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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry PANTONE REFLEX BLUE U

PANTONE 320 U

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

FOREWORD The tourism industry keeps growing. Worldwide tourist arrivals in foreign countries have increased by 6.5% yearly since 1950 reaching nearly 900 million arrivals in 2007. Nowadays, tourism represents 35% of the world’s exports of services and over 70% in some developing countries. However, this growth often comes with unsustainable consumption practices endangering ecosystems and natural resources. There is hence a need for greener hotels that are at the heart of the tourism industry. Hotel guests are more conscious of environmental problems and have started to consider the environment in their accommodation choice. This is also becoming valid for luxury hotels. The development of eco-labels is thus helping tourists in their choice. Without cutting on clients’ comfort, many efforts can be made in the backstage by the hotel management industry through the application of best available practices and technological innovations. The hotel industry is now conscious of this new trend and has set policies in this respect. This Guide is designed to be a practical tool for daily implementation. It fills the gap between commitments to sustainable development and the undertaking of concrete measures. By suggesting eco-efficiency practices and providing easy-to-implement tools, the Guide will enable hotel management to handle the environmental aspects related to its business. Additionally, the Guide involves hotel staff as key greening actors and provides a good basis for integrated environmental management systems. In a few years, it is certain that environmental protection will become a legal obligation for hotels. Let’s be proactive and start from this moment on! Those who act first will be able to anticipate the law and will acquire a competitive advantage. It is time for the hotel industry to accept its environmental responsibilities to reduce the environmental impact of international tourism.

M. Ruud J. Reuland General Director | Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise

CONTENTS GlossaRY

3

I. CONTEXT AND INTRODUCTION

5

II. CONCEPT OF BEST ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY

6

III. IMPLEMENTATION OF BEP

7

1. The Checklists | presentation and use

7

2. The Checklists | environmental domains

9

2.1. Water | management and rationalisation

9

2.2. Energy | efficiency and economy

12

2.3. Wastes | valorisation and recycling

17

2.4. Purchasing policy | ecological aspects

23

2.5. Logistics | efficient handling and management

27

2.6. Noise, air quality and landscape integration

29

IV. DETAILED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

36

V. DECISION-MAKING AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES

45

1. Economic return of corrective measures

45

2. Action plan

47

VI. IMPROVEMENT, TRAINING AND PERSPECTIVES

48

1. Strenghtening and countinuous improvement

48

2. Following up and upholding the corrective measures

48

3. Awareness raising and staff training

48

4. Guest involvement and external communication

49

5. Perspectives

49

VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY

50

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Best Environmental Practices forGestion the Hotel Industry La Bonne d’Entreprise

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise

GLOSSARY Action Plan

A detailed plan identifying corrective actions, means, responsibilities, resources, and the time frame necessary for their implementation.

Checklist

A list of actions that can be implemented to meet an enterprise’s environmental challenges in targeted domains (water, energy, wastes, etc.). It is not claimed that the list is exhaustive. It functions as an aide-mémoire.

Cleaner Production

Cleaner production is the adoption by an enterprise of production practices and technologies that respect the environment and that consume fewer resources so that they generate less waste.

Non-hazardous waste

Any waste having a nature and composition that are similar to those of household wastes, and comprise items whose longest dimension does not exceed 60 cm. Furthermore, the handling and storage of such wastes present no particular risks. Such wastes many be generated by industry, commerce, workshops or agricultural activities.

Continuous improvement

The process of progressively enhancing the environmental management system to achieve improvements in the overall environmental performance in line with the hotel’s environmental policy.

Eco-efficiency

A concept that consists in offering competitive goods and services that meet human needs and guarantee quality of life, while at the same time progressively reducing the whole-life ecological impacts and resource demands of the products, until a level at least compatible with the earth’s estimated capacity is reached.

Environment

It is the natural surroundings of the enterprise, including air, water, soil, natural resources, flora, fauna and human beings, as well as their interactions.

Environmental aspect

That element of the activities, products or services of an enterprise which may interact with the environment.

Environmental impact

Any modification of the environment whether negative or positive, total or partial.

Environmental management system

Structure, organisation and management methods implemented to meet the enterprise’s environmental policy. The goal is continuous improvement.

Environmental policy

An enterprise’s commitments, orientations, and general objectives with respect to the environment as decided by management. Observing existing laws and regulations is an integral part of this policy, and so is the environmental improvement strategy.

Hazardous waste

Any waste containing significant quantities of substances which are especially dangerous to the life or health of living organisms (including humans) when discharged into the environment. Dangerous properties include toxicity, carcinogenicity, or mutagenicity as well as chemical reactivity and other biologically harmful properties.

La Bonne d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices forGestion the Hotel Industry

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Life cycle analysis

A method for assessing the impacts of a product, service or activity on the environment and on natural resources, from “cradle” (extraction of natural resources) to “grave” (waste disposal, including the product having reached the end of its life) via product use. This evaluation is also called ecobalance.

Mass tourism

A mode of tourism that appeared in the 1960s, resulting from the general provision of paid vacations in many industrialised countries, which allowed most people to travel and support the tourism industry.

Procedure

Written organisational rule describing responsibilities and sequence of tasks or activities necessary for the realisation of a product or a service.

Recycling

Recuperation of materials or products to reuse them either in their original form or as an input material in a manufacturing process.

Sustainable development

Development that meets present needs without endangering the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is contrasted with other modes of development that lead to social and ecological damage, at both the local and global levels.

Sustainable tourism

Management of all resources associated with tourism activities in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs are met in a way that respects the cultural and environmental integrity, biological diversity, and lifestyle of the receiving area.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

I. CONTEXT AND INTRODUCTION The Mediterranean is a holiday destination for tourism because of its historical, cultural and natural heritage. Considered an “ecoregion”, it brings together many plant and animal species, some of which are indigenous. In 2002, the Mediterranean countries welcomed 228 million visitors, a number that is forecast to rise to 396 millions in 2025, according to the World Tourism Organization’s (WTO) and Blue Plan’s projections. The region’s climate and resources enable economic and social development that result from tourism. On the other hand, the number of tourists heading for the region represents a threat to its natural resources as well as to the balance of its ecosystems. The Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) has stressed the existence of the risk of economic non-sustainability linked to the development of mass tourism. The consequence of this phenomenon is a decline in territorial quality and the artificial modification of coastlines. Indeed, tourism is concentrated in the coastal areas, increasing the pressure on the coastline and causing its degradation. In order to conserve local biodiversity while sustaining the tourism industry, a new approach involving sustainable development must be implemented. To achieve this, the different components of the tourism industry need to be integrated into a global strategy of environmental protection. Since the hotel industry is at the heart of tourist activity, it is important to evaluate and assess its environmental impact. For example, targeted and efficient water management in hotels significantly reduces the damage to the environment while simultaneously and substantially reducing costs. The goal is to avoid compromising the development of the southern Mediterranean regions and placing their potential at risk. This Guide presents eco-efficiency measures adapted to the hotel industry of the Mediterranean countries in order to reduce their impact on the environment. These measures are built on sba’s experience in the field of environmental management. Cost-efficient and easy to implement, they constitute the first step towards sustainable tourism.

The Guide’s objectives • To integrate the environment as one component of day-to-day hotel management • To identify significant and priority measures for hotels, enabling their implementation and ensuring sustainability over time • To promote rational and eco-efficient use of resources • To give hotels the opportunity to make the first steps towards an integrated environmental management system

In most cases, the corrective environmental actions represent an investment of less than US$ 2’000 and an almost immediate payback (in less than a year).

Target audience The Best Environmental Practices (BEP) Guide for hotels is intended for hotels of all types that wish to better manage their impact on the environment and that have the longer term ambition to implement more systematized environment management tools (such as environmental costs management, an environmental management system, environmental labelling, etc.). The Guide can be used by hotel directors and managers, as well as by technical executives and/or their teams.

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

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II. CONCEPT OF BEST ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY The use of the Best Environmental Practices (BEP) Guide for hotels is intended to be simple and practical. The Guide provides the means to identify, in the different departments of a hotel, opportunities for optimising its activities while reducing its operating costs and its environmental impacts. The proposed measures are not exhaustive and are voluntary. In addition, the reader will find practical advice that can be adapted to suit the hotel’s context and expectations. To ensure adequate understanding and application of the Guide, concrete examples are provided throughout. These examples show a direct link between theory and practice. In brief, the Guide’s approach aims at: • Rationalising the use of raw materials, including water and energy • Reducing the volume of wastes and improving waste management • Adopting a more ecological purchasing policy and improving logistics • Improving the quality of the hotel’s internal environment • Making the staff aware of the importance of environmental issues In addition, the adoption of the BEP Guide’s principles can also act as a profitable marketing tool for the hotel. The hotel can improve its image in the perceptions of its stakeholders and guests, who are increasingly conscious of environmental protection.

