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2013 Best Practices for Government Libraries - LexisNexis

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BEST PRACTICES 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS Like LexisNexis for Government on Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/LexisNexisforGovernment) Library Metrics: A Practical Guide By Karen Krugman, Chief Librarian, Commerce Research Library, Department of Commerce; Karen White, Senior Librarian & Team Lead, USAID Knowledge Services Center, LAC Group on assignment at USAID; Kris Vajs, Chief Librarian, Research Library, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Overview of Legislative History Research By Maureen Booth, Law Librarian, Department of the Interior Library Lexis Advance: The Top 10 Features and How They Work for You Building a Better Open House in 10 steps By Lisa Leyser, Library Director, Federal Communications Commission Bibliometrics: a partial cure for information overload in scientific research By Chris Belter, LAC Group, NOAA Central Library Training staff from Georgia to Guam and All Points in Between By Karen Cooper, Reference Librarian, National Defense University Library; Nancy Faget, Librarian, Army Research Library; Denise Lupp, Library Director, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Lily McGovern, Reference Librarian, National Defense University Library; Wilma "Sissy" Riley, Library Technician, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Trudie A. Root, Librarian of the Army, Headquarters, Dept. of Army Institutional Legacies: Oral History Interviews By Leanna E. Bush, Library Technician, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Wood Technical Library, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD Tightening Budgets, Evaluating Collections, and Collaborating to Determine Core Collections By George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Park Ranger Speaker Series: The Federal Triangle Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: The Korean War Veterans Memorial Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Park Ranger Speaker Series: The Battle of the Bulge Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Park Ranger Speaker Series: Creating a Sacred American Space? Battlefield Protection at Gettysburg Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Park Ranger Speaker Series: Democracy at the President’s Doorway Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Park Ranger Speaker Series: The 1911 March on Washington Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Introducing LexisNexis® Digital Library Mentoring: A Path to Gross Personal Happiness By Jeffrey Lofton, Program Specialist, Library of Congress Office of the Associate Librarian for Library Services Lab Liaison Program Best Practices in the Information Services Office at NIST By Susan Makar, Research Librarian, National Institute of Standards and Technology Thoughts on a New Library By Ed Burgess, Director, Combined Arms Research Library The Library is on Facebook! Re-envision ways to connect with library users By Isabel Lopes, MSLIS, Reference Librarian, Naval War College Library, Naval War College, Newport, RI Maintaining America’s “Center of Knowledge” in the 21st century By Rosemary Girard, Intern, Library of Congress Deployed Law Librarian By Derek K. Jones, Law Librarian, U.S. Department of Justice 2

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Lexis for Microsoft Office Centralizing Distributed Resources and Making Them Searchable By Kimberly F. Yang, JD, MLS, Research, Education and Outreach Librarian, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Health Sciences and Human Services Library Best Practices in Taxonomy Development By Lee Lipscomb, Assistant Librarian, Federal Judicial Center True North Thinking By Ken Wheaton, Systems Librarian, Alaska State Court Law Library Making Digital Preservation More Manageable: Best Practices from the Veterans History Project By Andrew Cassidy-Amstutz, Archivist, Veterans History Project, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress Taking Stock – One Library’s Journey: From Concept to Completion By Christine Danieli, Head, Information and Access, U.S. Naval War College Library Application of Non-Traditional Principles to Library and Information Science for Digital Information Projects By Wanda C Dávila-Barreto, Digital Assets Manager & Project Manager, Food and Drug Administration Innovation: It’s in the DNA By James King, Information Architect, NIH Library Mobile Solutions from LexisNexis E-Gov on the Web: A Brief Summary of Electronic Access Through On-Line Resources By Jennifer Klang, Head of Reference Services, U.S. Dept. of the Interior Library Houston, We’ve got a Problem: Moving from face-to-face training to online By Suzanne Morrison, Federal Courts Building Tours: A Case Study By Kera Winburn, Law Librarian, U.S. Department of Justice

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Marketing the Library – One Office at a Time By Stacie Marinelli, Former Reference Librarian, National Library of Education, U.S. Department of Education Coordinating With Librarians - Remembering to play nice By David E. McBee, M.L.S. LexisNexis SmartWatch The Archives at the Secretary of State of Honduras: It’s Rescue, Recent and Future Development By Nilda Lizeth Lopez Fernandez, Legal Advisor and Coordinator for Historic Archives at Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Honduras After the Storm: Establishing Library and Information Services from a Temporary Location By Hildy Dworkin, Library Director for the New York City Human Resources Administration/Department of Social Services Top Five Trends in Copyright By Gretchen McCord, MSIS, JD The Gamification of Libraries: How Games May Be Our GameChangers By Jennifer Matheny, Product Manager, LexisNexis Academic Library Connect celebrates a decade of partnering with the library community By Colleen DeLory, Editor, Library Connect Newsletter, Elsevier Reaching Your Career Potential: Thinking Outside the Box By Deborah Hunt, MLS, ECMp, Principal, Information Edge; Past President, SLA.org Kudos to the 2013 Movers & Shakers and Some Thoughts on Creating a Path to Being Remarkable By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis Where’s Your Destination? By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis From Librarian to CI Pro: Reinventing Myself One Job at a Time By Kim Schultz, Market Research Professional Nexis Direct 4

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Best Practices: NGS Embedded Librarians By Ariel Deiaco-Lohr, Director, International Magazine Publishing and Business Development, International Licensing and Alliances; Monica Fulvio, Senior Taxonomist, NGS Technology; Karen Huffman, Manager, SaaS/Cloud Solutions and Collaborative Technologies, NGS Technology Modern Tools Solve Ancient Riddle By Cindy Romaine, MLIS, Principal, Romainiacs Intelligent Research Ch-ch-ch-changes … By Bob Farina, MSLIS, Entrepreneur, Minor Potentate of Logogrammatic Research & Analysis, Data Wrangler, etc. No Fools Gold: Mining the Mother Lode of Volunteer and Professional Association Experience By Jan Zastrow, MLIS, MA, CA Learning About Current Federal Libraries’ Resources By Angela J.A. Kent, Recent MLIS Graduate Venturing into unknown waters: Librarian goes KM By Aileen Marshall, Co-Founder, Alleman & Marshall Consulting, LLC Lexis Diligence Yes, There’s an App for That: iPad and iPhone Productivity Apps for Librarians By Bonnie Shucha, Assistant Director for Public Services, University of Wisconsin Law Library Increasing You Prezence: Why Prezi is the Future of Presentations By Kathryn E. Crandall, JD MS, Research and Instructional Technology Librarian, Florida State University, College of Law Research Center Manage Your Research and Writing with Scrivener By Timothy J. Gallina, Reference/Emerging Technologies Librarian, Kathrine R. Everett Law Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Balancing Act and Actions: Building Versatility and Leadership at Work and in the Volunteer Sphere By Naomi House, MLIS, INALJ.com, Publisher, Founder and Admin.; Former Reference, Marketing and Acquisitions Librarian at a Federal Library LexisNexis and Big Data 5

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Going Virtual!? : The Reality By Penelope Campbell, Department of Family and Community Services, Analysis and Research Resources for the Library Technician By Cheryl A. Harding, Library Technician, U.S. Department of Justice; Maria L. Walls, Library Technician, U.S. Department of Justice Stephen Wolfram Is Brilliant. Three Reasons Librarians Should Do As He Does, And Not As He Says. By Hannah Sommers, NPR, Library Program Manager Community and Fundamentals: The Road Less Traveled By Chris Vestal, Government Consultant, LexisNexis Knowing Is Half the Battle By Christine Cerezo, MLIS Student and Anne Bahu, Recent MLIS Graduate Public Records Resources Online: How to Find Everything There Is to Know About "Mr./Ms. X" By Jennifer L. McMahan, Deputy Director, Library Staff at U.S. Department of Justice LexisNexis Publisher Best Practices in Reference Service at the Library of Congress By Thomas Mann, Reference Librarian, Library of Congress Background Reference Philosophy and Readers’ Expectations By Thomas Mann, Reference Librarian, Library of Congress SLA 2013: Different Hats - Librarians in the Federal Government By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis Follow-Up to the 2013 National Press Club Event for Government Librarians Hosted by LexisNexis By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis Managing Evolving Resources: Strategies, Capabilities, and Alternatives By David E. McBee, M.L.S. The Powerful Question By Dr. Nancy Dixon, nancydixonblog.com and www.commonknowledge.org 6

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Notes from SLA – 2013 – Leadership: A Commander’s Viewpoint By David E. McBee, M.L.S. Notes from SLA 2013 – Ninja Skills for Librarians By David E. McBee, M.L.S. MLW 2013: Deb Hunt “Career Agility: Transforming Knowledge and Expertise into Strategic Value” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America MLW 2013: Jane Killian “Creating a Virtual Library in the Age of Closings” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America MLW 2013: Dr. Virginia “Suzy” Young’s Presentation Embodied Resiliency and Adaptability By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America MLW 2013: Marcy Phelps “Top Tips for Turning Information into Insights” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America MLW 2013: Dr. Steven MacCall, University of Alabama School of Library and Information Studies, “Social Media: Just the Next Technical Agility Challenge!” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America MLW 2013: Margie Hlava “Big Data Content Organization, Discovery, and Management” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America MLW 2013: Dr. Gail Nicula (Moderator) “Approaching Challenges through Adaptation and Innovation” Panel By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America Making Time for Gratitude By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis Creating Your Total Life List for 2013 By Bruce Rosenstein, Author, Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset

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Creating a Forward-Focused Approach to Your Library's Future By Bruce Rosenstein, Author, Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset A Quick Guide to Bruce Rosenstein and the forthcoming book Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset By Bruce Rosenstein, Author, Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset Patent Research 101 2012 Best Practices for Government Libraries 2011 Best Practices for Government Libraries

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LIKE THE LEXISNEXIS FOR GOVERNMENT PAGE ON FACEBOOK http://www.facebook.com/LexisNexisforGovernment

The LexisNexis for Government Facebook page is maintained by a team of LexisNexis Government Consultants and will provide you with current, targeted information especially for those in government. The LexisNexis for Government Facebook page can help make you more efficient and productive every day. You’ll be kept up-to-date on what’s new with LexisNexis products and solutions that can help you accomplish mission critical tasks. You’ll learn about upcoming government e-learning webinars to help you enhance your research skills. You’ll be provided with handy research tips to heighten your efficiency. And you’ll get timely information on hot topics so you’ll stay in the know. If you are on Facebook, LIKE the page and let our team of LexisNexis Government Consultants keep you informed. If you don’t have a Facebook account, you can still access the LexisNexis for Facebook page. Please visit often to see what’s new. LIKE the LexisNexis for Government Facebook page today!

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Library Metrics: A Practical Guide By Karen Krugman, Chief Librarian, Commerce Research Library, Department of Commerce; Karen White, Senior Librarian & Team Lead, USAID Knowledge Services Center, LAC Group on assignment at USAID; Kris Vajs, Chief Librarian, Research Library, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Good metrics will always be important in analyzing and improving library operations, but they are equally important in demonstrating the library’s value to the organization. As agencies’ budgets tighten and government mandates require demonstrable results, it’s appropriate to reexamine your library’s metrics to assure their continued relevance. During these challenging budgetary times, we must present metrics to management that demonstrate the library’s impact to assure its continuing viability and vitality. This brief paper discusses the principles that should guide your selection of measurements and their presentation. Why report library metrics to your management? By sharing with management the measurements you use to monitor and improve operations, you are highlighting the ways that the library supports the work of the organization. A well-chosen portfolio of performance and customer metrics is the source of information for reports that:     

Communicate the library’s value and demonstrate return-on-investment Generate support for continued or even increased staff and resources Demonstrate how the library supports the organization’s core mission and strategic goals Demonstrate transparency and accountability in how resources are used Show how library contributions have changed over time

Why should I have a metrics program in place? The analysis of operations requires measurements that address critical aspects of the way an operation is carried out and looks at these measurements over a period of time to evaluate trends. Data that meet both criteria are the basis of judging whether a process is “in-control” or not, according to operations management literature. The measurements that might come to hand when responding to an impromptu request for operational data are likely to be inadequate on both counts. You will not have invested time in identifying those measures that reveal the state of library operations and it will be impossible to recreate an extended series from transactions that occurred in the past. It is important to collect metrics proactively and on an ongoing basis, before you’re asked for them. Institute regular collection, analysis and 10

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reporting and carry through with it as one of your major duties as a library manager. Do not carry out a metrics program only with an eye to simply having something to report because you will likely abandon such a program when other duties press. Choose performance indicators and measurements that force you to confront the operation of the library and use these data to improve operations. Think again of the culture and values of your organization. You will want your library to reflect those values; act to anticipate the questions that you will be asked and the direction in which the organization will want to go. Include these data in your analysis. If called upon to justify the library’s program, you will have meaningful metrics that demonstrate the library’s contributions. How do I decide what to measure? Deciding which metrics to collect needs careful thought before you begin your program. Since metrics collection uses staff time, limit the number of metrics collected and concentrate on those with greatest impact. Focus on data that will help you tell the library’s story rather than just looking for whatever numeric data are readily available. Traditional library metrics include such things as materials circulated and physical foot traffic. These measures are still useful, particularly if there are questions about the library’s space. Libraries can also track such metrics as:     

Library size and customer base Reference, ILL, and other transactional data Budget, resource allocation and the value of print and digital materials Virtual foot traffic, i.e. usage of the library’s website and online resources Education and outreach efforts

In deciding which metrics to collect, look at metrics collected by other libraries and organizations to get ideas. These might also give you a standard that can be used to contextualize your metrics. Also look at the kinds of metrics used by other parts of your organization. In particular, collect measures that resonate with your organization. Every organization has its own culture and managerial focus. Measure the things that your direct management and top executives care about and use your metrics to show how library activities directly link to core missions of the organization. You do not have to limit your program to numeric measurements alone. Most libraries also collect qualitative metrics, such as stories of library contributions, thank yous and testimonials. These help to “humanize” the quantitative metrics and provide an important customer voice in explaining the value of the library.

