Python Style Guide. Read this. All of it. Follow it. PEP 20: The Zen of Python. A list of 19 statements that briefly explain the philosophy behind Python. PEP 257: Docstring Conventions. Gives guidelines for semantics and conventions associated with Python docstrings. You can read more at The PEP Index. Submitting a PEP PEPs are peer-reviewed and accepted/rejected after much discussion. Anyone can write and submit a PEP for review. Here’s an overview of the PEP acceptance workflow:

Python Conferences The major events for the Python community are developer conferences. The two most notable conferences are PyCon, which is held in the US, and its European sibling, EuroPython. A comprehensive list of conferences is maintained at pycon.org.

Python User Groups User Groups are where a bunch of Python developers meet to present or talk about Python topics of interest. A list of local user groups is maintained at the Python Software Foundation Wiki.

Aprendiendo Python Principiante

6.3. Aprendiendo Python

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Tutorial de Python Este es el tutorial oficial. Cubre todo lo básico, y ofrece un tour del lenguaje y la librería estadar. Recomendado para quieres necesitan una guía de inicio rápido al lenguaje. El Tutorial de Python Python para Principiantes thepythonguru.com is a tutorial focuses on beginner programmers. It covers many python concepts in depth. It also teaches you some advance constructs of python like lambda expression, regular expression. At last it finishes off with tutorial “How to access MySQL db using python” Python for beginners Learn Python for Data Science Interactively If you prefer an online interactive environment to learn Python for Data Science, this free python tutorial by DataCamp is a great way to get started. If you’re already somewhat advanced and interested in machine learning, check out this course on Supervised Learning with scikit-learn, by one the core developers of scikit-learn. Python for data science Learn Python Interactive Tutorial Learnpython.org is an easy non-intimidating way to get introduced to Python. The website takes the same approach used on the popular Try Ruby website, it has an interactive Python interpreter built into the site that allows you to go through the lessons without having to install Python locally. Learn Python If you want a more traditional book, Python For You and Me is an excellent resource for learning all aspects of the language. Python for You and Me Learn Python Interactively with DataCamp! Online Python Tutor Online Python Tutor gives you a visual step by step representation of how your program runs. Python Tutor helps people overcome a fundamental barrier to learning programming by understanding what happens as the computer executes each line of a program’s source code. Online Python Tutor Invent Your Own Computer Games with Python This beginner’s book is for those with no programming experience at all. Each chapter has the source code to a small game, using these example programs to demonstrate programming concepts to give the reader an idea of what programs “look like”. Invent Your Own Computer Games with Python

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Hacking Secret Ciphers with Python This book teaches Python programming and basic cryptography for absolute beginners. The chapters provide the source code for various ciphers, as well as programs that can break them. Hacking Secret Ciphers with Python Learn Python the Hard Way This is an excellent beginner programmer’s guide to Python. It covers “hello world” from the console to the web. Learn Python the Hard Way Crash into Python Also known as Python for Programmers with 3 Hours, this guide gives experienced developers from other languages a crash course on Python. Crash into Python Dive Into Python 3 Dive Into Python 3 is a good book for those ready to jump in to Python 3. It’s a good read if you are moving from Python 2 to 3 or if you already have some experience programming in another language. Dive Into Python 3 Think Python: How to Think Like a Computer Scientist Think Python attempts to give an introduction to basic concepts in computer science through the use of the Python language. The focus was to create a book with plenty of exercises, minimal jargon and a section in each chapter devoted to the subject of debugging. While exploring the various features available in the Python language the author weaves in various design patterns and best practices. The book also includes several case studies which have the reader explore the topics discussed in the book in greater detail by applying those topics to real-world examples. Case studies include assignments in GUI and Markov Analysis. Think Python Python Koans Python Koans is a port of Edgecase’s Ruby Koans. It uses a test-driven approach, q.v. TEST DRIVEN DESIGN SECTION to provide an interactive tutorial teaching basic Python concepts. By fixing assertion statements that fail in a test script, this provides sequential steps to learning Python. For those used to languages and figuring out puzzles on their own, this can be a fun, attractive option. For those new to Python and programming, having an additional resource or reference will be helpful. Python Koans More information about test driven development can be found at these resources: Test Driven Development