The Guide’s instruments Checklists

• To identify the environmental problems in each of the hotel’s departments • To become aware of the necessity of targeted actions • To establish priorities and to determine responsibilities

Detailed environmental assessment

To measure and monitor the hotel’s activities by undertaking a thorough environmental analysis

Economic calculations

To estimate the potential savings of the identified corrective measures; to assess their return on investment and to serve as a decision-making tool

Action Plan

To summarize the chosen corrective measures within an action plan that will be communicated to the persons concerned

The combination of the Guide’s tools reveals the interrelationships between the hotel, its resources, and its environment. More concretely, it helps the implementation of environmental actions that meet the hotel’s expectations and preoccupations. For a more targeted approach, the action plan enables the planning and management of the corrective and preventive measures that were chosen in order to reach the environmental goals that have been set by the hotel.

Necessary means

6

The approach proposed by the Guide can be implemented by the management, its technical executive or a qualified resource person. Management must first adhere to the Guide’s objectives and involve the relevant staff. Moreover, for a greater involvement of the staff, information concerning correct practices should be circulated to all the hotel’s levels and departments. Simple and practical procedures can be developed, applied, and integrated into the daily operations of the hotel to bolster the BEP measures. Depending on the availability of information, the application of BEP requires one to two days. If internal expertise is insufficient for undertaking this task, the assistance of an external consultant for a day would be worthwhile.

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

III. IMPLEMENTATION OF BEP 1. THE CHECKLISTS – PRESENTATION AND USE Checklists enable the identification of priority environmental domains and the measures to be taken. They are nonexhaustive lists of actions (such as possible corrective measures) that can be undertaken to improve the environmental performance of the hotel. Checklists also require brainstorming to promote more focused actions and to encourage the monitoring and the correct application of the corrective measures. The completed checklists should be communicated to the various concerned departments of the hotel in order to ensure their implementation. Before each checklist is prepared, questions must be asked to assess the hotel’s environmental situation and to determine if the environmental domain in question is of importance to the hotel. Indeed, the answers given to this selfassessment allow the hotel to identify practical measures for implementation.

Environmental domains The BEP Guide has six checklists and each is dedicated to a specific domain:

Water

• To monitor water consumption and rationalize its use • To save and protect local resources

Energy

• To control energy use and monitor its consumption • To save energy and reduce atmospheric pollution

Wastes

• To reduce waste at the source and improve waste management • To implement a recovery and recycling strategy

Purchasing policy

• To reduce the impact of consumption on the environment • To promote the development of local, ecological and social product flows

Logistics

• To improve product handling and minimize losses and wastage • To manage and master the hotel’s supply lines

Noise, air quality, and landscape integration

• To limit noise pollution • To improve air quality inside buildings • To reduce the impact on the local landscape

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Identification of priority actions According to the measures that are suggested in the checklist, you must select the actions that you think are significant for your activities and applicable in your hotel.

To use the checklist, you need only to: • 1st column: tick the box corresponding to the action to be taken • 2nd column: indicate the priority of each action chosen according to its urgency and relevance (for example, using a scale from 1 to 3: 1= not very urgent; 2 = relatively urgent; 3 = very urgent) • 3rd column: appoint a person responsible for the implementation and monitoring of the chosen corrective measure • 4th column: set a reasonable deadline for completion of the measure

Actions to be taken Monitoring of the hotel’s water consumption 3 Install water meters in each department o

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

1

Mr. Benjelloun

1 month

3

Ms. Tazi

1 week

Deadline

o �Determine monthly water consumption and costs 3 Identify processes and areas where consumption is high o o �Determine the water consumption costs for each department

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

2. THE CHECKLISTS – ENVIRONMENTAL DOMAINS

2.1. Water | management and rationalisation The Mediterranean is among the regions that are most subject to water shortages. This region happens to be a favourite destination for tourists. This situation causes even greater concern because the consumption by tourists rises far above consumption by local residents. Indeed, a guest at an international hotel consumes an average of 300 litres a day. This situation endangers the quality and the availability of water for local communities. For this reason, actions that aim to reduce the consumption of water in hotels are necessary.

Self-assessment o o o o o

What is the total cost of the hotel’s water consumption? What is the source of the water used by the hotel (public network, well, borehole, etc.)? What is the hotel’s overall water consumption? Do you know the water consumption in each department? Do you implement water-saving measures in the hotel?

If you cannot answer the above questions, it is important to monitor your hotel’s water consumption. • Leaking tap | 0.1 litre / h | 1 m3 / year • Dripping tap – occasional drips | 0.5 litre / h | 5 m3 / year • Dripping tap – faster drips |1.5 litres / h | 15 m3 / year • Minor leak in toilet flush valve | 3 litres / h |30 m3 / year • Trickling tap | 10 litres / h | 90 m3 / year • Serious leak in toilet flush valve | 30 litres / h | 250 m3 / year

‘WATER’ checklist OBJECTIVE : TO REDUCE AND UNDERSTAND WATER CONSUMPTION Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

General Monitor the hotel’s water consumption o Install water meters in each department o Determine the monthly water consumption and its cost o Identify activities and areas that cause high consumption Minimise wastage of water o Install water-saving devices in the appropriate places (flow regulators, water flow sensors, self-closing taps, low-flush toilets, etc.) o Avoid leaving taps open unnecessarily o Avoid cleaning with high pressure hoses Eliminate leaks o Regularly maintain plumbing fixtures and piping in order to avoid losses o Replace defective seals and repair damage to water pipes

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

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‘WATER’ checklist (continued) Actions to be taken Kitchen o Adjust the water flow according to the type of cleaning to be done o Do not let water flow while cleaning or rinsing o Soak the dirty dishes before placing them in the dishwasher in order to shorten the prewash o Fill dishwashers to their maximum capacity in order to minimise the number of cycles o Do not defrost food in water, but leave it to defrost in the air Laundry o Sort the laundry according to the degree of soiling, so that only the dirtiest items are washed intensively o Use the washing machines in “full load” mode in order to limit the number of wash cycles o Eliminate the prewash (allowing a 25% reduction in water consump tion) and use water-saving wash cycles o If possible, wash towels and linen at the request of guests rather than every day o Reduce water pollution by using less polluting detergents (phosphate free, whitener-free, etc.) o Check the laundry room’s equipment regularly to avoid leaks o If possible, recover the rinse water from relatively unsoiled loads for the next cycle’s prewash and wash Room service, accommodation o Install flow regulators on the showerheads in order to decrease consumption from 20 to 12 litres/minute (40% saving) o Install timed (self-closing) faucets so that they do not keep running for a long time if left open inadvertently o

Choose water saving toilets that use 6 litres for each flush (more than 30% of a hotel’s total water consumption can be saved this way) or with a dual flush mechanism (offering a choice of half- or full-cistern flushes)

o Invite – as far as possible – the guests to reuse the towels and bed-linen (70% of guests readily agree to this) o Train the staff to respect the instructions concerning the reuse of towels and bed-linen o Distribute brochures and flyers, or post stickers and posters, inviting guests to save water

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

‘WATER’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Pool o Cover the pool outside of the opening hours so that the water does not evaporate or get dirty o Reduce the use of chlorine in the water and /or choose other treat- ment systems (ozone, electrolysis, salt, etc.) o Reuse the pool’s water to wash the floor Gardens o Choose plants that are suited to your region’s climate and rainfall o Avoid flower beds that quickly dry up o Water lawns early in the morning and late at night to limit evaporation o Install automatic sprinkler systems and localized devices (micro sprinklers, drip irrigation systems for roots, etc.) o Lay out slopes so that water infiltrates the ground without causing erosion o Reuse the water that was used in the kitchen to wash fruits and vegetables for watering the garden o Collect rainwater for watering the lawns

The use of flow regulators on shower heads saves 40 liters per 5 minutes shower, which amounts to more than 10% of water consumption per day and per room.

Example Problem

High water consumption (825 litres/room/night)

Measure

Installation of faucet and shower head aerators in the rooms without altering the comfort

Investment

US$ 7 per unit

Payback period

10 days

Environmental impact

50% reduction in water consumption

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

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2.2. Energy | efficiency and economy Global warming and the depletion of petroleum reserves are motivating executives to review their energy use. Moreover, supplying energy in 2030 will require an investment of US$ 16’000 billions (UNEP). The hotel industry is also affected by this issue. Its energy demand is closely linked to the comfort of its guests. Indeed, a 300-room hotel spends, on average, US$ 1.2 million per year on energy. This is the second highest cost after wages. To reduce the impact on the environment, it is necessary to control the consumption of fossil fuels and to turn to clean technologies and renewable energy.