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Library vendor-supplied usage data is another resource that you can look at. You may need to spend some time making the data understandable and comparable between online products, but it can also help you to evaluate or justify your spending. This is particularly important when vendor-supplied services and subscriptions constitute a significant portion of your operating budget. Once you’ve decided what data to collect, you will need to review it from time to time, particularly when you’re getting started, to assure that it is giving you meaningful, actionable information. Do not be afraid of adding to your metrics portfolio or replacing some metrics with more informative ones. If metrics are to guide you in improving library operations and demonstrating library contributions, you cannot be satisfied with static reports and stale measurements. How should I collect and store the metrics? Only after you have chosen the types of questions you want your data to answer and what sort of information you are seeking should you decide how to collect your data. Do not confuse the metrics you need with the operational ease of data collection. This does not mean that simple data procedures are inadequate. The time honored way of collecting metrics has long been a simple hash-mark on a daily recording sheet. For some metrics, like foot traffic, this may be enough. However, the power and ease of use of today’s analytical tools should encourage you to collect more rather than less information. Software that is available on your desktop, like Excel and Access, can be used to collect, store, search, manipulate, and report your metrics. Specialized virtual reference software, like Altarama RefTracker or Springshare LibAnalytics, will provide additional capabilities and allow you to easily consolidate requests from chat, email, phone, and SMS text. However, these packages are more expensive than what’s readily available at the desktop and could pose some security concerns if vendor-hosted. What about interpreting the data once I’ve collected them? Here’s an illustration of how you can build on and use a simple metric, the number of library customers. Metrics Analysis Take simple measures Use ratios to compare two measures

What you collect Number of library customers Percentage of actual customers to potential customers Year-over-year increase or decrease in actual customers to potential customers Percentage of actual customers to

Use trends to see changes over time Use benchmarks to compare to other 12

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like libraries

potential customers vs. those in like libraries

How should I present the library’s metrics? Invest some care in choosing the way to present your data. A careless approach here can mean that your metrics are not seen and yield you no benefit.        







Report on a regular basis: weekly, monthly, quarterly or annually. Different reporting cycles will have different statistics and different audiences. Tailor your reporting to different audiences, e.g. executives, your supervisor, your customers. Compare metrics to past years, a small sample of similar libraries, or industry averages to create a frame of reference. Use a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data; if possible, have your report tell a story with words, pictures, and numbers. Understand how your metrics relate to each other and be prepared to answer questions about “what it all means.” Use creative, single-use metrics to supplement your ongoing metrics program and illustrate unique points. Take special steps to make sure your calculations are error free and your assumptions and conclusions can pass muster. If the metrics you produce are substantially different from the previous reporting period, be sure you have a brief explanation about the reasons why. When possible, personalize your metrics to the group you’re presenting them to. Top managers may be somewhat interested in knowing that 45% of the organization’s professionals use the library. But they’ll be very interested in knowing that 45% of staff from their division, the people who report to them, use the library. Some parts of your organization may have data vital to your metrics program. For instance, human resources can tell you the names or at least the numbers of staff in various divisions. They may even be willing to share job titles and the length of time a staff member has been in the organization. If the library knows the names of people who they have served, then human resources data can allow you to extend the analysis of the library data. Share metrics and reports with your staff to foster an understanding of how they contribute to the library’s success.

How should I package my metrics?  

Written reports allow you to present your metrics and qualitative examples and explain what it means; you can control the message. Verbal presentations have the same characteristics as a written report, but allow you to know that the message has been received and provide valuable feedback on which metrics are of interest. Prepare for potential questions about what you’re presenting.

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Dashboards are an attractive way of presenting information, but static snapshots will not be of continuing interest. Be sure to update frequently and to contextualize your metrics through multi-year comparisons or comparisons with other organizations. Infographics are visual representations of data that present complex information clearly. Infographic software can help you create these memorable, one page presentations. Impact stories can be strong presentations of the library’s contributions, told from the point of view of the customer. They allow you to combine qualitative and quantitative metrics.

Keep your metrics program timely, relevant and accurate It has been stressed here that metrics are not window dressing; they are critical data that help you evaluate your library’s operation, and these same data provide additional benefits when you share them with your management and key customers. Issue your metrics reports at consistent and predictable intervals so that your management can count on them as an information source. Review your metrics regularly to see if what you’ve collected is useful and meaningful. Do not be afraid to ask if they still resonate with your management. Audit your data periodically to assure yourself of their accuracy and completeness. Your metrics can be your biggest asset in staying relevant to your organization and contributing to its success. More Resources “Beyond Metrics: The Value of the Information Center,” Constance Ard, Information Outlook (September 2012). “Metrics for Special Libraries,” Stuart Hales, Information Outlook (September 2012). “What Are We Measuring, and Does it Matter?” Steve Hiller, Information Outlook (September 2012). Adding Value to Corporate Libraries and Information Services, Constance Ard. London: Ark Group, 2012. “More Alike than We Think,” Library Journal vol. 136 no. 8 (2011). “Performance Measurement in Libraries,” Steve Hiller, paper presented at the NISO Webinar on Measure, Assess, Improve, Repeat: Using Library Performance Metrics, September 8, 2010. http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/4872/performance10 web.pdf 14

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“Looking Ahead: The Future of Performance Metrics,” Martha Kyrillidou, paper presented at the NISO Webinar on Measure, Assess, Improve, Repeat: Using Library Performance Metrics, September 8, 2010. http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/4872/performance10 web.pdf “Not Just Another Pretty Picture,” Hilary Davis, 2009 http://www.inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org/2009/not-just-another-prettypicture/ “5 Best Practices for Creating Effective Dashboards,” Tableau White Paper, August 2011. http://www.tableausoftware.com/learn/whitepapers/5-bestpractices-for-effective-dashboards Dugan, Robert E., Peter Hernon, and Danuta A. Nitecki. Viewing library metrics from different perspectives: inputs, outputs, and outcomes. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, c2009. 346 p.

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Overview of Legislative History Research By Maureen Booth, Law Librarian, Department of the Interior Library Very little is as chilling to Reference and Law Librarians than to have a patron approach the desk and ask for help with doing a Legislative History. Yes it is daunting, but not as daunting as saying ‘no’ to Marie Kaddell. I hope that this article will demystify the process a bit and give you some starting points with the research. This is the process of compiling a legislative history that is used in the DOI Library and taught to the Reference Librarians by George Franchois, Director of the DOI Library. This method works in the Library, as the collection contains vital physical materials as well as access to electronic versions of those materials via subscription databases. The materials include: The Register of Debates, the Congressional Globe and the Congressional Record, the United States Congressional Serial Set and the microfiche collection of the Hearings of the United States Congress as compiled by the Congressional Information Service, (CIS). These same resources are available on HeinOnline, ProQuest Congressional Collections, and Readex’s U.S. Congressional Serial Set. The goal today is to take you through the many steps and thought processes of doing a legislative history. Two things to be aware of: One - You don’t have to check each of these resources for every Legislative History, and two -There are even more places to look that I am covering in this particular article. The collection of legislative materials is not governed by a standard set of rules or guidelines. Nor is there a single style of organizing the materials. An easy default style is to arrange the information in the order of passage of the bill through the legislative process to it becoming an Act. Collecting the information is challenging for many reasons. We are a young country and are continually finding different ways to achieve our legislative goals. Changes in administrations, technology, and public education, have all affected the collecting of the information and the access to the information. For us in the Library, it is job security! 16

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First we will start with an overview of how a Public Law is made. There are Public Laws and Private Laws. The Public Law affects all Americans whereas a Private Law is for the benefit of an individual or specific corporation. We are only covering Public Laws. Why a Legislative History is compiled You do a Legislative History for two reasons. One to collect all the material you may ever need to research every nuance of a Public Law or Act. The second reason is to be able to ascertain the meaning of an obscure or ambiguous section or word of a Public Law or Act. Opposing sides, using the same resources, will produce arguments for both interpretations of the same obscure part. All the history is attached to the bill that became law. Thus, we need to get the number of the bill and the Congress that it was passed. Tip: Just because something says it is a Legislative History, it may not contain all the elements that are needed to interpret the reasoning behind a bill. Some commercially available Legislative Histories edit out materials, choosing only the most relevant items. These compilations do not tell you what was not included, thus waylaying your research as you are lead to believe you are using a complete history. The Legislative Process Congress meets for two years with a new session beginning in odd numbered years. The second session begins in the even years. Tip: There may be a third or more session. These are generally during time of war or economic woe. A bill is introduced by a Member of Congress. The bill may be written by anyone, but only a Member of the House of Representatives or the Senate may introduce it. The elective representative introducing the bill may have co-signers. Other members of the Chamber may sign on at a later date. Tip: The person introducing the legislation and the Co-Signers, may have importance to the patron using the Legislative History.

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A bill is accepted to mean any piece of legislation. A bill becomes law. Passage is required in both houses and the President must sign them into law or allow them to become law without his/her signature. Tip: A Bill once signed by the President or having made its way out of Congress and not vetoed, becomes known as law, Public Law or an Act. Bills are newly numbered in each Congress. House of Representative bills are numbered with an ‘H.R.’ preceding the number. Senate bills are numbered with a’ S.’ preceding the number. Tip: Do not mistake ‘H.R.’ as an abbreviation for House Report. H.R. stands for House of Representatives. House Report is abbreviated as H. Rpt. or H. Rept. Companion Bills are comparable bills that are introduced in both Chambers during the same session with similar language. There is often some cooperation between the sponsors of these bills. Thus the Senate and the House may have similar bills with differing emphasis. There even may be multiple comparable bills entered in the same Chamber. Tip: Bill(s) may be discharged in lieu of pending bill. It may mean that the successful bill has support of powerful members. It may be deemed that a particular bill has greatest success of passing both chambers. When you find multiple comparative bills, you must do legislative research on these as well. There will not be extensive material to review. But, the compromises and changes that now comprise the ‘successful’ bill may only be determined or found in the debates or reports or hearings of these other bills. These changes or compromises may have been made in exchange for a member withdrawing or not fighting for his or her bill. This lets the Patron get an idea of ‘What Congress was thinking.” The Patron is then able to make an argument as to the intent of Congress in passing the bill being researched. House and Senate Committee After a bill is introduced, it is referred to a House or Senate Committee. The Speaker of the House determines what committee a bill is referred to. If there are many subjects covered in the bill, it may be sent to multiple House Committees. The Senate goes with primary jurisdiction based on the bulk of the subject matter. A bill may be referred to a number of committees as a bill may have many subject matters. 18

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Tip: There is no requirement in either the House or Senate that committees act on a bill. A majority of the committee must vote it out for consideration and a majority of the whole Chamber must vote on whether the bill should get further consideration. This is required in both Chambers. Hearings may or may not be held, they are not required by either Chamber. Hearings provide citizens, federal agencies, and special interest groups an opportunity to let Congress know the issues and the level of support for a bill. There may multiple hearings held in different locations over several months. A researcher uses hearings to find out ‘what influenced Congress.’ The researcher may also determine the intentions of the Committee by whom the Committee invites to present before them. Tip: Hearings are time-consuming and expensive to hold. Therefore, you may find Hearings from prior Congresses being part of the legislative history of a later bill. This indicates that an earlier attempt at passing a similar bill in an earlier Congress was not successful. Testimony of the witnesses at these Hearings seldom changes, so the testimony will not be presented again. Hearings are found in ProQuest Congressional Collections and the Congressional Information Service microfiche. Mark-Up Sessions/Versions of a Bill A bill will generally undergo a “mark-up” session where the original language is altered or deleted by congressional committees and subcommittees. Changes to the text of the original bill are amendments and voted on by the committee members. Tip: This is the process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation before it goes to the floor of the Chamber. Reports, Documents, Prints A committee may write a report to accompany the bill. This report should explain the committee’s actions and compare the bill to existing law. The House requires the committee to submit a report if it sends a bill to the House Floor. This report is to tell the chamber why the legislation is necessary and what is the legislation will accomplish or remedy.

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Tip: All House Bills will have a report, so there are many House Reports. This report can be very valuable to the researcher. Some H. Rpts. are better written than others. Remember, the abbreviation for a House Report is: H. Rpt. or H. Rept. The full text can be found in the United States Congressional Serial Set, and online in PDF format at the ProQuest Congressional Collections and U.S. Congressional Serial Set produced by Readex. The Government Printing Office (GPO) has some of the Serial Set available, but it is not complete: http://www.gpo.gov/help/u.s._congressional_serial_set.htm The Senate does not have this requirement, but may submit a report giving its view of the why the legislation is necessary and what the legislation will accomplish or remedy. After it is reported, the bill then waits for scheduling for consideration from the floor. This is a political decision and rests with the majority party’s leaders. These will be mentioned in the Congressional Record, but not inserted. To get to these documents, you need to use the United States Congressional Serial Set Tip: These documents are reported in the Congressional Record, but the text is not included. The full text can be found in the United States Congressional Serial Set, and online in PDF format at the ProQuest Congressional Collections and U.S. Congressional Serial Set produced by Readex. The Government Printing Office (GPO) has some of the Serial Set available, but it is not complete: http://www.gpo.gov/help/u.s._congressional_serial_set.htm United States Congressional Serial Set is a compilation of the materials Congress orders printed by the Government Printing Office (GPO). Tip: The full text can be found in the United States Congressional Serial Set, and online in PDF format at the Proquest Congressional Collections and U.S. Congressional Serial Set produced by Readex. The DOI Library has the U.S Congressional Serial Set and our stacks are not ‘Closed.’

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The Government Printing Office (GPO) has some of the Serial Set available, but it is not complete: http://www.gpo.gov/help/u.s._congressional_serial_set.htm Definitions of Congressional Document are from www.gpo.gov/help Reports are from Congressional committees concerning proposed legislation and/or findings on matters under investigation Senate Executive Reports are from the Committee on Foreign Relations relating to Treaties. They can be reports of various committees regarding nomination of individuals. Documents are various other materials ordered printed by both chambers of Congress. Documents can include reports of executive departments and agencies and committee prints if the information they contain is in demand. Senate Executive Documents contain the text of a Treaty as it is submitted to the U.S. Senate for ratification by the President of the United States. Debates Once a bill is on the floor, the debates may begin. The House has time restrictions on all its debates and member will yield their time to fellow members. Debate in the house can end by a motion to close the debate. The Senate has no time restrictions on its members and it is a challenge to end the debate process. The Senate must employ cloture to silence a member. Cloture takes 3 days and 60 votes. Tip: Cloture: The only procedure by which the Senate can vote to place a time limit on consideration of a bill or other matter, and thereby overcome a filibuster. Under the cloture rule (Rule XXII), the Senate may limit consideration of a pending matter to 30 additional hours, but only by vote of three-fifths of the full Senate, normally 60 votes. (http://www.senate.gov/reference/glossary_term/cloture.htm) Amendments The House requires that amendments be germane to the bill at hand.