6.3. Aprendiendo Python

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A Byte of Python A free introductory book that teaches Python at the beginner level, it assumes no previous programming experience. A Byte of Python for Python 2.x A Byte of Python for Python 3.x Learn to Program in Python with Codeacademy A Codeacademy course for the absolute Python beginner. This free and interactive course provides and teaches the basics (and beyond) of Python programming whilst testing the user’s knowledge in between progress. This course also features a built-in interpreter for receiving instant feedback on your learning. Learn to Program in Python with Codeacademy

Intermediate Effective Python This book contains 59 specific ways to improve writing Pythonic code. At 227 pages, it is a very brief overview of some of the most commons adapations programmers need to make to become efficient intermediate level Python programmers. Effective Python

Advanced Pro Python This book is for intermediate to advanced Python programmers who are looking to understand how and why Python works the way it does and how they can take their code to the next level. Pro Python Expert Python Programming Expert Python Programming deals with best practices in programming Python and is focused on the more advanced crowd. It starts with topics like decorators (with caching, proxy, and context manager case-studies), method resolution order, using super() and meta-programming, and general PEP 8 best practices. It has a detailed, multi-chapter case study on writing and releasing a package and eventually an application, including a chapter on using zc.buildout. Later chapters detail best practices such as writing documentation, test-driven development, version control, optimization and profiling. Expert Python Programming A Guide to Python’s Magic Methods This is a collection of blog posts by Rafe Kettler which explain ‘magic methods’ in Python. Magic methods are surrounded by double underscores (i.e. __init__) and can make classes and objects behave in different and magical ways. A Guide to Python’s Magic Methods 114

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Nota: The Rafekettler.com is currently down, you can go to their Github version directly. Here you can find a PDF version: A Guide to Python’s Magic Methods (repo on GitHub)

For Engineers and Scientists A Primer on Scientific Programming with Python A Primer on Scientific Programming with Python, written by Hans Petter Langtangen, mainly covers Python’s usage in the scientific field. In the book, examples are chosen from mathematics and the natural sciences. A Primer on Scientific Programming with Python Numerical Methods in Engineering with Python Numerical Methods in Engineering with Python, written by Jaan Kiusalaas, puts the emphasis on numerical methods and how to implement them in Python. Numerical Methods in Engineering with Python

Miscellaneous topics Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures covers a range of data structures and algorithms. All concepts are illustrated with Python code along with interactive samples that can be run directly in the browser. Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Programming Collective Intelligence Programming Collective Intelligence introduces a wide array of basic machine learning and data mining methods. The exposition is not very mathematically formal, but rather focuses on explaining the underlying intuition and shows how to implement the algorithms in Python. Programming Collective Intelligence Transforming Code into Beautiful, Idiomatic Python Transforming Code into Beautiful, Idiomatic Python is a video by Raymond Hettinger. Learn to take better advantage of Python’s best features and improve existing code through a series of code transformations, “When you see this, do that instead.” Transforming Code into Beautiful, Idiomatic Python Fullstack Python Fullstack Python offers a complete top-to-bottom resource for web development using Python. From setting up the webserver, to designing the front-end, choosing a database, optimizing/scaling, etc. As the name suggests, it covers everything you need to build and run a complete web app from scratch. 6.3. Aprendiendo Python