Self-assessment o o o o o

What is the total amount spent by the hotel on energy consumption? What is the total energy consumption of your hotel? Do you know how much energy each department consumes? Do you rely on different energy sources, among which are those labelled ‘clean’? Do you use processes that optimise energy consumption?

If you cannot answer the above questions, it is important for you to get interested in your hotel’s energy use.

‘ENERGY’ checklist OBJECTIVE : TO REDUCE AND IMPROVE ENERGY CONSUMPTION Actions to be taken General Monitor regularly energy consumption o Check the electricity meters at least once a month o Install meters in each department to monitor energy consumption o Monitor hot water consumption as much as possible o Calculate the energy consumption costs for the hotel and departments o Determine which areas consume the most energy Improve the lighting system o Investigate the use of hotel lighting and observe how long the various lights are switched on each day o Use energy-saving bulbs, especially in high consumption areas (a traditional bulb consumes 60 W, an equivalent energy-saving one 11 W) o Install timers and movement detectors to reduce lighting time in selected locations (bathrooms, hallways, parking lots, etc.)

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

‘ENERGY’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

General Reduce energy consumption o Code the light switches (using labels or a colour code) so that you can switch on only those lights that you need o Reduce general lighting during daytime and make sure that exterior lighting is switched on only at night (you can use photoelectric cells for example) o Operate machines according to the manufacturers’ recommenda- tions for better energy efficiency o Choose high performance insulation systems to minimise heat losses and gains o Reduce the number of lifts that are operated during off-peak hours o Train the staff to do the right things, and invite guests to get involved o Repair or replace faulty equipment with more efficient and eco- nomic alternatives o Use solar panels to heat water for the guest rooms (saving 40% on the energy costs of the hotel) Minimise energy losses o Organise preventive maintenance of the electric network and equip- ment, including heating and air conditioning equipment o Install aerators to reduce the demand for hot water o Check the insulation on hot water pipes to reduce heat losses o Install double glazed windows o Shade windows from the sun to limit air conditioning needs (by means of awnings, curtains, blinds, screens, heat reflecting sheets, etc.) o When renovating, install revolving doors to limit drafts Recover energy o Recover the heat generated by the refrigeration units in order to heat the water for guest rooms or the laundry o Install closed loops to recover and reuse steam

Hot water production can represent 25% of the hotel’s energy consumption. Solar energy allows a reduction of at least 40% of that consumption.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

‘ENERGY’ checklist (continued) Actions to be taken Kitchen o Avoid turning on kitchen equipment without thinking when arriving in the morning (break the habit) o Think about the temperature of kitchen rooms when installing or relo- cating refrigerators and freezers (an extra 5°C increase in room temperature results in a 30% increase in energy consumption for a refrigerator) o Switch off equipment when it is not required (especially after busy periods) o Do not exceed preheating times o Use cooking pots whose diameters are compatible with the cookers or burners o Cover pots as they are cooking (to boil 1 litre of water in a covered pot requires about 25% of the energy needed if the pot is uncovered) o Invest in high-performance cooking units when replacing equipment o Open refrigerators and freezers only when necessary o Defrost refrigerators and clean the door seals monthly Laundry o Fill washing machines to their maximum capacity o Use low temperature washing programmes o Choose washing machines that offer high spinning speeds in order to limit drying time o Avoid overloading the dryer and thereby increasing drying time o Plan your washing so that the dryers are continuously in use, thereby preventing heat loss o Plan to use the equipment during periods of low consumption (off-peak hours) o Allow food to cool down before placing it into a refrigerator or freezer o Install plastic curtains outside refrigerators or freezers to retain cold air o Regulate water temperature according to kitchen and cleaning needs o Do not wash dishes under running water (fill the sink instead) � Operate dishwashers only when full

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

‘ENERGY’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Room service, accommodation o Turn off air conditioning and set heating at minimum in unoccupied rooms o Choose thermostats that allow you to programme maximum and minimum temperatures (and so prevent guests excessively heating or cooling their rooms) o Make sure the lights are switched off in unoccupied rooms (magnetic cards automatically turn off the room’s power when the guest leaves the room) o Do not leave television sets on standby (a single television set on standby can consume 193 kWh in one year) o Make sure that the refrigerators (mini-bars) consume less than 1 kWh/ day and that they are switched off in rooms that are unoccupied for three or more consecutive days o While cleaning, do not air rooms for more than 15-20 minutes in order to avoid wasting energy on heating or cooling o Install an air conditioning system that automatically switches off when the windows are open o Clean and change the air conditioner filters regularly Administration o Avoid leaving computers switched on when taking breaks longer than 30 minutes (on standby, a computer consumes 95 W) o Switch off equipment when not in use (a copying machine on standby can consume up to 80% of the energy it uses in working mode) o Use natural light rather than artificial lighting as much as possible o Rearrange the workplace to make optimal use of natural light o Avoid leaving doors and windows open to minimise energy con- sumption for heating or air conditioning o Switch off the coffee machine after each use (a coffee machine that is left switched on the whole day consumes as much energy as it uses to make 12 cups of coffee) Pool o Retain the pool’s heat by covering it with a thermal cover at night o Keep the water temperature at 24°C (increasing the temperature by two degrees can consume up to 25% more energy) o Limit the pool lighting that is not necessary for the users’ safety o Make sure that the pool’s thermostat is in working order

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Example Problem

High energy consumption for lighting

Measure

Installation of energy-efficient light bulbs with a lifespan 12 times greater than that of common incandescent bulbs’

Investment

US$ 20 per unit

Payback

0.6 year

Environmental impact

Reduction in the hotel’s energy consumption of 15’417’000 kWh/year

Ventilation & extraction 6% Laundry room 9%

Wall sockets 6% Heating & cooling 16%

Heating geothermic 12%

Kitchen 17% Lighting 15%

Rooms’ hot water 19%

Fig.1 - Example of the distribution of energy consumption in a hotel (Source: Intelbat, 2005)

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

2.3. Wastes | resource recovery The rapid development of the hotel industry in the Mediterranean often goes hand-in-hand with a lack of sanitation and waste disposal infrastructure. It is therefore necessary to implement strategies to minimize wastes at source as well as to recycle them. Indeed, hotels produce large quantities of solid and liquid wastes, which end up in the surrounding environment due to inadequate management and handling. The resulting dirty surroundings will also harm the image of the hotel.

Types of waste in the hotel industry Non-hazardous wastes (NHW)

Components

Source

Household wastes

Food/kitchen waste, used or dirty paper and wrapping, plastic wrapping or bags, composite wrappers

Hotel’s different departments

Cardboard

Packaging

Hotel’s purchasing and other departments

Paper

Printed documents, brochures, menus, maps, magazines, newspaper

Administration, reception, guest rooms, restaurants

Plastic

Bags, bottles (that did not contain hazardous material), household goods, individual portion wrappers for various products

Kitchen, restaurants, bars, guest rooms, administration

Metal

Tin cans, jar lids, soda cans, food containers, mayonnaise, mustard and tomato purée tubes, aluminium packaging

Kitchen, restaurants, bars, guest rooms

Glass

Bottles, jars, flasks

Kitchen, restaurants, bars, guest rooms

Cloth

Tablecloths, bed-linen, napkins, clothes, rags

Kitchen, restaurants, bars, bathrooms, guest rooms

Wood

Wooden packaging, pallets

Purchasing department

Organic waste

Fruit and vegetable peelings, flowers and plants, branches, leaves, grass

Kitchen, restaurants, bars, guest rooms, gardens

Warning, the content of the above table is not exhaustive.

A typical food portion weighing 300 g yields up to 835 grams of waste material, 780 grams in preparation and 55 grams upon disposal.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

­­­ Hazardous wastes (HW)

Source

Frying oil

Kitchen, restaurants

Mineral oil

Maintenance service

Paint and solvent residues

Maintenance service

Flammable material (gas, petrol, etc.)

Kitchen, garden, maintenance service

Fertilizers and chemicals (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides)

Garden

Cleaning chemicals

Maintenance service

Ink cartridges

Administration

Disks and CD-Roms

Administration, guest rooms

Batteries

Maintenance service, administration, guest rooms

Cleaning chemicals and solvents used in dry cleaning

Laundry room

Fluorescent lights, neon tunes and long-life bulbs

Maintenance service

Warning, the content of the above table is not exhaustive

A single litre of mineral oil can pollute one million litres of water, spreading to a surface area of 2’000 m2.