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The Senate does not require this and any Senator may introduce subject matter as an amendment. Tip: Amended Acts or Public Laws engender new Acts or Public Laws. At this time, there is no resource to go to that presents the original bill with all its amendments. The closest to this is Westlaw’s Popular Name Table. Under the original act, they list all the amendments to that act. With the wonderment of technology, This is also provided by Lexis in the Amendments section of the USCS annotations. Lexis and Westlaw can assist your research by providing you with changes/amendments, but their databases do not go back to 1789, they are generally in the 1990’s. Passage of the bill Whichever Chamber finishes first, sends the completed measure to the other Chamber. If no similar bill exists in the other Chamber the second Chamber debates and amends it and passes it. Or the second Chamber passes its own bill in the form of a grand substitute amendment to the first Chamber’s version. Both Chambers have passed the same bill, but with differing versions and the legislative process continues. A final version must be agreed to by both Chambers. This can be done by amendments or by conference committee action. This is a problem when the House and Senate must vote on the bill, and gives rise to the Conference Committee Agreements and the Conference Report. Once both Chambers have passed similar versions of a bill, any differences have to be reconciled before it can be sent to the President to sign or not sign. In the House, conferees are selected by the Speaker of the House. In the Senate, committee chairmen chose the conferees. The goal is to negotiate a consensus version that the majority in both Chambers can support. Once a majority of the conferees have agreed on a final text of a compromise measure, the Conference Report is presented. It has the agreed 22

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to legislative language and an explanation of how the compromise was reached. The importance of the Conference Committee Report to the researcher is that this gives an idea of the give and take to reach consensus of the bill. It provides insight to what Congress was thinking when it finalized the language of the bill. Tip: You should always provide the patron with the conference report whether he/she is aware of its existence. It lists line by line those lines of the bill that were deleted or amended. You will be asked for “the conference report,” by the patron in the know. But there is only a conference report if there were conflicting bills. Not every bill passed into law will have a conference report. Terms for versions of Bills Reported version is the version presented in the first Chamber. Engrossed is version after passage in first Chamber. Act, formerly Bill: This is when the bill is sent from the first Chamber to the second Chamber. Reported is the language of the bill from the second Chamber. Engrossed is also the version after passage in the second Chamber. It may be the entire text or just the amendments. Enrolled Bill is a final version of the bill with changes and amendments after being signed by the officials of both Chambers. This is the version that goes to the President. Voting The conference report must be passed by a majority vote in both Chambers. After both Chambers have adopted the conference report, an enrolled version of the bill is prepared by the originating Chamber. Both the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate must sign the enrolled bill.

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The President’s Role Once the legislation is presented to the President, he/she has ten days to do one of four things: 1. Sign the bill into law. 2. The Legislation becomes Law without Signature. The legislation becomes law without the President’s signature after ten days and the Congress is still in session. Generally the President does not sign if he/she does not want association with the law, and/or does not feel he/she can sustain a veto. 3. Veto the bill. The President declines to sign the bill within the 10 days. He/she returns it to the originating Chamber with an explanation of his/her reasons. The House and Senate have the remaining time in Congress to have a vote on overriding the veto. A 2/3rd majority is needed in both Chambers and the bill becomes law. Tip: The President will do this as he/she does not want to be associated with the Act. Pocket Veto. The President does nothing in the ten days and Congress has adjourned, and the legislation is considered ‘dead.’ Tip: Called this because the President receives the signed Act and puts it into his jacket pocket and does nothing else to it. Public Law Number. After the bill is signed, it is whisked away by the National Archives and Records Management (NARA) and given a Public Law number and a Statutes at Large Citation. The Public Law number is the Public Law, the number of the Congress and number of the bill enacted that Congress. For example, Public Law 109-2. Indicates that the law is the second Act enacted in the 109th Congress. Public Law designations just came into use in the 65th Congress, in 1951. For Consistency across all Congresses and Legislative Guides, use the Statute at Large Citation. Public Law 109-2 is 118 Stat 4. Tip: Public Law was used in earlier versions of the Statutes at Large, but the use was not official.

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Statute at Large Citation. NARA publishes the enacted legislation into a reporter series called the Statutes at Large. 119 Stat. 2 indicates that the law can be found in the 119 volume of the Statutes at Large on page 2. Tip: This is the most consistent citation for all Public Laws and Acts. The Congressional Record reports the floor proceedings of Congress and contains other information as well. The bound volumes do not match the daily versions and both purport to be substantially a verbatim report of the proceedings. Congressmen and Senators may revise or extend their remarks and insert undelivered speeches. There is a Record of floor proceedings and the texts of amendments, conference reports and indices. Legislative Day is because the Senate ‘recesses’ rather than ‘adjourn’ from day to day. Recessing overnight does not trigger a new legislative day when the Senate reconvenes and may be still operating on the earlier legislative day. This has to do with the rules and terms of legislative days and calendar days and the difference must be noted. Tip: Very tricky when you are trying to follow legislation electronically. The United States Congressional Serial Set or the Serial Set contains the House and Senate Documents’ and the House and Senate Reports. The reports are from Congressional committees dealing with proposed legislation. The documents include all other papers ordered printed by the House or Senate. Documents may include reports of special investigations, reports of the Executive (President) or independent organizations and annual reports of non-governmental organizations. For more information go to http:memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwss.html. Now you know what I know. I hope this gave you some starting off points for assisting patrons with Legislative Histories. The Government Accounting Office has produced Legislative Histories of many Acts. These GAO-produced histories may also be found on the Westlaw Database. There is also a Law Librarian exchange of Legislative Histories in Washington, DC through the Law Librarians’ Society of Washington, DC. The DOI Library is open to the public Mon. through Fri. 7:45 a.m. to 5:00 pm. We are closed on Federal Holidays. You are welcome to visit and use our resources. We ask that you bring an USB drive and if you need to photocopy, please bring a ream of paper. We do not charge for photocopying, but we do run out of paper. You are responsible for the security of electronic devices you bring with you, so travel light. 25

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Do expect to spend several hours doing the research. All the Librarians at the Reference Desk are able to assist you. If I may be of further assistance, Please contact me at 202-208-5815 or [email protected]

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Lexis Advance: The Top 10 Features and How They Work for You

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Building a Better Open House in 10 Steps By Lisa Leyser, Library Director, Federal Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Library’s most important marketing effort is our annual open house. This year was our 10th annual open house and was held in April. Each year it’s more successful, with our highest attendance at 200 guests. The event is usually limited to FCC staff. While we often make changes and modifications each year, there are some tasks that remain a constant to ensure that we have a successful event. The ten most important steps we have found useful when planning a library open house are as follows: Step 1: Getting approval and support Without proper support there is no way to hold a successful library open house. This support needs to come from a variety of places. The first is the library staff. It’s imperative that all library staff are on board with the planning and execution of the library open house. You will need this support to delegate the assignments. The second is the need to get approval and support from management. Whoever oversees the library must be supportive of having the open house. This is a big undertaking, and you need to be prepared to tell them why you want to hold the open house, who your target audience will be, and what your desired outcome is. The support from management will be essential because you may have to call on them for help and approvals during the planning process. Step 2: Planning ahead At the FCC we generally start planning our open house three months in advance. This is done well in advance because there are a lot of components that go into planning the event. By giving ourselves this time to plan, we are making sure that everything is done to the best of our abilities and timely. It also allows us to maintain a good relationship with the other departments that we depend on to help with the event, including our IT staff and our printing office. They appreciate not being rushed and are more accommodating to our needs. One of the most critical documents that you can create while planning the open house is a timeline. Each year our timeline details all the tasks that need to be performed before the event. It lists who is responsible for each task, and the date the task should be completed. This ensures that everyone is aware of what needs to be done. The timeline can be adjusted as needed. By putting all of the tasks in one place, you are making sure that nothing is forgotten or not done in the timeframe required. 28

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Step 3: Staying organized As mentioned in Step Two, the timeline is the most important document you can create in helping to stay organized. Each task should be accounted for. The timeline will change as you discover new tasks to be added. To stay organized save all documents in one electronic folder that you can easily go back to. This will prevent time spent looking for that e-mail you wanted to send to the vendors or the printing request that you sent out for the posters. The first year planning an open house is always the hardest. However, if you keep everything you sent out and created in one place, it will become easier in future events. Step 4: Hold regular planning meetings Plan to have regularly scheduled meetings with the entire library staff to discuss the library open house. At the FCC we have weekly meetings that are scheduled on the same days and times. We will have impromptu meetings as critical items need to be addressed in-between regular meetings, but the library staff knows to plan to attend meetings and this ensures there are no conflicts. The meetings are used to make decisions and to make sure everyone is aware of the status of each item on the timeline. All library staff should be included to make certain that everyone feels part of the planning process. In addition to library staff, for some meetings we include upper management and other library stakeholders. This is done when we are making important decisions and conducting our final walk through of the event. Once again, by including and inviting management outside of the library, you are ensuring that they feel a part of the event and that the event’s success is their success too. They may also have ideas or suggestions that you may not have thought of. Step 5: Keep it simple Through trial and error we have found that the most effective open houses are short and simple. Everybody’s time is valuable: yours, the library staff, the vendors, and the employees. By limiting the duration of the open house you are maximizing everybody’s time. Pick one day for the event and limit it to either morning or afternoon. You may miss out on people who arrive late to work, have to leave early, are out, or are telecommuting, but it’s still the best way to maximize the time and to keep the event moving. An open house with nobody there is no fun for anyone. We hold our open house for 2 ½ hours. This allows the vendors time to make the most of their day, and the library staff to get back to their regular jobs. It also makes the open house special. If we went an entire day or over multiple days, it would be confusing for our agency staff and lessen the impact of the event. We have 29

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also discovered nobody comes during lunch. Agency staff often view the lunch hours as their time, and they are not willing to use their time to come to the library’s open house. Step 6: Invite your vendors One of the most important decisions is who to invite to the open house. At the FCC we usually pick among our subscription database vendors. The number of vendors you invite is completely determined by the amount of space you have. You must have enough space for the vendors to hold discussions with your guests and to demonstrate their products without the area being overcrowded. Also, determine what you want your vendors to do while there. Do you want them to have a laptop where they can show their product? Do they just need space for handouts? Will they need a table? Vendors should always be treated equally, meaning they should all have the same amount of space. Measure it out and that is how many vendors you should invite. If the library doesn’t have enough space, consider using a conference room. Make sure the vendors are all in the same area. Any that are tucked away will be missed. When making the determination of which vendors to invite, prioritize them. There are always vendors that are unable to make the event; they’re busy or have another obligation. If one of your vendors can’t make it, go down your list until you have the desired number of vendors. Step 7: Pick a theme Each year the library picks a different “theme” for our open house. It’s a critical marketing tool for both the library and the open house event. When we pick our theme, our first step is usually to see what the American Library Association (ALA) is using as its National Library Week theme. The last few years have been very adaptable for all libraries, and after getting a sneak peek of what the possibilities are for the 2014 National Library Week, the trend should continue. If the ALA theme doesn’t work for you, get suggestions from the library staff for other ideas. One of your planning meetings can be used to brainstorm what you want your theme to be. Put the ideas to a vote with the library staff. Once again, you are ensuring everyone feels like they are a part of the event. Whichever theme you use, put it on everything related to the open house. Make sure the message gets across to your guests. Step 8: Pick a graphic Once you have your theme, you’ll need a logo/graphic to go along with it. This will be the signature artwork on everything you release or create relating to the open house. At the FCC we put this on everything. The 30

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logo/graphic always incorporates the theme that we have picked out. The two longest meetings while planning the open house generally involve picking a theme and a logo/graphic. Unless you are particularly skilled at creating logo/graphics, I suggest you get help in creating yours to make it look as professional as possible. There are many sources that you can use to get help. In the past, we have asked agency staff members who create graphics as a hobby, our printing office, and once even one of our security guards created our graphic. This should not just be limited to the library staff. The logo/graphic should represent the message you are trying to get across in your theme. Brainstorm ideas with your staff so you can give direction to those you will be asking to help with the creation of this feature. Step 9: Have a hook As much as we want to believe that if we hold an open house everyone will come, that is just not a reality. We have to find something that will interest them enough to tear themselves away from their desks and actually go to the library. We have found several ways to get potential patrons to not only come to the open house but to look forward to it every year and tell their colleagues to attend as well. One of the best ways, is also one of the most obvious: food. People love free food. However, being a government agency means that we have no budget for refreshments. We still provide refreshments by having the people who oversee the library chip in to provide food. Also, our vendors will bring something. I know that some agencies have rules about vendors providing food, but our vendors make sure that everything is still under $20 and it all goes onto a communal table. That way our guests have no idea who is providing what. They don’t know that Lexis brought the doughnuts or that EBSCO brought the brownie bites. Another way we have of making the open house more interesting is having a guest speaker give an opening speech. This past year we had the FCC chairman and one of the FCC commissioners come and give speeches at our open house. Find someone your users would be interested in hearing speak, and who they may get a quick moment with them or a photo op. They might just show up. Another option is to look at companies that do business with your agency and see if they have a product they want to show off. Here at the FCC we have the advantage of mobile technology manufacturers who work with the agency and are always very willing to show off their products. We have a room located in the library, but separate from the library, that focuses on technology that relates to the FCC’s work. For the past two years we have partnered with the group that runs the FCC Technology Experience Center to bring in manufactures of mobile technology to showcase their products. We have also brought in local public libraries to present their electronic resources. The purpose of this is to not only get agency staff excited about the new technology, but to also see how these technologies are impacting libraries. Our database vendors can also show how users can 31

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access and use their databases while using the mobile technologies. By making this change and thinking beyond just the library’s database vendors, we have doubled our open house attendance which had become stagnant. Finally, everyone loves swag. Once again we are limited by government rules and regulations of what can be given away. The database vendors that you work with are more than happy to bring small little giveaways. Always check to see what is allowed, and let your vendors know. Make sure you let them know that bringing giveaways is not required, but always appreciated. We also have larger items, still under $15, that we raffle off at the end of the open house. Our guests are given a program that includes all the vendors that we have invited. They just have to visit each vendor to be entered into the giveaway. That way they can see all the resources that the library has to offer. Step 10: Advertise, Advertise, Advertise There is absolutely no point in holding an event if nobody knows about it. You should use any and all options available to you to advertise the open house. There are several ways we get the word out about the event to agency staff. The first way is by e-mail. We have a detailed schedule of when the e-mails will go out to the entire agency. The first is two weeks before the event, the second is a week before the event, the third two days before the event, another right before it starts, and then we send one out hourly to remind people to come. The e-mails that go out during the event always bring in a new influx of people who had forgotten. The subject line should be simple and convey the name of the event and the date. For the emails that are sent during the event it should say that it’s happening now. More information can be put into the body of the e-mail, but if they don’t open it up, the most important information is right in front of them. We also place posters at each entrance to the building two weeks before the event. Anything put up longer tends to get overlooked and forgotten. Check to see what kind of advertising is allowed. If you can hang flyers by the elevators on each floor, do it. If there are break rooms, and a way to put the flyers there, do it. If you can put flyers in the bathroom, do it. Library staff arrives early the day of the open house and stands at the building entrances to pass out flyers. They talk to the agency staff and encourage them to attend. Our agency staff tends to arrive early, so we are passing out flyers by 7:00 AM. If your organization has staff that arrives later and it’s while the event is going on, have a volunteer from another office pass out flyers at the entrances. The more ways you can find to reach people the better your attendance may be. People tend to have so much on their minds that they quickly forget the event is going on, and you need to constantly remind them.