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Fullstack Python

References Python in a Nutshell Python in a Nutshell, written by Alex Martelli, covers most cross-platform Python’s usage, from its syntax to built-in libraries to advanced topics such as writing C extensions. Python in a Nutshell The Python Language Reference This is Python’s reference manual, it covers the syntax and the core semantics of the language. The Python Language Reference Python Essential Reference Python Essential Reference, written by David Beazley, is the definitive reference guide to Python. It concisely explains both the core language and the most essential parts of the standard library. It covers Python 3 and 2.6 versions. Python Essential Reference Python Pocket Reference Python Pocket Reference, written by Mark Lutz, is an easy to use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits. It covers Python 3 and 2.6 versions. Python Pocket Reference Python Cookbook Python Cookbook, written by David Beazley and Brian K. Jones, is packed with practical recipes. This book covers the core python language as well as tasks common to a wide variety of application domains. Python Cookbook Writing Idiomatic Python “Writing Idiomatic Python”, written by Jeff Knupp, contains the most common and important Python idioms in a format that maximizes identification and understanding. Each idiom is presented as a recommendation of a way to write some commonly used piece of code, followed by an explanation of why the idiom is important. It also contains two code samples for each idiom: the “Harmful” way to write it and the “Idiomatic” way. For Python 2.7.3+ For Python 3.3+

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Documentación Documentación Oficial El Lenguaje oficial Python y la documentación de Librería puede ser encontrada aquí: Python 2.x Python 3.x

Read the Docs Read the Docs es un popular proyecto de la comunidad que hospeda documentación para software open source. Mantiene documentación para varios módulos Python, populares y exóticos. Read the Docs

pydoc pydoc es una utilidad que esta instalada cuando instalas Python. Te permite obtener rápidamente y buscar documentación desde tu consola. Por ejemplo, si necesitas un refresco rápido del módulo time, buscar la documentación sería tan simple como $pydoc time El comando anterior es esencialmente equivalente a abrir el Python REPL y ejecutar >>> help(time) News Planet Python This is an aggregate of Python news from a growing number of developers. Planet Python /r/python /r/python is the Reddit Python community where users contribute and vote on Python-related news. /r/python Talk Python Podcast The #1 Python-focused podcast covering the people and ideas in Python. Talk Python To Me 6.4. Documentación 117 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Python Bytes Podcast A short-form Python podcast covering recent developer headlines. Python Bytes Pycoder’s Weekly Pycoder’s Weekly is a free weekly Python newsletter for Python developers by Python developers (Projects, Articles, News, and Jobs). Pycoder’s Weekly Python Weekly Python Weekly is a free weekly newsletter featuring curated news, articles, new releases, jobs, etc. related to Python. Python Weekly Python News Python News is the news section in the official Python web site (www.python.org). It briefly highlights the news from the Python community. Python News Import Python Weekly Weekly Python Newsletter containing Python Articles, Projects, Videos, Tweets delivered in your inbox. Keep Your Python Programming Skills Updated. Import Python Weekly Newsletter Awesome Python Newsletter A weekly overview of the most popular Python news, articles and packages. Awesome Python Newsletter Nota: Notes defined within all diatonic and chromatic musical scales have been intentionally excluded from this list of additional notes. Additionally, this note. Notas de contribución e información legal (para los insteresados). 118 Capítulo 6. Additional Notes Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Contribute Python-guide is under active development, and contributors are welcome. If you have a feature request, suggestion, or bug report, please open a new issue on GitHub. To submit patches, please send a pull request on GitHub. Once your changes get merged back in, you’ll automatically be added to the Contributors List. Style Guide For all contributions, please follow the The Guide Style Guide. Todo List If you’d like to contribute, there’s plenty to do. Here’s a short todo list. Establish “use this” vs “alternatives are....” recommendations Por hacer Write about Blueprint (El entrada original se encuentra en /home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/python-guidees/checkouts/latest/docs/scenarios/admin.rst, en la línea 371.) Por hacer Fill in “Freezing Your Code” stub (El entrada original se encuentra en /home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/python-guidees/checkouts/latest/docs/shipping/freezing.rst, en la línea 39.) Por hacer Include code examples of exemplary code from each of the projects listed. Explain why it is excellent code. Use complex examples. (El entrada original se encuentra en /home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/python-guidees/checkouts/latest/docs/writing/reading.rst, en la línea 59.) Por hacer Explain techniques to rapidly identify data structures, algorithms and determine what the code is doing. (El entrada original se encuentra en /home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/python-guidees/checkouts/latest/docs/writing/reading.rst, en la línea 61.) 6.6. Contribute 119 Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 License The Guide is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. The Guide Style Guide As with all documentation, having a consistent format helps make the document more understandable. In order to make The Guide easier to digest, all contributions should fit within the rules of this style guide where appropriate. The Guide is written as reStructuredText. Nota: Parts of The Guide may not yet match this style guide. Feel free to update those parts to be in sync with The Guide Style Guide Nota: On any page of the rendered HTML you can click “Show Source” to see how authors have styled the page. Relevancy Strive to keep any contributions relevant to the purpose of The Guide. Avoid including too much information on subjects that don’t directly relate to Python development. Prefer to link to other sources if the information is already out there. Be sure to describe what and why you are linking. Cite references where needed. If a subject isn’t directly relevant to Python, but useful in conjunction with Python (e.g., Git, GitHub, Databases), reference by linking to useful resources, and describe why it’s useful to Python. When in doubt, ask. Headings Use the following styles for headings. Chapter title: ######### Chapter 1 ######### Page title: =================== Time is an Illusion =================== Section headings: Lunchtime Doubly So ------------------- 120 Capítulo 6. Additional Notes Python Guide Documentation, Publicación 0.0.1 Sub section headings: Very Deep ~~~~~~~~~ Prose Wrap text lines at 78 characters. Where necessary, lines may exceed 78 characters, especially if wrapping would make the source text more difficult to read. Use of the serial comma (also known as the Oxford comma) is 100 % non-optional. Any attempt to submit content with a missing serial comma will result in permanent banishment from this project, due to complete and total lack of taste. Banishment? Is this a joke? Hopefully we will never have to find out. Code Examples Wrap all code examples at 70 characters to avoid horizontal scrollbars. Command line examples: .. code-block:: console$ run command --help $ls .. Be sure to include the$ prefix before each line. Python interpreter examples: Label the example:: .. code-block:: python >>> import this