Occasionally, hotels produce other types of wastes, such as: • Bulky waste (furniture – chairs, desks, sofas, etc.) • Demolition and/or renovation wastes (concrete, stone, brick, plaster, glass wool, roof tiles, ceramic material, tiling, window glass, treated wood, pipes, etc.) • Inert waste (broken china, chipped glasses, etc.) • Used electronic, household and office appliances • Discarded refrigerating equipment (refrigerators, freezers)

Self-assessment o o o o

How much does the treatment and disposal of your wastes cost? Do you know how much waste is generated by your hotel? What are the types of wastes generated and their respective volumes? How do you dispose of your wastes? What proportion of the hotel’s wastes is recycled?

If you cannot answer the above questions, it is necessary to establish a more efficient management of your hotel’s wastes.

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La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

‘WASTES’ checklist OBJECTIVE: TO REDUCE, TO REUSE, AND TO RECYCLE WASTES Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

General Examine the major sources of wastes o Identify the major sources of waste generation in the hotel o Determine the quantities and the composition of wastes o Determine the costs of treatment and disposal of wastes for each department o Check that the practices of the hotel are in compliance with current legislation Segregate wastes at source o Organize at-source segregation of wastes at source (segregating those wastes for which there exist local recycling networks) o Organize workspaces in such a way as to facilitate waste segre gation o Distinguish containers by means of colours, labels, or symbols (pictograms) for each type of waste o Instruct employees in the use of the different containers o Check regularly if the segregation of wastes is being practised. Reduce the total amount of waste o Order materials according to your needs to minimise waste o Maintain and repair equipment in preference to replacing it o Choose sustainable products and use them correctly to increase their life span o Use refillable products instead of disposable ones o �Limit the use of individually packaged products Make the necessary arrangements for non-recyclable wastes o Pre-treat liquid discharges before disposing them and respect the existing regulations o Dispose of non-reusable and non-recyclable wastes using appropriate methods (that comply with existing regulations) o Keep hazardous wastes separate from non-hazardous wastes in order to avoid contamination and to facilitate handling o Take the necessary precautions for the disposal of hazardous wastes o Do not throw away batteries and accumulators with household wastes, but collect them separately

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La Bonne d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices forGestion the Hotel Industry

‘WASTES’ checklist (continued) Actions to be taken General Reduce packaging wastes o Buy materials that have the least packaging o Rationalise purchases to avoid ordering small quantities o Give preference to suppliers that take back their packaging o Investigate the possibility of selling some wastes to recyclers (paper, cardboard, plastic, metals, glass, organic wastes, etc.) Reduce the impact on the environment o Find out about possible local means of processing waste to comply with regulations o Do not burn waste outdoors, do not disperse them in nature or bury them o Choose the products that are least polluting and most sustainable o Recycle electric and electronic appliances and donate unwanted appliances that are still working to local associations Kitchen o Check expiration dates of foodstuffs and use food items in the order in which they were purchased – “first-in, first-out” o Make sure that fresh and perishable products are stored at the appro- priate temperatures o Install containers specific to particular types of waste in the waste storage area to recover packaging and to promote segregation o Collect biodegradable organic wastes separately in order to compost them or reuse them as animal feed o Recycle PET and non-deposit glass bottles (recycling 1 ton of glass saves 100 kg of fuel oil) as well as metal packaging (tin and aluminium) o Do not discharge oils into sinks or toilets to avoid clogging pipes and disrupting wastewater treatment systems o Collect used oil and dispose it in an environmentally friendly manner o Store liquid wastes in adequate containers and dispose them correctly o Stop using disposable tableware o Reduce the use of individual portions (e. g. jam and butter) where this can be done without compromising hygiene

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

‘WASTES’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Laundry room o Sort textiles according to their degree of soiling and colour to avoid damaging them o Choose adequate detergents and use recommended dosages o Avoid leaving detergent in humid places o Keep clothes hangers and reuse them o As far as possible, reuse the laundry room’s plastic bags or replace them with wicker baskets or cloth bags o Rather than throwing them away, transform old bed sheets into laun- dry bags o Collect chemical containers according to the manufacturer’s instruc- tions and send them back to the suppliers Room service, accommodation o Use refillable dispensers for hygiene products (the rate of use for individual portions is often only 30%, and even less in the case of soap) o Organize segregation in the guest rooms with clear communication to hotel guests and by providing adequate means (baskets, etc.) o Improve waste collection by adding compartments to room service trolleys for different types of wastes. However, employees must never sort the contents of waste bins) o Reuse old bedding and napkins as rags Administration o Reduce the printing of documents whenever possible and use e-mail o Reuse the blank side of used paper as scrap paper o Use the two-sided printing option on printers and copying machines whenever possible o Use recycled paper whenever possible o Collect paper and cardboard wastes separately o Limit colour printing and copying o Return toner and ink cartridges of printers and copying machines to suppliers o Avoid using disposable tableware (plastic cups and mugs)

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Example Problem

Generating approximately 190 tons of recyclable wastes per year

Measure

Implementation of waste segregation in the hotel

Investment

US$ 140’000 (annual wages of the employees hired to sort segregated wastes, and equipment costs)

Payback

7.5 months, with an additional profit of US$ 90’000 per year

Environmental impact

Recuperation of 70% of the material that can be reused or recycled (paper, cardboard, glass, aluminium) as well as material and objects discarded in error

50 %

40 % 30 %

20 % 10 %

0%

Glass

Food & plant waste

Oils

Trash

Cardboard & paper

Fig. 2 - Composition of wastes generated by a restaurant serving 13’000 meals per year (Source: RPA ingénieurs-conseils Meyrin, 2000)

One ton of used paper can be used to manufacture 900 kg of new recycled products. On the other hand, each ton of virgin paper consumes 3 m2 of forest.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

2.4. Purchasing policy | ecological aspects Purchases made by hotels are linked to the need to satisfy guests’ expectations and offer them quality service. Nevertheless, purchased products must be considered in their totality (life cycle). Indeed, the different stages of the life of a product – manufacturing, marketing, use and disposal – all have an impact on the environment. The purchasing of ”green” products helps to minimise these impacts. These products favour biodegradable, recyclable, non toxic and less processed materials, and their use in the context of a hotel leads to smaller water and energy consumption. Hotels can encourage the use of “green” products by raising the awareness of staff, suppliers and guests. Beyond the ecological aspect, the impact on working conditions must also be factored in when selecting products.

Since 50% of a hotel’s solid wastes consist of the packaging and containers of consumed products, it is extremely important to try to reduce their quantity.

Self-assessment o o o o o

Do you favour local products whenever possible? Do you favour biodegradable, recyclable or reusable products? Do you pay attention to processes involved in the preparation of the products? Do you purchase appliances and other equipment that are designed for minimum water and energy consumption? Are you willing to spend a little more in order to protect the environment?

o Do you ask your suppliers about their practices regarding environment protection and working conditions? If most of your answers are negative, it is important that you change your purchasing policies.

The hotel can use ecolabelled products which have a guaranteed limited impact on the environment. This is the case for ecoenergetic products that bear the ‘Energy Star’ label. In addition to the ecological benefit, these products are economically advantageous. Indeed, while in use, electrical appliances cost 20 to 50% of their purchase price in energy.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

‘PURCHASING POLICY’ checklist OBJECTIVE: TO CONSUME BETTER, TO BUY GREEN Actions to be taken General o Buy only what is needed (avoid unnecessary supplies) o Buy local products to reduce pollution from transportation o Prefer, whenever possible, products that are recycled, reusable, repair- able, biodegradable, recyclable, fair trade and/or eco-labelled (such products should not be imported or transported over long distances, otherwise their ecological advantages will be lessened) o Use the hotel’s products and equipment in a rational way o When purchasing new equipment, take their water and energy consumption into consideration o Prefer products with little packaging and that use single-material packaging (homogenous and polystyrene-free) o Avoid disposable (one-trip) products o Identify and choose suppliers that have already implemented eco efficiency measures and who agree to take back packaging and used material o Replace paper towel dispensers in wash rooms with energy-saving hot air blowers o Involve guests in the selection of “green products” o Rent equipment that is seldom used by the hotel, instead of buying it o Purchase appropriate mercury- and cadmium-free batteries and rechargeable batteries for applications involving frequent use Shops o If applicable, encourage the shops in the hotel to sell products that are made in ecologically- and socially-friendly ways o Do not allow shops in the hotel to sell souvenirs made from protected or endangered animal or plant species Kitchen o Choose, whenever possible, organic products o Choose seasonal fruits and vegetables o Use fresh products with little or no preservatives and food-colouring and with as little packaging as possible o Purchase in bulk rather than individually packaged items o Pay attention to the origin of the foodstuffs used o Equip the kitchen with energy-efficient appliances o Choose the least polluting cleaning agents