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These are some of the best practices that we have incorporated into our library open house events. We are always looking for new ways of making the event more interesting and fun. We try to never stay stagnant, and there are always ways to do things better.

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Bibliometrics: a partial cure for information overload in scientific research By Chris Belter, LAC Group, NOAA Central Library

Working at the library at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, I get a lot of patrons suffering from information overload, particularly when it comes to scientific research. Of course, information overload is nothing new - we’ve been hearing about it for years - but it seems to be one of those things that everyone’s talking about but no one’s actually doing anything about. Information overload in scientific research is a bit different from that suffered by the rest of society because it comes from two distinct, but related, trends. First, there’s volume. No one is really sure how many scientific articles are published annually, but we can get a fair estimate from looking at Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science, one of the largest databases of scientific research in the world. Web of Science indexes over 12,000 scientific journals that collectively produced over 1.7 million articles in 2012. Even the comparatively small discipline of meteorology and atmospheric sciences produced over 10,000 articles last year. Since Web of Science is by no means comprehensive, the actual totals are probably much higher. Second, articles are becoming increasingly specialized and technical. As scientists learn more in each discipline, it becomes more difficult to know everything there is to know in that discipline. As a result, scientists specialize, becoming experts in ever smaller subsets of that discipline. The publications that result from this increased specialization are extremely difficult for non-specialists to understand, making it more difficult for people to keep track of what’s going on outside their own narrow sub-discipline. So as a result of these two trends, we’re seeing a massive flood of increasingly technical articles being published in the sciences. Making things worse, both trends are increasing. The volume and the specialization of scientific research have been steadily increasing, with a brief break for World War II, for well over 100 years. So, it’s unlikely that either trend will slow down any time soon. All of which presents my patrons with a fairly serious problem: how on earth are they supposed to keep up with what’s going on in scientific research? Or, put differently, how can they synthesize the state of scientific research in general, or even on a particular topic, in order to advise policy makers, issue regulations, and educate the public about this research? As government scientists, my patrons are often called upon to respond to events like the Fukushima Daiichi incident, which, in NOAA’s case, required quickly 34

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synthesizing the literature on atmospheric circulation, ocean currents, ocean chemistry, marine biology, marine ecology, and toxicology to predict (a.) what would happen to the radiation released from the plant when it entered the ocean and (b.) what effect it might have on marine ecosystems, seafood supplies, and ultimately human health. Since the relevant literature numbered in the hundreds of articles, this was no small task. As the size and specialization of scientific literature increases, these kinds of analyses will become more and more difficult to do. Unfortunately, there aren’t any easy answers to this problem. But, there are a few methods that can help. One promising method is bilbliometrics. Essentially, bibliometrics is the scientific study of scientific publications. The idea is that we can mine scientific publications for data, and then analyze that data in various ways to try and answer some basic questions about those publications: who wrote them, where the authors came from, what they’re about, and even to some degree the impact they’ve had on scientific research as a whole. I say ‘scientific’ because this method doesn’t work so well in the arts and humanities, since they have very different publication and citation practices than the sciences. Let me give you an example of what this looks like in practice from my work at NOAA. I recently had a NOAA climate scientist ask: what is the state of scientific research on climate engineering? Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to various methods of deliberately manipulating global climate to (theoretically) lessen the effects of climate change. As you can imagine, this is a fairly controversial topic that has seen quite a lot of media coverage and debate over the past few years, so this scientist wanted to find out how much was actually known about these methods. Notice that, given the nature of the question, a bibliography on climate engineering research wouldn’t be enough to meet the underlying information need. It would be a necessary first step, of course, but it wouldn’t actually answer the question. In response, I created a bibliography of 750 journal articles on various methods of climate engineering. Given the size and complexity of this article set, we decided to perform a bibliometric analysis on it to try and answer her question. Using various analytical methods, we found that the number of publications on climate engineering had doubled in the past five years, that the set contained a larger than average number of discussion and review articles, and that some countries produced a larger percentage of articles on climate engineering than they did in related topics. We were also able to identify the major subtopics within climate engineering research, the groups of authors who collaborated (or didn’t!) to produce that research, the number of papers and authors in each subtopic, and the relationships between these subtopics and author groups. These findings went a long way toward answering her question, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal so that others can benefit from what we learned. 35

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Now, I realize that this kind of work can seem pretty foreign to librarianship. After all, we don’t exactly have a reputation for doing detailed analyses. But as alien as all of this may sound at first, I think that bibliometric analysis is actually a natural extension of what we’ve always done. Libraries and librarians have always existed to serve a fundamental human need: the need to understand. Over the years, libraries have built collections of information, developed methods to organize and preserve those collections, and developed services to provide access to those collections, all in order to help people learn. All of the activities that librarians have engaged in over the past 100+ years—cataloging, reference, research on information-seeking behavior, knowledge management, database construction, and on and on— has been in the service of the fundamental human need to know stuff. But while that fundamental need has remained constant over the years, the forms that knowledge takes and the ways in which it is communicated have changed dramatically. As a result, the things that people need to know, and the kinds of questions that they ask, have also changed. In science, the increasing volume and specialization of published research have led to new kinds of questions about the nature and quality of scientific research itself. These new kinds of questions require new methods to answer: we can’t simply look them up because the answers don’t exist yet. So although the perspective and methods of bibliometric analysis may be new to some librarians, the fundamental need that it addresses—the need to understand—is one that libraries and librarians have always served. Information overload is a direct result of the massive changes in how knowledge is created, structured and communicated. It is a symptom that points to the new kinds of questions that people are asking and the new kinds of obstacles that people are facing in answering those questions. Bibliometric analysis has the potential to remove some of those obstacles and provide the outline of an answer to some of these questions. It isn’t a magic bullet, but at least it’s a start.

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Training Staff from Georgia to Guam and All Points in Between By Karen Cooper, Reference Librarian, National Defense University Library; Nancy Faget, Librarian, Army Research Library; Denise Lupp, Library Director, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Lily McGovern, Reference Librarian, National Defense University Library; Wilma "Sissy" Riley, Library Technician, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Trudie A. Root, Librarian of the Army, Headquarters, Dept. of Army

In tough economic times, how will the Army Library Program provide training to keep staff skills honed and share information about emerging technologies? The sequestration provided a unique opportunity for Department of Army librarian, Trudie Root, to host a series of virtual worldwide learning sessions. The success and lessons learned provide a springboard for training in the future.

The budget of the Federal government is being trimmed and leaders are being challenged by sequestration to find ways to training their staff, wherever they may be. With hundreds of Army library staff working in every type of library, all around the world, Department of Army librarian Trudie Root drew upon her experiences to roll out a global virtual training opportunity. The Department of Army librarian is responsible for establishing policy and providing training for Army libraries and their staff in every Army library. The current Army library program includes libraries of all types -- public libraries on installations, medical libraries in hospitals and research institutes, law libraries for counsel, scientific technical libraries in research laboratories, and libraries for Soldiers attending Army schools and colleges. Perspective of the Organizer, Trudie Root Trudie participated in the Library 2.012 conference as a participant so she knew there was a viable way to organize web based training for a disperse audience. Still, could it be done with literally no resources? The Army Library Steering Group (ALSC), comprised of leaders from the various Army commands, proved helpful in defining and testing the technologies. The group sent out a survey to Army librarians first to determine whether librarians had used webinar software before and if they were willing to attend virtual training. The ALSC further decided to partner with FEDLINK at the Library of Congress so that the technology provided through this group (iCohere) and the support staff at FEDLINK could provide the base of 37

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support that the Army librarian would need to host the multi day, multi time zone training. Organizing a virtual conference proved to be similar to hosting a physical conference. A date was needed that didn’t overlap with other major library conferences and the number of days and times had to be determined. Planning included finding a theme, topics, and speakers. A call for speakers was sent out via the Army listserv and the planning group reviewed the ideas and approved speakers. The agenda was finalized with the schedule of speakers, presentations, and time slots. There were additional considerations for planning a successful virtual conference. For virtual training, time zones had to be taken into consideration; and for Army libraries, there were 9 time zones to plan for. Daylight savings time added a twist to determining exact times. Some presentations were scheduled twice to accommodate as many time zones as possible. For attendees that could not view the presentations during the day--in libraries such as Korea and Japan--features in the iCohere webinar software were utilized to archive the presentations for later viewing. The archives proved useful later on for watching missed sessions. In addition, training was provided to all the speakers in terms of using the software, headsets and microphones; handouts were developed and software guides were distributed to facilitate ease of use. Closer to the training dates, a short virtual training was provided to attendees on how to access and use the software. Email distribution lists were created by time zone to communicate with librarians across Army with regard to the virtual training agenda and any practice sessions. To replace vendor participation that is normally seen at a physical conference, vendors were encouraged to present virtual training, and, the representative from Gale developed and organized a schedule for vendor training and provided train the trainer sessions for 15 vendors. Vendors took advantage of the iCohere software capability to screen share in order to show products and demonstrations from their web sites. The vendor training proved popular at Army Virtual Training and illustrated creative ways to use the iCohere software. Perspective of the Presenters, Denise Lupp and Wilma “Sissy” Riley Torn between her willingness to be a conference presenter and her reluctance to be a public speaker, Denise Lupp’s participation in the Army Virtual Training session satisfactorily resolved her own inner conflicts. The virtual environment allowed her to record her presentation in advance and thus hide her trembling voice and nervous actions from a live audience. The advance recording also benefited the attendees by permitting them to view the presentation at their own convenience and on their own schedules. 38

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While Denise concentrated on creating the content of her marketing presentation, her co-worker, Sissy Riley, focused on the technical aspects of bringing it to life. Sissy first tried to record the presentation as a PowerPoint file, but soon discovered that she was unable to embed the audio component. To bypass this limitation, Sissy instead created a narration in PowerPoint and converted the file to a movie. She also encountered loading problems with the iCohere conference software -- mostly due to the file size and iCohere compression issues. Their own overkill solution was to load the file on Facebook, Youtube, and MilSuite as alternate sites. Among the lessons they learned: 

Familiarity leads to success (or practice makes perfect): Finding and taking more time to train on the conference software before the virtual session would have been extremely beneficial.



Two heads (and eyes and hands) are better than one: Working as a team made co-ordination and multi-tasking easier, especially in dealing with the technical problems encountered by, and the topical questions submitted by, the live audience.



We’re all in the same boat (or at least some of us): While virtual conferencing was new to Denise as a presenter, it was also a new experience for many of the attendees; in some instances, it seemed that the session was a case of the blind leading the blind.



Technology is our friend: it’s necessary to keep an open mind about change - a person who never made a mistake never tried anything new.

Presenting at the Army Virtual Training session was a unique challenge for Denise and Sissy, but would we do it again? With the click of a mouse! Another Perspective of the Presenters, Lily McGovern and Karen Cooper Karen Cooper and Lily McGovern were asked to present sessions based on presentations they had previously given to other audiences. In a time of no money for travel and precious little for training, they were happy to join in this effort to provide a professional training opportunity for Army Libraries. They have both presented at conferences and were excited to try out a new technology to deliver distance training. Trudie scheduled times for them to test drive the system, provided handouts and guides and coached them in using the webinar software. They were thrilled to learn that they could use most of the features without having to download any software or plug-ins (security issues). They couldn’t use a camera or live screen sharing, but the features of iCohere allowed use of slides and sharing URLs so participants could go to websites that were discussed.

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The time spent testing the software and practicing using it was vital to understand how best to utilize the features of the software. There were still a few little glitches--like thinking the recording was turned on when it wasn't. Delivering a presentation with a headset and microphone while sitting at a computer where your audience sees only your slides took a lot more adjustment for Lily than for Karen. Lily was nervous about talking clearly and not talking too quickly for her unseen audience. She missed getting that immediate feedback from participants and seeing and hearing their reactions. Karen had the experience of being a radio DJ and was a pro at delivering her message clearly and in a very engaging way. For their first time out with iCohere, they feel it was very helpful to have both librarians work as a team during the presentations. The presenter could concentrate on speaking while the assistant kept an eye on the chat coming from the audience or Trudie, sound levels, questions submitted, and troubleshoot technical problems. Trudie was also logged in to the presentation and used private messages to the presenters or open chat to assist with troubleshooting. ICohere is fairly intuitive, but it would take regular practice to be comfortable as a solo presenter. It was a great experience for Karen and Lily to participate as presenters. They both feel that if they used the iCohere software again, they could make better use of more of the features. To get feedback from the audience, Lily used some of the polling tools. One type of poll allows the audience to select answers to a multiple choice question as the aggregated results display on the screen. Another poll allows thumbs up or thumbs down voting on simple yes or no answers. The audience was very engaged and sent chat comments in response to questions raised in the presentations. Presenting URLs that the audience uses to go to specific websites allows the audience to explore those sites immediately for more active learning. Karen and Lily feel that they learned a lot about using a tool like iCohere to present distance training and can see how very valuable it can be to provide quality education for not much money, without requiring the trainees to have a lot of sophisticated equipment or downloading special software. Exactly the type of best practice we can all share. Perspective of an Audience Member, Nancy Faget Nancy Faget, Army Research Laboratory, has participated, hosted, and presented in many online events. Each year she trains patrons and reaches out to library school students using screencasting software, but participating in such a large scale event using iCohere was a new experience for her. It was surprising to know that the software was able to work even in secure environments without having the IT specialists intercede. “It was 40

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remarkable to be invited to join a session and not experience some barrier to access. All of my staff could attend as much as they wanted. In times of budget retrenchment, it’s brilliant to move the library program training to such a venue”. She was also impressed with the value provided by the variety of speakers. The academic librarians from National Defense University gave a presentation titled “Putting on a Technology Petting Zoo” (Karen Cooper) which was extremely beneficial to a library seeking to serve patrons using mobile devices in a better fashion. Karen Cooper from NDU was willing to share the individual handouts that could be used by any library seeking to help their patrons with eBook downloads. See a portion of one of the Android user handouts below.