Python examples: Descriptive title:: .. code-block:: python def get_answer(): return 42

Externally Linking Prefer labels for well known subjects (ex: proper nouns) when linking: Sphinx_ is used to document Python. .. _Sphinx: http://sphinx.pocoo.org

6.8. The Guide Style Guide

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Read the Sphinx Tutorial _

Linking to Sections in The Guide To cross-reference other parts of this documentation, use the :ref: keyword and labels. To make reference labels more clear and unique, always add a -ref suffix: .. _some-section-ref: Some Section ------------

Notes and Warnings Make use of the appropriate admonitions directives when making notes. Notes: .. note:: The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy has a few things to say on the subject of towels. A towel, it says, is about the most massively useful thing an interstellar hitch hiker can have.

Warnings: .. warning:: DON'T PANIC

TODOs Please mark any incomplete areas of The Guide with a todo directive. To avoid cluttering the Todo List, use a single todo for stub documents or large incomplete sections. .. todo:: Learn the Ultimate Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, The Universe, and Everything

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P PATH, 7, 8, 11, 12 Python Enhancement Proposals PEP 0257#specification, 51 PEP 1, 110 PEP 20, 45, 111 PEP 249, 77 PEP 257, 53, 111 PEP 282, 57 PEP 3101, 39 PEP 3132, 44 PEP 3333, 66 PEP 391, 59 PEP 8, 21, 46, 111, 114 PEP 8#comments, 51

V variables de entorno PATH, 7, 8, 11, 12

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## Python Guide Documentation - Read the Docs

Python Guide Documentation Publicación 0.0.1 Kenneth Reitz 07 de November de 2017 Índice general 1. Empezando con Python 1.1. Eligiendo un Interp...

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