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

‘PURCHASING POLICY’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Laundry o Equip the laundry room with machines in energy class A (saving at least 23% on energy consumption) and with washing machines having low water consumption o Buy compact, concentrated products and/or eco-refills to limit packag- ing wastes o Avoid using detergents containing bleach (products of chlorine), phos- phate, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), NTA (sodium nitriloace- tate), etc. o Use active oxygen as whitener and/or use plant-based detergents o Prefer detergents whose components are active at low temperature (30°C) o Adhere to recommended dosages to avoid unnecessary pollution of water o Choose dry cleaning products that minimise pollution o If you work regularly with a dry cleaner, return the clothes hangers and replace the plastic protection covers with paper or cloth covers Restaurants, bars o Avoid using paper tablecloths and napkins o Use table linen made with environmentally friendly materials, free of hazardous dyes, heavy metals and formaldehyde o Choose wash-resistant materials o Avoid using plastic cups or disposable tableware o Prefer draft drinks or deposit bottles Room service, accommodation o Prefer furniture which is easily disposable, being mostly recyclable o Avoid furniture made from exotic wood and, if possible, purchase prod- ucts with the FSC label (Forest Stewardship Council) guaranteeing ecologically and socially responsible forest usage o Install refillable soap and shampoo dispensers in the rooms to reduce packaging and rationalize their use o Use recycled toilet paper o Choose concentrated, environmentally- and health-friendly cleaning agents o When cleaning, avoid the use of disinfectants

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Best Environmental Practices forGestion the Hotel Industry La Bonne d’Entreprise

‘PURCHASING POLICY’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Administration o Buy reusable ink and toner cartridges which can be sent back to the supplier o Purchase paper with at least 50% recycled fibres, or non-whitened or chlorine-free bleached paper o Prefer equipment with a low energy consumption, having recycled or recyclable components and long life spans o Use the “energy saving” functions that switch an appliance into sleeper mode if it is not used for a certain length of time and the “cancel” function to suspend a print job in case of a mistake o Prefer rechargeable batteries Garden o Use organic or biological fertilizers and garden products

Example Problem

Purchase and use of individual 22 ml jam servings

Measure

Make available to guests different jam flavours, prepared by the hotel in large and neatly presented containers

Investment

Minimal

Payback

Immediate, with a yearly savings of US$ 19’000

Environmental impact

Reduction in wastes quantities and rationalisation of purchases

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

2.5. Logistics | efficient handling and management A hotel purchases large quantities of merchandise that require specific handling and storage. When the merchandise is received, a number of steps must be taken in order to guarantee the preservation of its quality. In addition to the location of the storeroom, the human factor is also crucial. Educating employees and raising their awareness are aspects that must be considered. Moreover, making regular inventories of the stock can limit losses and avoid over-consumption.

Self-assessment o o o o

Do you keep your stock records up-to-date? Do you have specific procedures regarding the handling and storing of merchandise? Do you give information to or educate the staff about correct procedures? Do you regularly carry out checks in storage areas?

If most of your answers are negative, it is important that you rethink your logistics procedures.

Better materials handling and storage limits losses. Furthermore, the staff must know and apply safety and hygiene rules when receiving, controlling and storing merchandises.

‘LOGISTICS’ checklist OBJECTIVE: TO INSPECT THE STOCKS, TO MANAGE AND TO CONTROL Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Quality of delivered supplies o Examine the packaging of the products delivered to you o Check that the contents are not damaged o Return the damaged materials to the suppliers Storage conditions o Organize the storage area systematically o Establish storage policies according to instructions provided by suppliers or as mentioned on the labels o Check that the packaging is not damaged during storage o Prepare a maintenance schedule for the storage areas and warehouses o Update regularly the inventory of stored materials o Document mishandling or storage problems

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

‘LOGISTICS’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Storage of chemicals o Keep all chemical products (especially those that are hazardous) in a designated, protected, and safe area o Respect the storage instructions provided by the manufacturers o Label containers of hazardous substances clearly o Avoid storing substances that could interact in the same area o Ensure that the necessary storage conditions are maintained to avoid accidents (appropriate temperature, ventilation, etc.) o Avoid exposing flammable products to the sun or to any other source of heat o Restrict access to hazardous products and control their use Optimal supplying o Avoid excessive purchasing to limit surplus and loss o Inspect the stocks and keep a record of them (register or database) o Check expiration dates of materials to avoid having to discard out- of-date and unusable materials o Train the staff to work according to the principle of “first in, first out” Losses and leakage o Avoid accidents and contamination by using appropriate equip- ment to handle materials when necessary o Close lids and taps to reduce leaks and spills

Example Problem

Frequent losses of products due to mishandling during transfers

Measure

Providing wheeled carts for distributing products

Investment

US$ 50

Payback

Immediate, with a saving of US$ 3’000 per year

Environmental impact

Improvement of the logistics and reduction in waste quantities

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Deadline

2.6. Noise, air quality and landscape integration 2.6.1. Noise Just like any other type of pollution, noise has an impact on the quality of life and on health. Hotels are, above all, meant to be places where one can relax and rest. This often proves difficult because of the noise level. It affects hotel guests and the staff, as well as the hotel’s surroundings. Exposure to noise pollution above 60 dBA has an impact on mood, the quality of sleep, and stress levels. It can also give rise to auditory fatigue (buzzing and ringing). Prolonged exposure to high noise levels, above 90 dBA, represents a hazard to hearing (which can result in moderate to severe deafness).

Self-assessment o Do you know which are the noisiest areas in your hotel in order to limit the noise levels there? o How many of your employees are exposed to high noise levels? o Do your guests or neighbours complain about noise pollution? Determine here if noise is a problem in your hotel.

If guests complain, it may be due to internal noise and lack of acoustic insulation.

‘NOISE’ checklist OBJECTIVE: TO PROTECT THE STAFF AND GUESTS FROM NOISE Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Evaluate risks o Measure the noise levels and record them o Monitor the variations in noise levels in the noisy areas Act on your environment o Reduce noise at its source o Install sound insulation and other means of damping vibrations Change your organisation o Accept deliveries only at agreed hours o Relocate noisy machines to an isolated area or away from the hotel and its surroundings Protect your staff o Inform the staff of the long-term health effects linked to noise pollution o Provide the employees who are exposed to high noise levels with individual ear protection

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

29

‘NOISE’ checklist (continued) Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Look after your well-being of your guests’ and the quality of the environment o Carry out noisy activities at times which will cause the least nui- sance for the guests and the surroundings o Display posters in exposed areas to raise employee awareness

According to European Norms, four acoustic comfort levels must be respected in hotels (see below).

Type of space

dB(A) Lower limit / default value / upper limit.

Hallway

35 / 40 / 45

Function room

35 / 40 / 45

Hotel room (at night)

25 / 30 / 35

Hotel room (during the day)

30 / 35 / 40

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Deadline

2.6.2. AIR QUALITY As with all industrial activities, tourism contributes to atmospheric pollution. Hotel boilers emit atmospheric pollutants, such as particles, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Emissions from road traffic associated with the hotel also contribute to atmospheric pollution. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) used as refrigerating fluids in air conditioning and refrigeration equipments purchased before 2000 are responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer. Furthermore, indoor air pollution is a typical feature of hotels. Many sources contribute to the deterioration of air quality inside a hotel. Pollutants range from mere bad odours to toxic hazards, and include kitchen smells, sewer emissions, tobacco smoke, allergens (acarids, moulds, etc.), Legionella (the bacteria that cause this disease thrive in hot water systems and air conditioner tanks at temperatures between 25 and 45°C), and volatile organic compounds (found in cleaning agents, paint and solvents, glue, varnish, thinner, etc.).

The life span of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere can exceed 100 years. These chemicals are responsible for the deterioration of the ozone layer.

Self-assessment o Do you regularly check your burners and air conditioning equipment? o How do you manage and dispose of refrigerant fluids when changing equipment? o Have you created smoking and non-smoking zones in your hotel, and are they sufficiently aerated and ventilated? o Do you maintain your hot water system? o Do you take any steps to reduce the proliferation of allergens? If the majority of your answers are negative, you should pay more attention to your hotel’s air quality.