It was also beneficial to learn the different ways military libraries are using social media applications. Denise Lupp, AMRIID Medical Library, included helpful links in her presentation, “Marketing Matters.” These prepared marketing pieces can be used as inspiration or repurposed for your own use.  

Library Marketing Minute Tips http://www.youtube.com/v/NccERfvuRg&feature=player_detailpage&list=PL7F##32147AEF36C B&autoplay=1 Fun library promotional signs which can certainly be used in different ways http://youtube.googleapis.com/v/CrE8X7bH7Ic%26autoplay=1

Nancy summarized her experience in this way. “Being able to learn best practices from my peers saved me time and effort. The nature of librarians 41

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is to share, and the library training event facilitated that sharing this year. The outlook for the Federal budget and the availability of screencasting software makes Army library training available to all on demand. How great is that!” Please contact Trudie Root, Department of the Army librarian at [email protected], for more information on how she worked with FEDLINK to conduct her virtual training event.

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Institutional Legacies: Oral History Interviews By Leanna E. Bush, Library Technician, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Wood Technical Library, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

Many research libraries serve as repositories, either official or unofficial, for their respective scientists’ publications. Collections may include scholarly journal articles, technical reports, patents, and conference proceedings. These documents serve to record official outcomes of experiments; however, they typically do not include the unique historical knowledge of the authors. In an effort to solve this latent information gap, the Wood Technical Library staff recently implemented an oral history project. With almost forty percent of our organization’s staff eligible for retirement in the next five years, the library personnel have been tasked to address the critical need to preserve institutional legacy. Our commander selected two scientists to participate in the pilot oral history project. These individuals were chosen based upon their many years of service and upon their subject matter expertise. Library staff decided to video record the interviews with the option of producing an interview transcription, staff time permitting, at a future date. Ultimately, the videos and the transcriptions will be made available on the library intranet SharePoint webpage for all employees to access. Inquiries will also be made to see if the US Army Medical Department Center of History and Heritage would like copies to be deposited with that facility. Since neither library staff member had any experience in conducting oral history interviews, research on this subject began in earnest! A few useful websites provide sample questions and discussion topics. A visit to the Aberdeen Proving Ground historian, Mr. Jeffery Smart, also proved to be very helpful. Library staff used the Army Core End of Tour interview questions in the US Army Guide to Oral History as a starting point. Since one of our interviewees did have military service time, we were able to use these questions while also adding questions to reflect his civilian service. Library staff also conducted a “pre-interview” with both scientists to clarify their educational and biographical information. Once the questions were drafted, both interviewees were provided copies to assist in preparation for the official interview process. Ideally, the library staff had hoped to conduct a dry-run of the interview; however, time constraints made this impossible. As a result, the interview process required an entire afternoon (approximately four hours, not including set-up time). The library reading area was selected as the filming location, based on its visual appeal and ample space. Our audio-visual staff spent a couple of hours the evening before to set-up microphones, mixing 43

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boards, and recording equipment. The most labor-intensive part for library staff was the recording itself. Both interviewer and interviewee naturally made mistakes (who wouldn’t with the pressures of being filmed?), so sometimes segments had to be re-recorded. Equipment initially required tweaking, so stopping and starting questions also became an issue. Additionally, because of the length of the entire process, participates had to be reminded to maintain proper levels of speaking and enunciation. In retrospect, had time permitted, the interview should have been conducted over a couple of days. In spite of these minor difficulties, interviews were successful and produced informative content. Overall, while we were daunted at first by the prospective of conducting oral history interviews, we ended up enjoying the experience. It certainly stretched our boundaries of comfort, though by the second interview, we had streamlined a few things and felt a little more at ease. We are looking forward to continuing to hone our interview skills with the future oral history interviews of our scientific community. Lessons Learned 





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Even if you are new to the oral history experience, we definitely recommend that you explore this idea. Library staff are usually very organized and methodical which helps in thinking through the interview process. Anyone can sit down with a microphone and provide a stream of consciousness; however, having a formal interview with prepared participants results in a more informative end product. If you are fortunate enough to have the expertise of a garrison or command historian, involve them! They are invaluable at providing interview preparation/guidance. They will also be able to help you frame questions in the context of your garrison’s history. If you have audio-visual staff at your agency, involve them! They can help make your historical interview professional and interesting to watch. The editing process is important in making narratives seamless and easy to follow. If you don’t have access to an audio-visual office, it is probably best to limit your interview to audio recording only since it takes significant time to edit a video. This should also be your course of action if your candidate’s personality is naturally introverted. Contrary to the old adage, not everyone desires “fifteen minutes of fame” in front of a camera. Interview sessions should typically last no longer than two hours. Provide your candidate with questions ahead of time. The US Army Guide to Oral History link below contains a section on end-of-tour sample questions. If necessary, talk with the candidate about what areas they may wish to discuss. Vary questions to include both professional and personal information if your candidate is agreeable. Our candidates used this opportunity to reflect on their career decisions, agency history, garrison history, and co-worker reminiscences. Interviewers may need to ask follow-up questions to elicit additional information as not all candidates may be naturally gregarious. 44

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 



If possible, try to involve at least two people in the interview process: one to ask questions and one to take notes during the interview. This identifies any information that needs clarification (e.g., spelling of names, acronyms, etc.). If you plan to provide interview transcriptions, you may wish to consider the purchase of voice recognition software, especially if you expect to be doing a large number of interviews and cannot spare staff time to transcribe by hand. Because of funding cuts, this was not a feasible option at our agency, so we have no experience to share in this regard. Approximately 15 hours of staff time was involved in completing the rough transcript of one history (an hour in length). So, be warned that this could be a very labor and time intensive process! You should also ask your candidate to sign an interview agreement letter. A sample is provided in the US Army Guide to Oral History. There is also an Army form (DA Form 7273) for this purpose.

Helpful Websites http://www.history.army.mil/html/books/oral/oral.html - US Army Guide to Oral History by Stephen Lofgren. http://www.loc.gov/vets/questions.html - Library of Congress American Folklife Center Veterans History Project http://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/870_Series_Collection_1.html - Military History: Responsibilities, Policies, and Procedures (End of Tour Interview) http://armypubs.army.mil/eforms/pdf/A7274.PDF - Access Agreement for Oral History Materials http://www.mnhs.org/collections/oralhistory/ohtranscribing.pdf Transcribing, Editing, and Processing Guidelines by Minnesota Historical Society Oral History Office

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Tightening Budgets, Evaluating Collections, and Collaborating to Determine Core Collections By George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Over the past several years, most libraries have had to deal with the specter of ever tightening budgets while at the same time fulfilling their customers increasing demand for information. Information these days seems to come at us much like a tidal wave created from the undersea earthquake of our latest technological advances. Sometimes, after the tidal wave, the beachcomber can find some useful and valuable materials that have washed up on shore. However, more often than not, what ends up on shore is nothing but useless and meaningless refuse and waste. Patrons come to their libraries with the expectation that they provide them with relevant and accurate information, sifting through the waste to retrieve the item of value. Whether in person on through their library’s online resources, they wish to find data they can use to effectively support whatever position or viewpoint they care to espouse or denounce. Users of libraries are not interested in the ever increasing amounts libraries must shell out to provide access to sources of reliable information. Additionally, they do not lose much sleep over the fact that many of their libraries are no longer supported financially by their parent organizations to the extent that they had been in the past. They just want factual, relevant information. Budget Cuts in Government Libraries Government libraries are by no means exempt from increasing prices and budget cuts. For the past half-decade or more, state library systems in places such as California and Texas have felt the impact of budget crises that afflicted state governments nationwide. California’s 2011-12 budget contained a 50% cut to state-level support for public library programs, support for interlibrary loan, and funding for literacy instruction. This past year, Texas cut state funding for the Texas State Library and Archives Commission by 64% and funding for the agency’s library programs by 88%. The overall state library budget will shrink from $19.8 million each year of the two-year budget to $7.2 million, while support for programs will go from $12.8 million to $1.6 million. Federal government libraries too are now facing the grim realities of the effects of new attempts to trim budget deficits. Last year Library and Archives Canada issued notices to nearly half of its workforce of 544 librarians; nearly 20% of whom were expected to lose their positions over the following three years. Libraries at Canada’s transport, immigration and 46

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public works departments were also targeted for elimination. Here in the United States, sequestration has forced a number of federal libraries to drastically reduce or eliminate money budgeted for online database access, ebooks, digitization projects, and the acquisition of other resources. Some federal libraries were also forced to cut operating hours and reduce the size of their library. While reducing the size of the library’s footprint reduces costs associated with renting the space from the government, it also dictates the removal from the collection of potentially valuable resources that may be of use to library patrons. As budget deficits in federal, state and local governments have grown larger, libraries in these jurisdictions have been forced to tighten their belts. A reevaluation of library collections, resources, and services, how they are acquired and how they are disseminated must be undertaken when confronted with the possible budget axe. Libraries facing similar cost-cutting circumstances must also learn how to work together to most effectively use the reduced financial resources that they have. Creative thinking on the part of libraries and librarians is necessary in order to not just survive, but to potentially be able to thrive in this new and challenging environment. Evaluating Core Collections When faced with potential budget cuts, any organization providing a customer service, be it a library, a clothing store, a restaurant, etc., must take a look at the services it is best at providing and determine if those services must continue at any cost. They should take a look at whether those services are available through some other, less traditional means. They must also similarly look at peripheral services provided, perhaps those that have been added in the past several years, and make a determination as to whether those services are important enough to their core constituency to warrant continued financial support. If a library is faced with a reduced budget, it must examine its core collections and services. Are those core collections/services that the library allocates financial resources for still popular or have they been replaced by access to similar information available through other, less expensive means? If those less expensive means provide relevant information, should the library forgo allocating future fiscal resources to the format(s) that have always been provided? If the popularity of the core collections/services in the format currently provided is still high and alternative, peripheral means of finding similar information are less reliable, should peripheral, less popular resources/services be targeted for possible reductions/elimination?

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For example, a federal government law library is suddenly faced with a budget cut of 10%. For many years, they have concentrated on collecting a legal and legislative print collection that most researchers consider to be one of the best in the federal library community. In recent years, they have also added a number of online resources that mirror a good portion of the materials that they still collect in print, especially information published over the past 20 years. With the impending budget cuts looming, this library needs to determine the following: a) Should they drop some or all of their subscriptions to legal and legislative print resources mirrored by new online subscriptions, possibly jeopardizing the reputation they have built around their core print collection? How important is that reputation to the future of the library? b) Should they continue to subscribe to legal and legislative print resources and consider dropping their recently purchased subscriptions to online resources that mirror those print resources? Does implementing this strategy possibly damage the impression built in recent years of the library moving in a more modern direction? c) Should some combination of cuts to both print and online resources be considered that still maintains access in at least one of the two formats to the information that the library has always provided? Figuring out the right path to take in this type of difficult situation is not just a decision to be made by the library staff or organizational budget analysts. Indeed, consulting with the library’s user community, other libraries that offer similar services, and the library’s print and online vendors are an essential part of finding a workable solution. Collaborating with Users In the end, when faced with a tightening budget, the most important thing for a library to consider is the impact of any cuts to its core user community. Reputations that a library may have built outside of the organization or community that it serves are nice to preserve. However, a library must still maintain its relevance within its own user community, even when implementing budget cuts, or it faces extinction. Bringing the library’s users into the budget discussion is a good way to keep them involved. It allows them to feel like they are part of the process, that their opinions are being considered as decisions are being made. Patrons should have the impression that the leaders of the library are listening to them. They should feel that there is transparency in the library’s decision making process and that difficult situations that the library faces aren’t being addressed without their input. Ideally, any library should consider forming a 48

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user committee comprised of frequent users of all parts of the library’s collections and services. The committee should meet at least every other month to discuss library issues and how to best allocate the library’s resources. Special meetings should be called in situations that require immediate user consultation. When a situation similar to the example presented above arises, a user committee can offer their opinions on the direction the library should take to deal with the impending fiscal crisis. By voicing their opinions, the user committee can help decide which path would be the best course to follow, or offer another possible option(s) of their own. Perhaps reductions in some other area that the user group can identify would help with any budget cuts the library has to implement. By asking for the input of the library’s user committee, patrons help define what the library’s core collections should be. When library services and resources are faced with the budget axe, users will voice their opinions as to those a library must retain as opposed to those that they feel are expendable. Collaborating with Other Libraries As indicated earlier in this article, the pain of budget cuts is being shared throughout the library community. No library is facing this situation alone, and sometimes other libraries that are experiencing or have experienced similar circumstances can offer advice and assistance. Ways that other libraries have successfully met or are meeting the challenges of budget cuts may offer examples for others to follow. Libraries can also work together to minimize the impact of cuts to their resources and services. Consortiums can be formed or strengthened to coordinate collection development policies in member libraries. Leaders of libraries within a consortium can agree to choose individual areas of collection strength within their library that they can devote their future resources towards acquiring. Other subject areas will then be acquired by other members of the consortium that are designated as the de facto centers of knowledge for those fields. By concentrating on collecting materials on one or a few specific subject areas, individual members of a consortium can eliminate spending money on duplicate materials acquired by other members in fields within those library’s own designated core collection areas. By agreement of all of the consortium’s member libraries, patrons of those libraries could be allowed to visit, use, and borrow materials from each other’s libraries. Reciprocal agreements between these libraries, such as those used for Interlibrary Loan 49

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services, can be implemented and strengthened, allowing patrons access to the resources and services of a larger library network as opposed to those of just one library. Collaborating with Vendors Often overlooked is the assistance that a vendor can provide when a library is faced with organizational budget tightening. Libraries should keep in mind that it is often in the vendor’s best interest to retain a subscription or service foothold in a specific government or organizational library. Vendor services rendered in a specific library can help promote other services provided by the vendor, as well as publicize current vendor subscriptions and services to those visiting the library from outside its organization. Vendors do not want to see their subscriptions and services eliminated from a library and its organization, not only because of the immediate loss of revenue from those cuts, but also due to the longer term damage that the loss of publicity and possible future sales inside and outside of that library’s organization could foster. Vendors understand the nature of the current economic environment as well as anyone. For the most part, they are willing to work with libraries to try to reduce the impact of budget cuts on library services. Special payment plans can be negotiated or existing agreements can be modified in some way to allow continued access to the valuable resources they provide. Librarians need to be willing to reach out to their vendors in times of fiscal crisis, let them know of the financial situation they face, and see if the vendor can work with them to maintain some degree of service to the library and its users. Conclusion Unfortunately for many libraries, the realities of budget constraints are going to be with us for some time to come. How we react to these challenges and position ourselves to continue to be able to serve our constituencies will determine whether our library operations will continue or fall to the wayside. Trying to solve these problems on our own without utilizing the knowledge, experience, and suggestions of those around us can only lead to a very unpleasant outcome. Working with others who have been through, are going through, or understand the difficulties of the current environment and are willing to assist is a way that librarians can help insure the future survival of their library. Undoubtedly, librarians need to make many difficult decisions when a library is forced to reduce their budget. Core collections must be examined and 50

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librarians must choose the most efficient way to continue to provide its patrons with access to materials in its core subject areas. However, a determination of the library’s core collections and the best way to deliver those resources should be made in conjunction with its user community. Even though some are reluctant to do so, libraries need to listen to what its users have to say. Library patrons should be fully informed of changes to the budget and the steps the library would propose to take in order to help alleviate any crisis. The library’s users need to review and approve these proposals before they are acted upon. Libraries must swallow their pride and reach out to each other to find ways that collaborative or consortial agreements can create a greater library network for their patrons to utilize. Participation in a library consortium or network would minimize or eliminate the purchase of duplicative resources and services, potentially saving each individual member of the library consortium a great deal of money. It would also continue to provide patrons with most or all of the services that the individual library had heretofore purchased on their own. And lastly, vendors should be brought into the conversation. Vendors have a stake in the continuation of services and resources they provide to any library. These subscriptions and agreements provide visibility to the vendor not just in the library, but also in the library’s organization and amongst those from outside the organization that visit the library. Visibility and happiness with a provided service or resource often leads to future sales. More often than not, vendors are willing to work with libraries to find some creative way to continue provide their services and resources at a reduced cost to the library. Through defining what a library’s core collection should be; finding the most efficient means to deliver materials in that area to its user community; and collaborating with patrons, other similar libraries, and vendors to find ways to reduce service duplications and excessive costs, libraries facing the budget axe can still provide their patrons with the relevant and accurate information they need.

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: The Federal Triangle Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: The Korean War Veterans Memorial Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: The Battle of the Bulge Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: Creating a Sacred American Space? Battlefield Protection at Gettysburg Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: Democracy at the President’s Doorway Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Park Ranger Speaker Series: The 1911 March on Washington Submitted by George Franchois, Director, U.S. Department of the Interior Library

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Open the doors to your law library 24/7 with mobile access to primary law, deskbooks, code books, treatises and more. LexisNexis® Digital Library introduces a new chapter in library lending, and the services you can extend to your organization. LexisNexis and OverDrive®, the digital library solutions provider chosen by 22,000 libraries, schools and colleges worldwide, have joined forces to provide you a customized library solution based on your organization's needs. Read the news announcement here. A digital library provides eBook lending capabilities, much like lending a physical book, in addition to library management functionality. See how LexisNexis Digital Library can unlock mobile access and increase research productivity—while helping you save subscription costs and manage title usage: Digitize library operations o

Gain 24/7 access to trusted legal resources from your preferred device: personal computers, both PC and Mac®; smartphones like Apple® iPhone® and BlackBerry®; tablets like the Apple® iPad®; dedicated e-reading devices such as the Amazon® Kindle®, Barnes & Noble NOOK® and the SONY® Reader

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Manage subscriptions effectively with one-touch updates on title usage and borrowing activity by subject matter, date range, and more

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Allow for easy interoffice resource sharing

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Realize cost savings o

Reduce rising overhead costs by migrating to digital library management tools

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Use comprehensive usage reports to eliminate title duplication and quantify savings for firm management

How does it work? OverDrive builds your organization's digital library and hosts your site, while LexisNexis provides the trusted legal research you rely on with more than 2,000 titles now available in eBook format. Customers will receive a customized primary website, as well as a mobile optimized site and access to a mobile app. These tools are created by OverDrive and allow you to browse, checkout and download materials. Usage reports enable librarians to better understand eBook usage within the organization and better manage the organization's migration to digital content. Law library users benefit from increased flexibility to research whenever and wherever they want since the LexisNexis Digital Library is available anywhere there is Internet access. LexisNexis Digital Library customers also will have access to OverDrive's content catalog where they can acquire access to more than 1 million educational titles on law, business, technology, real estate and finance from more than 2,000 publishers. For more information contact your LexisNexis Account Representative or fill out the registration page to the right.

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Mentoring: A Path to Gross Personal Happiness By Jeffrey Lofton, Program Specialist, Library of Congress Office of the Associate Librarian for Library Services.

The fourth Dragon King of the small Asian country of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, coined the phrase gross national happiness (GNH) some forty years ago to define and give visibility to quality of life as a measure of social progress. He was, of course, using the concept of gross national product as an intellectual jumping off point, but his focus was describing sustainable growth (of which economic progress is an undeniable part) as an amalgam of conditions that include sense of community, connections to one’s culture, and several others that have served in the intervening years as a road map to Bhutan’s evolution to productive, modern-day life. And guess what? By many measures, the king was on to something. The people of Bhutan report an unusually high level of satisfaction . . . happiness . . . with life. Taking our lead from King Wangchuck, let’s focus down even more on gross personal happiness (GPH). Just as Bhutan’s sovereign was at pains to delineate the elements of GNH, there are several dimensions to personal happiness: good health, an income that enables us to meet our basic needs, and a sense of belonging. And for me, prominent in that list of descriptors— job satisfaction. We spend so many of our waking hours devoted to our jobs, it’s little wonder that our happiness is, in part, tied to how we feel about our work. I am most positive about my work when I have opportunities to acquire new skills; interact in a productive way with those around me who, themselves, exhibit elements of happiness on the job; and feel connected and networked with the larger community of workers at the Library of Congress. There are many ways of achieving this happy state: resolve and determination, natural disposition and native skills, and more to the point of this best practice summation: mentoring. Formal mentoring programs that provide both structure and opportunity are an unparalleled and low-cost way to engage employees, pass down muchneeded institutional knowledge and, well, contribute to GPH. They are a path to growth, and in today’s resource-constrained agencies and federal organizations, have the happy side effect of allowing us to do more with less. A happy workforce is a productive workforce. In 2012, the Office of the Associate Librarian of Library Services at the Library of Congress embarked upon an ambitious mentoring program (which I have been privileged to lead) called FutureBridge. From September 2012 through May 2013, eleven mentoring pairs participated in a program that included one-on-one meetings with a mentor, the creation of individual 60

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development plans, information seminars conducted by external (pro bono) and internal (Library staff) speakers, online training, and networking opportunities. This first class of FutureBridgers, as mentors and mentees have come to call themselves, were part of our pilot program. During the pilot, we tried different approaches to information sharing, created an independent advisory council, regularly reported progress and milestones to upper management to keep a clear line of sight to Library Services’ overarching objectives and goals, and sat down with mentees and mentors on a number of occasions to find out, quite simply, what was working and what wasn’t. We learned a lot. The work that went into designing FutureBridge was not merely an exercise in due diligence. We reached out to a number of organizations, both within and outside the public sector, to learn from their unbridled successes and their had-we-only-known epiphanies. Those organizations included the Library’s Office of Workforce Performance and Development; Office of Opportunity, Inclusiveness & Compliance; and the Congressional Research Service. In addition, external resources included the Smithsonian Institution, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, General Services Administration, U.S. Forest Service, DuPont, The Partnership for Public Service, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, and MENTOR. To all of them, my hearty and heartfelt thanks. We designed FutureBridge with these learnings in mind, as well as our own organizational needs and priorities. The program ultimately focused on a number of areas of interest, including the art of collaboration and negotiation, planning and organizing, problem-solving and innovation, core personal communications skills, writing, information technology and digital literacy, and knowledge of the Library of Congress. Time didn’t allow for formal, in-depth instruction on each topic. Instead, a high-level overview introduced mentees to each subject area, which in many cases sparked interest in further self-directed study. Mentees were allowed six hours per month away from their regular work assignments to spend in mentoring activities agreed upon by the mentoring pair, with occasional input from the mentee’s supervisor and the FutureBridge management team. The FutureBridge scope of work did not include formal details away from regular work assignments, but mentees expressed a strong preference to gain the kind of experience one only gleans from hands-on work. So, we organized short-term assignments that provided much-needed support for a variety of offices, thus benefiting the Library without overburdening program participants or their colleagues on their home work teams. All this and more we captured in a best-practices report, which is available from [email protected] Moreover, just as other organizations generously shared their experiences with us, we are delighted to answer any 61

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questions that come our way that could help shape other federal workforce mentoring programs. No successful program comes about without inspired executive leadership, which FutureBridge certainly enjoyed; Roberta I. Shaffer, Associate Librarian for Library Services, and Sandra Lawson, Deputy Associate Librarian for Library Services, Operations, were those guiding lights for FutureBridge. There are so many metrics for success in almost any endeavor; for this work, a principal one for me is whether or not our FutureBridgers enhanced their GPH as a consequence of their involvement in this program. My sense is that they did. I extend my enduring thanks to them for helping us shape FutureBridge into the program it is today and to the Fourth Dragon King of Bhutan who linked happiness and well-being to productivity and positive outcomes in such a memorable way. Bhutan is now on my short-list of holiday destinations!

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Lab Liaison Program Best Practices in the Information Services Office at NIST By Susan Makar, Research Librarian, National Institute of Standards and Technology The Information Services Office (ISO) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supports the research efforts of about 3,000 scientists and engineers at NIST’s campus in Gaithersburg, Maryland. ISO supports NIST through three programs: the Research Library and Information Program (RLIP), the Electronic Information and Publications Program (EIPP), and the Museum and History Program. Evolution of the ISO Lab Liaison Program ISO’s Lab Liaison Program began as a targeted library outreach program in 1997 focusing on bringing library expertise closer to the researcher in the lab and has evolved into today’s program of collaboration between librarians and researchers working together to help increase NIST’s reach and impact. The Liaison Program is an example of an action taken by ISO’s leadership to create a sustainable, agile organization. It utilizes the skills and expertise of staff across the organization; the Liaison Program cuts across both RLIP and EIPP. The program has become a role model practice that can be emulated by other government and research libraries. It started with leadership’s vision of what excellent customer service would look like. Best Practices of Creating and Maintaining a Lab Liaison Program Best Practice #1: The lab liaison program should fit with the vision and mission of the library and be a part of the library’s strategic plan. In 1997 ISO leaders realized that to achieve their vision, ISO needed a more collaborative relationship with customers. To move the organization in this new direction, the leadership created a Research Consultants Program. The goal of the new program was to take resident library and information expertise to the clientele and provide “a continuum of information support from the earliest stages of research discovery and activity and continues that support through the research conclusion and dissemination processes.” 1 This required ISO to reconsider the way the Library did business and to provide information resources and services proactively rather than reactively. As an outreach program, the Research Consultant Program provided customized services, primarily through two librarians acting as Research Consultants. The Research Consultants became members of project teams in the labs, acting as contacts for literature searches and a variety of other research information requests. 1

Paul Vassallo, The Knowledge Continuum: Organizing for Research and Scholarly Communication, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1999, p 238. 63

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Best Practice #2: Evaluate the library’s strategic plan on a regular basis and make sure programs, including the lab liaison program, are moving in the desired direction. Since 1997, the Liaison Program concept has been a major component of ISO’s strategic plan. The strategic plan goals relating to the Program have evolved over time, but the importance of the Program to ISO’s strategic success remains constant. Today the Program is at the forefront in furthering ISO’s strategic goals “to help advance and position NIST research and publishing activities for maximum impacts” and “to increase the visibility and use of ISO services and resources.”2 ISO looks at its strategic plan every year to make sure it remains in line with the mission and goals of the organization and continues to be tied to NIST’s strategic plan. While the vision and mission generally remain consistent, ISO’s goals and activities change as NIST moves forward. In 2002, the Research Consultant Program evolved into the Lab Liaison Program. Today the Lab Liaisons partner and collaborate with NIST scientists and other technical staff on a variety of research activities. The Liaisons act as “strategic research partners” to build rapport with customers and to contribute their expertise to lab research and planning activities. They have created individual strategy plans that map out approaches tailored for communicating, educating, and working with their respective Lab or Program. While individual plans may differ in the methods and strategies, the goals of outreach and collaboration are the same. The Liaisons are librarians assigned to NIST Labs and Programs to establish and maintain close working relationships with managers and scientists within these units. They serve as personal consultants to researchers and are the primary point of contact for their Lab or Program. Liaisons work directly with NIST researchers to assess the impact of their work, find the best places to publish to reach the right audience, gather and analyze market and industry data, and educate researchers about the advantages of using ISO’s resources and customized services. Best Practice #3: A successful lab liaison program requires the commitment and support of library leadership. ISO’s leadership is very committed to the Lab Liaison Program and places a major emphasis on the skills, expertise, and values required for success. These keys to success are achieved through the recruitment of new hires and through budgeting for training and professional development. Lab Liaisons receive training in the areas of analysis tools and techniques, report 2

Barbara P. Silcox, Mary‐Deirdre Coraggio, Susan Makar, and Mylene Ouimette, “Thriving Through Organizational Agility: The NIST Information Services Office’s Baldrige Journey,” ALA Editions (forthcoming). 64

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writing, and data management, to name a few. It takes time to hire liaisons with the right expertise. This is particularly challenging in NIST’s changing environment. ISO managers seek potential employees who are excellent communicators and have strong customer service abilities and values. Strong writing skills are needed to create customer reports and write detailed analyses. Liaisons typically have backgrounds in scientific/technical areas and substantial experience and expertise in information research and analysis. The Liaisons are professionally active in organizations such as Special Libraries Association (SLA), the Society for Scholarly Publishing (SSP), and the National Information Standards Organization (NISO). They may also be active in the professional societies important to their customers, such as the American Chemical Society (ACS). The Liaisons constantly strive to improve their skills through training and participation at conferences. Each Liaison, along with every other ISO staff member, has an Individual Development Plan (IDP) and these training and professional activities are part of the Liaison’s IDP. ISO leaders encourage each Liaison to develop their own recommendations for how to best interact with their assigned Lab and to develop appropriate products or services. This allows each Liaison to work creatively and independently to establish collaborative relationships within their respective Lab. It is, in part, this trust in the Liaisons’ abilities and judgment that makes the Program a success. The Lab Liaison Program greatly enhances ISO’s overall agility and ability to adapt to change because the Liaisons always have the pulse of their customers.3 Best Practice #4: Liaisons seek program feedback and input from their customers. At the completion of each project, the Liaisons seek feedback from their customers. This can be as simple as a phone call or email asking the customer how they used the Liaison’s work and what impact that work had on a project or program. This feedback is used to refine research analysis methods and to extend or plan additional products or services. The Liaisons record information about their collaborations, projects, and customer feedback using a central tracking tool. This data is reviewed regularly by the Liaisons and ISO leaders for purposes of strategic planning, enhancing or creating new products and services, and improving operational processes. The Liaisons play a critical role in collecting and analyzing data for ISO performance assessment and improvement. They use many listening posts to gather information about customers and as a result are able to suggest analyses or to develop information products in advance of customers’ requests. After benefiting from these products, customers may return to ISO to collaborate on other projects.