‘AIR’checklist OBJECTIVE: TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY, AND TO PROTECT STAFF AND GUESTS Priority (1 to 3)

Actions to be taken

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Allergens o Make sure the hot water network and hot water tanks are well main- tained (keep the temperature at 55°C at least) o Clean tanks and taps during periods of extended shutdown o Clean up mouldy areas with bleach and ventilate them in order to diminish humidity o Avoid acarids (lice) by limiting the use of carpets, rugs and wall hangings o Avoid dust accumulation by regularly washing bed linen

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

‘AIR’checklist (continued) Actions to be taken Outdoor air quality o Check and maintain regularly boilers and cooling equipment o Change the filters of air conditioning equipment regularly o Replace old oil-fired burners with natural gas ones o In cases where fuel oil is specifically required, use low sulfur fuel o Draw up a list of all the cooling equipment (air conditioning, refrige ration), check their airtightness and remove and dispose appropriately of refrigerant fluids (CFC) which are harmful to the ozone layer o Monitor leaks in refrigerating systems o Select fire-extinguishers and fire fighting systems that are halon-free (since halons also contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer) o Ask your suppliers to switch off the engines of their vehicles when delivering supplies Indoor air quality o Provide high performance indoor ventilation o Identify sources of pollution and eliminate them or decrease their effects o Create non-smoking places in public areas o Mark smoking and non-smoking rooms clearly, if the hotel is not completely smoke-free o Limit the use of aerosols and check that they will not damage the ozone layer o Choose sprays that do not use propellant gases o Ensure close adherence to the instructions for the use of cleaning agents (e.g. “do not use in a confined space”, “do not inhale fumes”) o Prefer products that are solvent-free to avoid emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) o Choose biodegradable cleaning agents o Do not mix cleaning agents (interactions between substances can increase their toxicity)

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Example Problem

High CO2 emissions due to the hotel’s heating system

Measure

Installation of an ecoenergetic heating system

Investment

n.a.

Payback

3.5 years

Environmental impact

Reduction in CO2 of 430 tons/year (average of 2.7 tons per year and per room)

In order to ensure optimal indoor air quality, monoblock filters, replaced 2 to 3 times a year, propel outside air into the whole hotel.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

2.6.3. Landscape integration and protection of natural resources Areas with high natural diversity or with an important historical heritage are favourite tourist destinations. To respond to the increasing demand, construction linked to the tourism industry has expanded rapidly. This situation creates certain abuses linked with gradual modifications of the environment and landscape that may become irreversible. The growth of tourism and its aesthetic requirements have direct impacts on soil, landscape and on the surrounding ecosystems. In some places developments on the coastline can lead to severe conflicts. Intensive construction practices are harmful to the environment, especially when the building materials used are not in harmony with traditional architecture. Such construction not only robs the landscape of its natural characteristics but also detracts from its identity.

Self-assessment o o o o o

Does your hotel’s visual appearance fit into its surroundings (in terms of colours, shape, and size) and into the region’s cultural landscape? Did you employ a landscaper during the development of the hotel? Do the building materials contain local natural products? Did you employ local craftsmen when building? Did you lay out gardens and limit the area that paved or built on?

If the majority of your answers are negative, it would be a good idea to make an effort to improve your landscape impact.

Manufacturing a ton of concrete requires 140 to 220 kWh, 70’370 kWh are consumed in the manufacture of a ton of aluminum sheet, and to manufacture one ton of plywood 5’000 to 8’000 kWh is required.

‘LANDSCAPE INTEGRATION AND PROTECTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES’ Checklist OBJECTIVE: TO PROMOTE LANDSCAPE INTEGRATION AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION Actions to be taken o Check if you are in conformity with your region’s estate layout policy o Give heed to environmental recommendations in laying out your hotel o Aim for visual continuity with the architectural style of the surroundings o Preserve local identity and the natural heritage o Whenever possible, use sustainable materials produced locally o Lay out green areas and gardens to make the site more pleasant (preferably using indigenous plants) o Place the parking lot in an inconspicuous area of the hotel o Choose, when needed, mineral materials that have a link with the region’s geology

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Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

Priority (1 to 3)

Name of person responsible

Deadline

Example Problem

Water expenses represent more than 40% of operating costs

Measure

Planting indigenous and drought-resistant species suited to the region

Investment

Minimal

Payback

Immediate, with savings of US$ 5’417

Environmental impact

Integration into the local landscape and rationalisation of water use

Selecting building materials is a crucial step in a hotel’s construction. In this context, some principles are given below.

Utilize materials that have already been tried

Investigate the eco-balances of the materials used

Use renewable raw materials

Ensure sustainable development

Prefer variety to uniformity

Use different materials for different functions

Prefer a regional approach

Prefer local materials with cultural links

Stick to the basics and save resources

Evaluate your needs and avoid excesses

Use nature’s energies and rhythms

Do not fight nature, but make the most of what it offers

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

IV. DETAILED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT To go further with the environmental evaluation of the hotel, it is possible to undertake a more in-depth analysis of the most important environmental aspects. The following section of the Guide will enable you to prepare an environmental balance sheet of the hotel’s management and consumption practices. This quantified approach to environmental management facilitates the identification of “priority actions” (to counter high rates of water consumption, loss of materials, excess waste generation, etc.) in the most significant environmental areas. Finally, the results of this assessment can be used to plan remediation measures according to opportunity, their importance and the available means.

Warning, this section is restricted to hotels that have already undertaken an environmental audit or diagnosis. The implementation of a detailed environmental assessment requires baseline data. Hotels that submit to an environmental analysis for the first time should move to the next chapter, and return to this one at a later stage.

Objectives • Document economic and ecological deficiencies • Identify the strategic measures to be undertaken • Reduce the impacts on the environment • Promote rational and efficient use of natural resources • Promote communication and environmental awareness

Components • Water • Energy • Wastes • Purchasing policy

All the tables presented in this section are available in EXCEL format.

• Logistics • Noise and air quality

To obtain a more accurate assessment, data concerning water and energy consumption, as well as the inventory of the wastes generated must be obtained from various sources – internally (accounting, technical department, purchasing department, etc.) and externally (suppliers, subcontractors, etc.). The hotel’s environmental analysis can thus be further refined.

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La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

1. WATER Fill out the following tables according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons.

The hotel’s total water consumption Period

Consumption

Cost

(month, quarter, semester)

(m3, litres)

(monetary unit)

Water sources

... Total consumption

Total cost

(monetary unit)

If you fill out this table by month, quarter or semester, you will get the yearly consumption. To evaluate the trends in the hotel’s consumption, you must repeat this process for several years. The necessary data can be obtained from the accounting department, by checking the meters, etc.

Water consumption per department Department

Person responsible

Period

Consumption

Cost

(mois, trimestre, semestre)

(m , litres)

(monetary unit)

3

Comments or current actions

... Total consumption

Total cost

(monetary unit)

You can also calculate the proportion of the total consumption and cost for each department by combining the two tables.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

2. ENERGY Fill out the following tables according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons.

Hotel’s total energy consumption Period (month, quarter, semester, year) Energy source

Consommation

Cost

(tons, m3, litres, kWh)

(monetary unit)

Use

Electricity Gas Diesel Fuel Butane Coal …

Others

Total consumption (kWh)

Total cost

(monetary unit)

You can follow the consumption of the different forms of energy and their respective costs. State how the form of energy in question is used: cooking, heating, etc. Convert all the consumption figures for the various forms of energy into kWh to obtain the total consumption: • 1 m3 of natural gas =10.54 kWh • 1 ton of oil =12’602 kWh • 1 ton of coal = 8’012 kWh • 1 ton of butane = 12’703 kWh To evaluate the trends in consumption, you must repeat this process for several periods.

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La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

Energy consumption per department Period (month, quarter, semester)

Department

Consumption

Cost

(kWh)

(monetary unit)

% of hotel’s total consumption

Comments or current actions



Calculate each department’s energy consumption and its cost. Repeat this operation for different periods in order to establish comparisons and identify possible inconsistencies. To identify areas of high consumption, compare each department’s consumption with the hotel’s overall consumption. For this operation, you will need meter readings and gas, fuel or other bills. Don’t forget to convert the consumption of the different forms of energy into kWh.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

3. WASTES Fill out the following tables according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons.

Yearly waste quantities Hotel

o Non-hazardous wastes

o Hazardous wastes

Period

Quantity

Transport costs

Treatment cost

(year)

(kg, m , t)

(monetary unit)

(monetary unit)

3



Determine precisely the period covered by the data. If you choose to give the monthly values, make sure to add them up to get an annual figure. Yearly data will reveal trends and will allow you to identify any inconsistencies. Fill out this chart for both non-hazardous (NHW) and hazardous wastes (HW).

Wastes categories and their sources Period (month, year)

Wastes categories

Source

o NHW

Quantity (kg, m3, t)

Collection mode

Transport costs

o HW Treatment

Type

Comments

Cost



List the different categories of waste generated by your establishment and record their sources and quantities. This will allow you to identify the areas that generate the highest quantities. If wastes are mixed, try to make estimates. Involving the staff is important at this stage.