3

Ibid. 65

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The Liaisons have conducted many highly visible research and analysis projects on behalf of or in collaboration with their customers, such as analyzing publishing impacts for an entire NIST Lab; formulating publishing strategies to help the Labs achieve maximum impact; conducting comprehensive literature reviews that became part of researchers’ papers, developing methods for researchers to share sources for hard-to-find scientific properties data; measuring relative impact against peer research institutions; and examining the state of scientific/technical research at U.S. universities to assess U.S. competitiveness in the global marketplace. The Liaisons use a variety of mechanisms for establishing and maintaining relationships with customers, which offer more opportunities to obtain feedback and learn from customers. These mechanisms include attending and presenting at lab meetings, one-on-one meetings with bench scientists and lab management, addressing new employees at the NIST New Employee Orientation sessions, attending and contributing to lab events and special activities, and participating in NIST-wide committees. The Liaisons stay abreast of their lab’s research and programmatic activities through their relationship-building mechanisms, by monitoring Lab/Program announcements and communications, and by hosting the monthly Research Library Board meetings.4 How ISO conducts analyses – best practices Performing publication, citation, and impact analyses is an important and relatively new role for the Lab Liaisons. ISO has implemented several best practices for conducting analysis projects. Best Practice #1: Liaisons conduct extensive customer interviews. Lab Liaisons conduct extensive interviews with customers to make sure both the liaison and the customer understand the research question or request. As many librarians know, the initial customer request is not always the customer’s real question. An important part of the interview process is getting to the real question, and then negotiating and agreeing on deliverables and deadlines. Sometimes it is necessary for the Liaisons to explain how the ISO review process is very similar to the review process required of researchers in the labs. Each operating unit (OU) at NIST is responsible for ensuring the editorial and technical quality of manuscripts originating from that OU. In the same way, ISO is responsible for the quality of its customer reports, which it delivers in the same professional manner as a technical report written by a researcher. Best Practice #2: The Lab Liaison Program uses an established internal review process for writing and delivering customer reports.

4

Ibid. 66

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ISO uses an established review process for any document delivered to an internal NIST customer or presented to an external audience. The extent of the review is determined by the audience. External publications and presentations undergo a very extensive review process similar to the review process used by researchers in the NIST labs. The review process for Lab Liaison reports delivered to internal customers undergoes a less extensive review, but no paper leaves ISO without a second set of eyes checking the work of a colleague. A senior librarian, who is also a Lab Liaison, reviews all analysis reports, literature reviews, and market reviews written by the Lab Liaisons. The Liaison’s supervisor then reads the report. All customer deliverables are sent to the ISO Director so that she can keep abreast of the work of the Liaisons. Best Practice #3: Lab Liaison team members collaborate with each other to meet customer needs. A key component of the Liaison Program is the teaming and collaboration among the Liaisons. Each customer request requires the Liaison to evaluate resources needed to meet customer deadlines and specific needs. Since the Lab Liaison Team is made up of staff across all of ISO -- and not just Lab Liaisons -- the right expertise to tackle any project is always at hand. The team includes a program analyst, metadata librarians, a systems librarian, and a serials/e-resources librarian. Skill sets found across the team include analysis and writing, data collection and visualization, literature searching, and database expertise. Teams can form quickly to work on large projects, adding to the agility of ISO as an organization. Best Practice #4: Customer reports are written using a formalized report structure and template. ISO has developed a formal reporting structure for all its analysis reports that follows the organization of many scientific papers. Reports typically include the following four sections: Introduction, Methodology, Results, and Conclusions and Recommendations. Reports longer than three pages include a Table of Contents and those that are lengthy and information dense include an Executive Summary. This structure and organization give ISO reports a professional appearance, and they are organized in a way that scientists understand and appreciate. Liaisons work with a senior librarian, a fellow liaison, to develop project methodologies. This individual is available throughout the project to lend advice and expertise. Best Practice #5: Liaisons regularly share and learn from one another as members of a Lab Liaison team. Each Liaison understands the importance of collaborating and sharing knowledge with the other Liaisons. Meeting every other week, Liaison team members from across ISO have ample opportunities to share and learn from one another. They share information, strategies, and accomplishments. A 67

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senior librarian leads the Lab Liaison Team meetings, calls for meeting agenda topics, and encourages participation by all attendees. Unique projects are often highlighted during the meetings so that everyone has an opportunity to share and learn from one another. An “around-the-table” meeting segment offers everyone an opportunity to do brief project updates or announce new projects. Meetings can easily evolve into in-depth discussions with Liaisons often working together to develop action plans or methods for meeting customer needs. Final customer reports – publication and citation analyses, literature reviews, market reviews, etc. – are all posted to an internal shared drive that allows anyone in ISO to view and read the reports. Posting the reports in this manner also allows the ISO management team to easily review the work of their staff. Lab Liaison meetings are also used as training sessions to learn about new analysis tools, methods, and resources. Liaisons often train each other and will develop in-depth training sessions for their colleagues. Most recently the Liaison team received instruction on research data management concepts and methods through a series of training modules developed by a team of colleagues that included both liaisons and other ISO staff members. Conclusion The Lab Liaison Program is poised for its next evolution, whatever that might be and wherever that may take the Program. The Liaisons will continue to lead and guide customers to help increase their reach and impact. They will continue to collaborate with customers and each other to meet the research and information needs of NIST scientists and engineers.

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Thoughts on a New Library By Ed Burgess, Director, The Combined Arms Research Library

The Combined Arms Research Library is all new and shiny. Much has changed, and it has occasioned my ever-platitudinous mind toward some lessons which I shall impose upon the Gentle Reader.

The stairway was a new feature, and has transformed the aesthetic appeal of the library's main floor and wonderfully improved traffic patterns. The mahogany and gold theme repeats the décor throughout the five-building campus.

Background The Combined Arms Research Library is part of the US Army Command and General Staff College, at Fort Leavenworth, KS. It is both the academic library for the College, and the public library for the installation. Eisenhower Hall has two separate three-story wings, one of which holds the 98,000-foot CARL. Classrooms and faculty occupy the other wing.

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This renovation has been a three-year ordeal. We received stimulus money for 2010 to do some much-needed upgrades to our third floor. After that was done, Fort Leavenworth received funding to renovate and upgrade all of Eisenhower Hall. To facilitate this, the general contractor built a temporary metal building to house the staff and some of our cuddliest stuff; most of the collection went to a commercial cave forty miles away. Although we did not build a new building, we did renovate the old one down to the studs. The Library, venerated though it is, was the lesser part of a project that involved replacing most of the utilities, converting twenty-yearold classroom space to forty-one highly computerized small-group classrooms, and reducing the energy footprint by a third. The Library got a new floor plan, upgraded communications, more electric receptacles, new furniture, and some nifty décor updates to mirror the rest of the campus. In all, the Eisenhower Hall project was the culmination of a six-year effort to bring the Command and General Staff College infrastructure into the Twenty-First Century. So what might the Gentle Reader gather from all this? What mighty truths are there about libraries, intellectual inquiry, management, career, and the meaning of life? (That last part is easy. The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life is well-known to be 42. Get over it.) Conditions There are some truths, but much of project management, like life, depends on circumstances. A project like this comes along rarely in a librarian’s career. We were fortunate to have a good deal of input to the project early on. This didn’t happen by accident; we had to insert ourselves into the process. And, of course, the acceptance of Library participation is based on many years of higher management’s belief that the Library is well-run and provides an important service competently. It is not necessary to be in charge, but a high degree of input to the plan, and the execution, is clearly a Good Thing. This is easier if you have, as I did, sufficient staff to devote one detail-oriented, indomitable, argumentative staff member who can devote her entire life to the project, and a bunch of intelligent, helpful, dedicated workers who were willing to put with a lot. Here I have to credit, particularly, Tiffany Konczey for doing exactly that, although she was far from alone in putting extra hours into the project. There is an aphorism to the effect that everything you need to know you learned in third grade. This is false. You cannot participate in a large project without some skills in negotiation and the ability to articulate a complex argument. True, you learned about sharing toys in the sandbox. Still important. However, adult life is (or should be) somewhat more sophisticated. Again, not everyone understands this. Feelings will be hurt. Some people are difficult, some people will forget things, others will fail to 70

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examine the plans they were trusted to review. Many will rise to the occasion and make you proud. Try to ensure that the designers have actual library experience. Like football teams, everybody has an opinion about how libraries work. Everybody is wrong. Architects need guidance and experience FROM LIBRARIANS to get it right. Planners are likely to deny this, in much the same way doctors don’t much like it when you check their diagnoses on the internet. You must involve the entire library staff, attend to details, accept input from many sources, protect against the latest bright idea. Your ILL clerk knows what he or she needs (table, cubbyholes, supplies, Mondays but not Fridays, stapler, postage et alii). On the other hand, the designers know a lot about fluorescent lights and color choices. Where do you physically locate the public functions, and what should the traffic flow look like? Are the reference librarians going to be able to support the circulation staff in times of need? What will opening and closing procedures look like? Do you really need an Art Plan approved by some committee you’ve never heard of? Tempers will rise, arguments will erupt. This is different from reasoned discussion over choices about which reasonable people may disagree. Not everyone can tell the difference. You must. At some point discussion must result in a decision. If it does not, make one. You have to trust in some of the experts. You don’t have to trust blindly. Engineers, architects, designers, and managers are susceptible to making a quick decision in order to move on and get the job done. Sometimes this works, sometimes you end up with a solution you regret for the next twenty years. Make the technical experts explain things. Why does the fire chief insist that this door must swing that way, and never be locked? Where’s the access control panel? How do you turn the lights on and off, and who will control that function? Demand lighting in the staff offices is cool and no doubt saves electricity. Never mind that the sensors interfere with hearing aids and are not very reliable. Our staff had some heated discussions about lighting. The overall level of illumination is lower, and several people predicted difficulties working under them. The new fluorescents are somewhat dimmer, but better placement and some task lighting has ameliorated the loss. Offices are still habitable. The area of the atrium, previously a bright spot, is now perfect for computer use and challenging for reading printed pages. On the other hand it has a great staircase now. Patrons don’t seem to be bothered by the lumen levels. Actually lighting management has turned out to be a significant concern. We no longer have control over when the lights go on and off. There is a master computer—somewhere—that controls all that. The lights go on at 0700 71

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sharp, and turn off at 1930. We used to flip the circuit breakers in six electrical rooms, so this helps with closing, but we were promised the ability to control all that from Circulation. Somehow that changed without my knowledge. Interesting sidelight: no one knew how to turn the lights off on Furlough Fridays, when the CARL closed.

End panels were light oak originally, but were sent to a millwork shop and repurposed with additional molding and mahogany stain to conform with the new color palette. Motion-sensor LED lights make finding and shelving books much easier.

One thing the Library had no voice in was the geothermal heating and cooling system. To get the building approved, the post had to show a 30% reduction in energy use, while pouring in a bunch of new electronics and bringing many more potential bodies into the classroom wing. To make this work required drilling about 300 wells in our parking lot, and replacing all the HVAC equipment. Seems to be working well, so far, although I worry about all that plumbing that’s now buried under the renewed parking lot. Surely nothing could go wrong there?