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For each type of wastes, mention the collection and treatment mode as well as costs, not forgetting transport. Fill out the chart for non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. Begin with NHW since they make up a greater percentage of the whole.

La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

Wastes categories

Reuse and recycling activities

Comments

...

If you have taken measures to reuse and recycle your wastes, describe them and comment on them.

Wastewater Period (month, year)

Source

Volume (l, m3)

Collection mode

Transport costs

Treatment Type

Comments

Cost



State what do you do with your wastewater? Is it collected or discharged into the sewer system? If you are treating some of the wastewater in a particular way, indicate it in the table.

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

4. PURCHASING POLICY Fill out the following table according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons.

Overview of purchasing Item

Quantity / year

Concerned department

Supplier

Ecological features *

Risks linked to the product

...

* Biodegradable, recyclable, reusable, etc.

State the types of products you use most often and their quantities. State also the departments in which they are used. Indicate whether or not they are dangerous, biodegradable, or made from recycled or reusable material. All this information is available on the manufacturer’s labels or from your suppliers. This table shows you how much of a change in your purchasing habit is necessary.

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La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

5. LOGISTICS Fill out the following table according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons. Storage area

Product

Department

Inflow

Outflow

(kg, l, m3)

(kg, l, m3)

Period

Current supplies Amount lost during (kg, l, m3)

storage (kg, l, m3)

Comments

For each storage area, indicate which products are stored there. Don’t forget to give the quantities that enter and leave. Current supplies are the quantity of products available in the stores on the day of the inventory. If you have noticed problems in the storage area, write them down. It is also important to quantify and explain any losses – through mishandling, inadequate storage conditions, passing of expiration date, etc.).

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Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

6. NOISE AND AIR QUALITY 6.1. Noise Fill out the following table according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons. Concerned area Origin

Time of day Noise level and frequency

Causes

Effects

Comments



Following the suggestions of the staff and complaints of guests and neighbours, investigate the areas in the hotel that are causing concern and record their noise levels. It is also important to specify the frequency of occurrence of excessive noise (every day, on particular days, during specific activities, daytime, night-time, etc.). Identify the origin of the noise pollution (kitchen, laundry room, ventilation, poorly running machine, piping, etc.) and indicate likely causes (defect, insulation problem, etc.). In the table, describe also the effects of the noise on the staff, guests and neighbours.

6.2. Air Fill out the following table according to the hotel’s available data. Involve the concerned departments and persons. When necessary, make measurements or estimates. Emission

Source

Concerned area

Approximate quantities (t/year)

Compliance



For each type of gas emission, note the source, the area of the hotel where it occurs, and an assessment of the quantity or concentration.

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When there are no exact figures, make an estimate. Ask yourself whether you are in compliance with local regulations.

La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

V. DECISION-MAKING AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES 1. ECONOMIC RETURN OF CORRECTIVE MEASURES After having identified the actions to be implemented in your hotel, you can now calculate their return on investment. The table of economic calculations enables you to evaluate the costs of implementing corrective measures step by step, the potential savings and the expected return on investment. It is a decision-making tool that helps you assess the situation before and after the implementation of corrective measures. In other words, it estimates the return on investment of the targeted actions before they are actually implemented.

Elements of economic calculations form

Overall description

Comparison of costs

Investment

Presentation of the set of problems and of the chosen corrective measure. This part encompasses the following elements: • Concerned environmental domain • Department responsible for the corrective measure • Problem faced • Action to be taken (corrective measure) in order to solve the problem Comparison of costs before and after the implementation of the corrective measure: • Annual costs before implementation (Ca): costs incurred before the imple- mentation of the corrective measure (consumptions, losses of water, energy, raw materials, maintenance costs, costs of equipment upgrades, etc.) • Annual costs after implementation (Cb): recorded or estimated costs after the implementation of the corrective measure Capital invested to acquire the means needed to implement the corrective measure. In most cases, the investment creates annual running costs to keep the measure working effectively and efficiently: • Investments (Iv): capital needed to implement the corrective measure. If the measure included several investments, the various amounts should be added • Annual running costs (Rc): additional running costs related to the implemen tation of the corrective measure. In some cases, there are no running costs

Profit

Savings resulting from the implementation of the corrective measure: • Gross annual savings (Gs): annual savings obtained as a result of the imple- mentation of the corrective measure. Gs = Ca – Cb • Net annual savings (Ns): actual annual savings obtained as a result of the implementation of the corrective measure. Ns = Gs – Rc

Return on investment

Highlighting the economic efficiency of the chosen measure: Payback period (Pp): time needed for the hotel to recover the investment used to implement the corrective measure. It is expressed in years. To turn it into months, it has to be multiplied by 12. After the payback period, the gross annual savings (Gs) become profit. Pp = Iv / Ns

Note: Particular attention should be paid to the choice of unit (t, kg, l, etc.) and to the currency (US$ or local currency). What matters is to be consistent in usage of units.

45

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

EXAMPLE OF ECONOMIC CALCULATIONS FOR A HOTEL GENERAL DESCRIPTION Domain

Energy

Facilities concerned

The different components of a tourist complex: 3 hotels, 5 restaurants, 4 bars, 3 swimming pools and 19 shops

Problems addressed

Conservation of energy is an important theme for tourist complexes. The electricity costs represent a large part of the complex’s operating costs

Action to be taken

• • • •

Installation of an electronic monitoring system to monitor energy consumption from a distance and detect areas where savings could be made Installation of presence sensors in staircases Installation of additional switches in the staff restaurant Substitution of 240 standard incandescent bulbs with low consumption bulbs (which have a life of 6 years)

COMPARISON OF COSTS Annual costs before action (Ca)

Electricity costs per year: Ca = US$ 1’200’000

Annual costs after action (Cb)

Electricity costs per year: Cb = US$ 789’524

INVESTMENT Investment (Iv)

• Electronic monitoring system: Iv1 = US$ 20’000 • Presence sensors: Iv2 = US$ 3’240 • Additional switches: Iv3 = US$ 7 • Low consumption bulbs: Iv4 = US$ 4’800 Ivtotal = Iv1 + Iv2 + Iv3 + Iv4 = US$ 28’047

Annual running costs (Rc)

• Rc1 = US$ 1’920 • Rc2 = US$ 160 • Rc3 = US$ 0 • Rc4 = US$ 880 Rctotal = Rc1 + Rc2 + Rc3 + Rc4 = US$ 2’960

PROFIT Gross annual savings (Gs) Gs = Ca - Cb

Gs= US$ 1’200’000 - US$ 789’524 Gs = US$ 410’476

Net annual savings (Ns) Ns = Gs - Rc

Ns = US$ 410’476 - US$ 2’960 Ns = US$ 407’516

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

46 10

Payback period (Pp) Pp = Iv / Ns

Pp= US$ 28’047 / US$ 407’516 = ~0.069 Pp = ~ 25 days

La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Acoustic and thermal insulation in the hotel’s rooms

Use of environmentallyfriendly cleaning products in refillable containers

Reduce the pollution linked to cleaning chemicals and raise the awareness of the cleaning staff

Purchasing departments

Technical department

Targeted Department action concerned

Reduce noise pollution to ensure guests’ comfort and reduce thermal loss

Objective

Example of an action plan

Ms. Tazi

Mr. Benjelloun

Person responsible

• Selection of products with a high degree of biodegradability

• Establish pur chasing guide lines based on labels with pref erence for green products

Installation of highinsulation doubleglazed windows

Means

1 year

6 months

Deadline





Improvement of 5 % of the productivity of the staff (decrease of medi- cal problems linked to chronic exposure to chemicals)

Reduction of air pollution (common cleaning products are responsible for 8% of the emissions of vola- tile organic compounds)

US$ 1’000

Normal labour costs

None

Rc (US$)

Iv (US$)

Reduction of the US$ 1’200 per winnoise level (and dow improved guest loyalty and satisfaction)

• Reduction of 66% in energy costs



Expected result

US$ 10’000

US$ 24’000

(US$)

Ns

In order to get the financial return from such corrective measures, the hotel must set an action plan for the daily management of its activities. To identify the hotel’s strong points, recognise its weaknesses, and define its perspectives there should be some kind of internal organisation and a clear allocation of responsibilities. The development of an action plan enables the implementation of the corrective measures by specifying the means allocated (financial, technical, human, etc.) and the deadline for the actual implementation. Appointing qualified persons to implement the corrective measures is essential. At the same time, coordination between the departments that face the same problem (such as excessive consumption of water or energy, or inadequate waste management) is necessary for reaching the performance targets. The corrective measures and their results should be assessed and documented regularly in order to evaluate progress and plan possible additional improvements or corrective measures.

2. ACTION PLAN

47

VI. IMPROVEMENT, TRAINING AND PERSPECTIVES 1. STRENGTHENING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT Becoming an environmentally responsible hotel requires the adoption of a new corporate culture both within the hotel and among its stakeholders. To strengthen this commitment, changes should be implemented progressively within the hotel. Organisational change To obtain a lasting change in the hotel, clear objectives are needed, and follow-up and evaluation measures must be implemented. A systematic approach can be adopted by establishing resource management plans and by communicating factual information. Therefore, appointing a “task group” made up of selected volunteers from among the staff will contribute to the implementation of concrete improvements in the BEP’s main domains. Behaviour change Influencing staff behaviour in favour of more rational resource use has a direct impact on lowering the hotel’s running costs. It is important to involve staff by giving them specific duties (realistic and suited to their competences) and by providing training. It should be noted that such a commitment also requires the involvement of the guests. Technological change Within the framework of the strategic environmental actions, the hotel can, when changing equipment or renovating, choose more sustainable technologies that consume less water and energy. The aim of this is to become more eco-efficient and adopt a more responsible purchasing policy. In addition, to sustain the efforts made in applying “green” measures, the hotel must institute corroborative and followup actions. This will support the hotel’s environmental commitment and help monitor its performance.

2. FOLLOWING UP AND SUSTAINING THE CORRECTIVE MEASURES Follow-up gives managers the necessary information to assess the impact and the progress of the action taken. It can provide an evaluation of the adequacy of the measures, judged against the hotel’s environmental goals. Moreover, by using the annual follow-up results, managers can identify trends in performance (benchmarking) and, if needed, take corrective action. Using the BEP Guide each year will give the hotel the data it needs to do this, thereby conforming to the principles of continuous improvement. The goal is to strengthen the environmental and economic efficiency of the hotel departments. After this initial approach to best environmental practices, the hotel can go further in its adoption of the principles of eco-efficiency by offering guests additional and personalized services while at the same time limiting environmental impacts and costs, and guaranteeing quality.

3. AWARENESS-RAISING AND TRAINING OF STAFF

48 10

Just as investments are required to maintain or replace a hotel’s equipment, an investment in staff awareness-raising and training is essential to improve the human capital. Environmental commitment is an opportunity for the hotel to involve its various co-workers. Staff training must be centred on the hotel’s environmental impacts. For the training to be adequate, training and awareness-raising must also be relevant to the target groups and be related to their daily activities. Employees should be invited and encouraged to respect the environmental measures that have been implemented. Finally, because of the high turnover rates in the hotel industry, training curricula should be revised to include the BEP principles in the induction training provided for new employees. Awareness-raising and training can be implemented in the different departments of the hotel. Sessions should be organised at times of less activity, and should last one to two hours. Practical demonstrations increase the effectiveness of the training. In addition, other media can be used in the departments, such as posters, information notes, brochures, bulletin boards, and films.

La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

4. GUEST’S INVOLVEMENT AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION A hotel’s position regarding environmental issues can increase its competitiveness. Information on this topic should, above all, be addressed to guests, but also to the other stakeholders. As far as informing guests is concerned, the main objectives are to inform them about the hotel’s programme and sound environmental practices, as well as to inform the guests regarding what they themselves can do. By communicating clearly about its efforts in the field of environmental protection, the hotel can increase the approval and loyalty of demanding guests. Nevertheless, it is important to communicate well and get the message across without being sanctimonious. Guests can become involved in the hotel’s environmental approach if they are given key information about the hotel’s commitment. They can participate if they are informed about rational use of water and energy (cf. section III). The information can be distributed to guests when they arrive and be posted in the guest rooms. It should be noted that the hotel must have a demonstrated commitment to the protection of the environment, having implemented effective and efficient measures, before requesting the participation of guests. Other stakeholders can be informed of the hotel’s practices by different means, among which are the annual report, the environmental charter, and the web site. Another way to show one’s commitment is to describe the improvement measures that have been implemented and to explain their economic and environmental advantages.

5. PERSPECTIVES The efforts undertaken by the hotel in terms of the environment can lead to a consideration of eco-labelling. The best known labels for hotels are the “European Eco-Label” and the ”Green Key”. Getting accreditation in this way requires meeting a number of mandatory and optional criteria. Investments may prove necessary to upgrade the hotel’s equipment in order to meet the requirements of the label. Such certification is an important competitive advantage that can be used as a marketing tool.

49

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barry C., Les hôtels passent au vert, Réseau de veille en tourisme, 2007 Benoit G., Comeau A., Méditerranée les perspectives du Plan Bleu sur l’environnement et le développement, PNUE et PAM, 2006 Bonnes pratiques environnementales dans le secteur hôtelier, Centre d’activités régionales pour la production propre, 2006 Burnett J., Ho B., Chan A., Good Practice Guide to Waste Management for Hotels in Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2000 Burnett J., Kwok-tai Ch., Deng S., Ng S., Lee R., Ho B., To D., Good Practice Guide to Energy Conservation for Hotels in Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2000 Burnett J., Kwok-tai Ch., Deng S., Ng S., Lee R., Ho B., To D., Good Practice Guide to Water Conservation for Hotels in Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2000 Butler Ch., A messy Business, Successful Meetings, 1991 Chan D., Burnett J., Guide to the Management of Indoor Air Quality for Hotels in Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2000 Charte Environnement de l’Hôtelier Guide Pratique, Direction Développement Durable du groupe Accor, Accor Hotels, 2006 Cleaner Production - Energy Monitoring System Ayers Rock Resort, Australian Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2001 Cleaner Production in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Sustainable Business Associates, 2006 Dubois G., Dossier sur le tourisme et le développement durable en méditerranée, PNUE et PAM, 2005 Enz C., Siquaw J., Best hotel environmental practices, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 1999, p. 72 Exemples d’actions de minimisation de déchets et d’émissions n. 62, Centre d’Activités Régionales pour la Production Propre Genoud H., PME et développement durable, Service Cantonal du Développement Durable, 2003 Guide de bonne gestion d’entreprises, Sustainable Business Associates, 2005 Hamschmidt J., Case Studies in Sustainability Management and Strategy, The oikos collection, 2007 Hospitable Climates Helps Novotel London West Save 20% on Energy, Hospitality, 2005; p. 8 Iwanowski k., Rushmore C., Introducing the eco-friendly hotel, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 1994, p. 34 L’art d’accommoder les restes, Service cantonal de gestion des déchets, 2002 La gestion environnementale au quotidien, Clef Verte La pollution intérieure : la connaître, la reconnaître, l’éviter, Observatoire de la qualité de l’air intérieur Le Label écologique européen pur les hébergements touristiques, Commission européenne, 2003 Making a difference together, Fairmont Hotels & Resorts Green Partnership, 2006 McPhee M., Sustainable Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry, BioCycle, 2006, p. 40 Profitez des économies d’énergie dans les hôtels, les motels et les restaurants, Initiative des Innovateurs énergétiques, 2003

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Sweeting J., Rosenfeld A., A Practical Guide to Good Practice Managing Environmental and Social Issues in the Accommodations Sector, The centre for environmental leadership in business and the tour operators’ initiative for sustainable tourism development, 2003 Yohann R., François Ph., Mon hôtel & l’environnement, Conseil Régional d’Aquitaine, Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Energie et Délégation régionale Aquitaine et la profession hôtelière

La Bonne Gestion d’Entreprise Best Environmental Practices for the hotel industry

Best Environmental Practices for the Hotel Industry

Impressum Edition June 2008 Publisher Sustainable Business Associates (sba) Route du Châtelard, 56 CH-1018 Lausanne, Switzerland T +41 21 648 48 84 F +41 21 648 48 85 E [email protected] www.sba-int.ch Authors This Guide was developed under the direction of Karim Zein, President of sba, in collaboration with Majdoulaine Semlali Wazner, Project Manager, and Grégoire Meylan, Research Associate at sba. Thanks We would like to thank Dr. Peter Varga and Sylvia Wenger, resource persons at the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, for their support during the finalising and testing of the Guide. We would also like to thank the hotels that allowed us to test the methodology and approach of the Guide. In this connection we would particularly like to thank the Beau-Rivage Palace in Lausanne and the Eurotel Riviera in Montreux. This guide was translated into English by Nicolas Meylan and edited by Adrian Coad. Finally, we would like to thank the Royal Scientific Society (RSS, Jordan) and State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO, Switzerland) for the Guide’s printing and distribution in Jordan. Graphic design B+ design, CH-1269 Bassins, Switzerland With the support of:

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