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The long perspective What will your facility look like in twenty years? Where is the library profession going? Will we continue to have a warehouse function? An archives function? A community social space function? What will be the balance between them in a few decades, and how can you make the space you have conform to the crushing reality of time? If the Gentle Reader can answer these questions then the Gentle Reader is smarter than I am. If he has read this far, he is probably thinking that isn’t difficult. Nevertheless, your Humble Author offers some thoughts. Libraries are not going to be the staid institutions they were conceived to be a hundred years ago. Modern life has, and is, affecting them (well, duh). The Gentle Reader will want to place her personal stamp upon the place. She must allocate floor space according to her perception of the core business. This is not straightforward, but is not really difficult. Your Humble Author had to find room for a ton of academia, a children’s room (cunningly soundproofed), workspace for a menagerie of about thirty-two souls, meeting rooms, tables, carrels, both DoD network and ISP computers, periodicals, and some secure space about which no more needs to be said. Compromises had to be made, and were. All this being accepted as true, and the Gentle Reader being gracious enough to accept it for the nonce, Are there some lessons to be passed on? Of course there are. 1. This is a big deal, something you are unlikely to repeat, and it will require a lot of effort from many people. Your staffs and your patrons will suffer, probably not in silence. As a manager, a supervisor, a steward, you will have to consider them. 2. Keep asking questions. Don’t let (whoever) shine you on. Where are the *^&^% light switches and how will they work, dammit? 3. Take a chill pill. Have a large basket of them on your desk. You’ll need them. 4. Be at the table all the time. No matter what. Don’t skip meetings, even the boring ones. Learn to interpret the construction drawings. 5. People are imperfect. Some will act like third-graders. Some will forget or skimp crucial bits. Some will retreat and refuse to be involved. 6. All of us work in a hierarchy. Having a good relationship with those above you is vital. You cannot develop a good relationship the day the movers come. Prepare the battlefield years in advance by making sure your bosses value the service. Equally, make sure your users understand what they are getting into. 73

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7. It is really amazing that any building ever gets built. Major construction is very complicated! But the contractors can handle the complexity and (usually) manage to put the wiring in before they put the sheetrock up. In the end, it will happen, but you have to keep an eye on it. 8. As you come to the end of the project, the big things are done with. Inevitably the little things assume a greater importance. Keep your sense of proportion.

Railings and wood trim echo the décor across the other buildings on campus.

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The atrium now opens onto both the ground and second floors, which allows sound to dissipate against the acoustical tiles rather than echoing.

I have been privileged to have a working life during a period of unparalleled change in the library profession. A thousand years ago we were arguing about unchaining the books. A hundred years ago we were looking askance at the typewriter and the card catalog. Fifty years ago, we excitedly introduced thinking machines that were mysterious and frequently malign. Change is a constant. Change is struggle: invigorating, exciting, and exhausting. The Eisenhower Hall project resulted in a much-improved working environment. Our building now is consistent with the College’s overall architectural theme. There are some glitches--the light sensors mostly don’t work right, some comm ports are inexplicably yards away from power outlets, the promised CAC-enabled doors are not there yet (separate contract, coming soon). The roof still leaks! After eighteen years I don’t think we should call it a problem: let’s advertise it as a spa feature instead. In the current budget environment, some follow-ups will be delayed or canceled. We’ll deal with it. Libraries and librarians, with all their faults, have shown themselves capable of great innovation coupled with respect for tradition. Libraries survive, and are showing no signs of disappearing. So, enough philosophy already. Start the music! Let’s dance! 75

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-----Ed Burgess has been the Director of the Combined Arms Research Library since 2001.

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The Library is on Facebook! Re-envision ways to connect with library users By Isabel Lopes, MSLIS, Reference Librarian, Naval War College Library, Naval War College, Newport, RI Introduction This paper describes my experience and discovery process in creating and managing the Facebook page for the Naval War College (NWC) Library. I joined the Library’s Reference Team in October 2012 and right away, I started to learn about the process of creating the Facebook page for the Library. Gradually, I became aware of some concerns library users and staff had regarding the use of Facebook as a library tool, and in particular, about privacy issues. It took some “re-envisioning” to move beyond these concerns and showcase Facebook as a platform to share information about library services and resources. In the process of learning about social media guidelines for government libraries and best practices, I discovered online resources which have been helpful, including Department of Defense (DOD) publicly available resources for social media administrators. Hopefully, these resources may be of further help for librarians tasked with implementing and managing social media efforts in their libraries. The NWC Library is central to the Naval War College's educational and research programs and its mission is to support the education of future leaders. Our Library Director saw the value in having a Facebook presence for the library to actively communicate and engage library users. The Library’s social media mission is to use social media tools to connect and provide information about resources and services available through the library. Additional, we would like to harvest its potential as a platform where users can engage actively with the Library. Efforts to develop and implement a social media strategy for the library are part our strategic plan to reach out to library users (students, including distance education students, faculty and staff) to inform them about current resources available for their research needs. Both DOD and NWC have a strong social media presence and use a variety of social media tools, including Facebook, to help promote various initiatives and share information. Initial phase: The NWC Library is on Facebook! Before creating the library’s Facebook page, I had to educate myself and learn about social media using government channels. My approach to the project (because I was new to the NWC) was to familiarize myself with the NWC’s academics, research, publications, departments and faculty. I asked many of questions about the library and its services, in addition to learning 77

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about its collection and resources. Another major item on my list was to understand social media policies and guidelines governing the use of official DOD and Department of Navy (DON) social media sites and pages. The DON has regulations and guidance regarding social media and understanding both NWC and Navy social media guidelines is extremely important. We want to showcase our resources and services without compromising or releasing any information that the NWC does not want us to share. Particularly useful were policies and guidelines used by NWC’s Public Affairs Office (PAO) to understand the planning process to create a social media presence for the library. Additionally, I researched library literature to learn about current research done about Facebook use in libraries, with specific interest in research about Facebook “best practices” particularly in military and government libraries. As result, I was able to find examples of military libraries that proved to be good resources. Facebook pages for the CW2 Christopher G. Nason Military Intelligence Library, Naval Postgraduate School Library and USMC Research Library are good examples I have used when looking to establish milestones and practices, such as the average numbers of “Likes” and frequency of posts. Early in this fact-finding process, I met with the Public Affairs Office (PAO) social media administrators to learn more about social media guidelines and policies for the DOD, DON and NWC. The main purpose of this initial meeting, in addition to understand policies, was to discuss the steps to establish a social media presence for the NWC library, to understand DOD Social Media user agreement and policies, and the role of social media administrators. After reviewing existing policies and guidelines, I drafted the NWC Library’s Social Media Policy and Guidelines, a set of guidelines for the implementation of our library’s social media efforts, including mission and vision statements, short terms goals and milestones. During the process of learning about library resources and services available to the NWC community, I started to develop a monthly calendar, with ideas for daily posts and links. Finally, I reached out to other library staff and I invited them to join the social media group. This group is composed of a library volunteer and other librarians from various departments, all interested in social media. Our goal is to meet on a monthly basis to talk about progress, successes, calendar topics, and links/topics to feature in future posts. Next phase: Successes (and finding ways to measure them) We were thrilled when the page finally launched in December 2012. With the help of PAO, the page was shared with NWC’s 12,000 Twitter followers, 78

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along with an invitation to “Like” our page. Right away, I started to look into ways to measure our success and I kept basic metrics about Facebook as part of my short term marketing strategy. From the beginning, I kept information about the number of “Likes” on a monthly basis and also information about successful posts, such as comments and shares. Additionally, I started to read more about how to analyze data provided by Facebook Insights (which tells you how your page is performing) and use this data to better understand further the interaction by our followers and to target future posts to potentially reach different audiences. At this point, I keep a monthly record of basic metrics, including Likes and Total Reach, information provided by Facebook Insights, a tool which provides page administrators with metrics about page performance. I also keep a running sheet with additional notes, such as pages who shared our content and comments directly posted in our page. After a successful launch, our next step was to inform the NWC community about our efforts. First, PAO asked its followers on Twitter and Facebook to like our page. Second, I emailed library staff inviting them to go on Facebook and “Like” our page and to share our page with friends and family. Lastly, I sent an email to all NWC community, informing them about our Facebook presence and inviting them to connect with us. In addition to email communication, we strategically placed marketing pamphlets around the first floor of the Library. The process of creating and managing the NWC Library on Facebook has been most successful. As a new librarian, I pushed myself to learn and understand the dynamics within the library, its services and resources and how it supports the mission of the Naval War College. One of the keys to our success has been the consistency and quality of our posts. From day one, I was committed to this project and dedicating the time to write posts was incorporated into my workflow so I could investigate future topics and make comments on other pages. Because I allocate time each day to focus on this project and build my knowledge, I am able to keep current on literature about social media use by government agencies and spend time on Facebook engaging with other pages, by liking their content or posting comments. On a daily basis, the Library alerts our followers about new databases and journals, library workshops and we share useful and interesting links to information. We have future plans to assess and understand how the NWC community uses social media and we will be developing a user survey for Facebook. Although initially some reservations were voiced, Facebook is now an integral component of our organization and it has been incorporated into our communication channels to share library related information with students, staff and the NWC community. 79

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Department of Navy/ Department of Defense Resources for Social Media administrators: DoD Socia Media Hub http://www.defense.gov/socialmedia/ DoD Social Media Hub- Training Materials http://www.defense.gov/socialmedia/education-and-training.aspx/ DoD Social Media user agreement http://www.defense.gov/socialmedia/user-agreement.aspx DON Public Affairs Policy and Regulations, Department of Navy http://www.doncio.navy.mil/ContentView.aspx?id=4006 Facebook Basics for Navy commands http://goo.gl/BoeiGs Naval Operations Security-OPSEC http://www.nioc-norfolk.navy.mil/ Social Media Metrics for Federal Agencies http://www.howto.gov/social-media/using-social-media-ingovernment/metrics-for-federal-agencies Social networks and government http://www.howto.gov/social-media/social-networks U.S Navy Media Blog http://usnavymedia.tumblr.com/

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Maintaining America’s “Center of Knowledge” in the 21st Century By Rosemary Girard, Intern, Library of Congress

It is human nature to organize. Breaking down entities into smaller, more precise segments provides clarity (and some sanity) when things become too enigmatic to decipher. Until rather recently, academia has been organized along disciplinary lines. Scholars have tended to compartmentalize disciplines into distinct categories that help us to organize and provide precision for our skills or interests. But are these silos inherent to the nature of intellectual understanding? Not necessarily. Knowledge doesn’t observe the boundaries of categorical walls, and disciplines thrive by borrowing from each other. So when these walls rise up between disciplines, the art of synthesizing various elements into something bigger and better can often diminish. The Library of Congress has witnessed a trend among scholars toward transdisciplinarity—a blend of subject matter, research methodologies, and communication technology to diminish boundaries among disciplines. Researchers are crossing disciplinary borders, and thinking across them, to approach knowledge more comprehensively. Knowledge is inclusive, and the Library of Congress intends to integrate some of its reading rooms (and our digital reference collections) into a more cohesive information center and support scholars’ full use of our staff, expertise, services, and collections. In our words, it will be a “Center of Knowledge.” The Center of Knowledge initiative reflects the Library of Congress’s effort to maintain the Main Reading Room’s historic role as America’s “center of knowledge”—a space where Library users can access the Library’s vast collection of resources to support their inquiries and inspire their creativity. Physically, the Center of Knowledge will combine elements from our Local History & Genealogy Reading Room, the Microform and Machine Readable Reading Room, and other selected reading rooms. But the most important changes will take place within the scope of our researchers’ intellectual growth and our staff’s exchange of information and experience across disciplines. The roots of this project stemmed from Dr. James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, posing the question, “Are we really using our space and resources to their maximum effectiveness?” As an institution, the Library had to reflect on what it did well, build on that, and then evaluate what needed to be done in response to changing times. The Library of Congress’s history reflects the commitment to respond to changes in the way people research, interact with, and use information. We noted our researchers’ increasingly transdisciplinary research, we observed the complexity and interweaving 81

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topics of the 21st century, and we determined that our space at the Library should reflect this. Current best practice in Librarianship demands “vertical” expertise within a specific subject matter, along with complimentary “horizontal” knowledge that connects information from multiple disciplines and formats. It also facilitates the use of state-of-the-art technology to integrate information into a unique end product for the user. Many of our researchers now expect and are familiar with information that is both discipline-specific and transdisciplinary. Physically separated access to information no longer grants them the comprehensive research they seek. The topics that library users are researching have not only become increasingly expansive, but the integration and blending of different research genres has become more prevalent as well. Currently, this requires the Library of Congress’s researchers to visit several of our reading rooms to access all relevant materials. In order to better synthesize this wide spectrum of resources, the Center of Knowledge intends to create a diverse collection of resources and staff in the Library’s Main Reading Room. The Center of Knowledge initiative is fundamentally simple. But as with any organizational developments—and particularly for an organization that serves a national, public clientele—the changes are physical, procedural, cultural, and personal. Behind the Library’s vision for this Center of Knowledge are the nuts and bolts of completing surveys on technology and resource use, running diagnostics to determine what consolidations are most effective, communicating changes internally and externally, and organizing teams to actually move many of our resources from their respective rooms to the Main Reading Room. This project was named “Initiative 900 Days” to reflect a plan of action on a timeline of roughly 900 days. This has given the Library ample time to implement the project, allow for reflection on our part, provide transition time for staff, and maintain flexibility if concerns or unanticipated challenges arise. The project is also unfolding gradually; plans are made to minimize disruption for researchers and staff. At the beginning stages of the project, the Associate Librarian for Library Services, Roberta I. Shaffer, completed a reading rooms and services evaluation. It gauged reading room activity, the demand for certain collections, the roles of librarians in each reading room, and the use of technology and materials. Bench marking then took place via interaction with User Focus Groups, the Library of Congress Scholars’ Council, telephone interviews with leading thinkers, and by attending and participating in professional conferences. An Initiative 900 Days Feasibility Study was completed to determine what could and should be done in the way of centralizing information. Reading rooms were selected based on practicality, but most importantly for their potential to enhance the Library’s services, staff training, and technological upgrades. As the initiative progressed, task82

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specific groups began meeting to identify tasks that could be completed in 90-day segments. These working groups were convened for Collections Content, Staffing and Labor Relations, Information Technology, Space and Facilities, Procurement, and Communications, as well as others. The benefits can be significant—especially when we consider that our researchers and staff will grow intellectually and professionally. For our staff: the Center of Knowledge will increase interaction among librarians and other staff with information located elsewhere. Currently, staff are spread out among our many reading rooms and often don’t interact with other colleagues or collections elsewhere. The benefits of these new interactions are two-fold; Library staff will experience the benefits of collaborative knowledge while Library patrons will enjoy a more diverse, well-rounded collection of both information and staff. Consolidation will also open up dedicated space for training and learning centers for staff and patrons. This will give Library staff the opportunity to engage in various outreach activities and educate others in the services, collections, and resources that the Library offers. For our patrons: to complete transdisciplinary research, they won’t have to travel between reading rooms to collect the various resources they need, consult with various experts, and gain access to specialized equipment. Our researchers will be able to incorporate more efficient research methodologies, using both standard and emerging resources. We will also increase our exhibits, lectures, and other outreach activities by repurposing certain spaces adjacent to collections and staff. The Center of Knowledge will make resources and staff far more accessible and will facilitate easier, more comprehensive research. Without the replication of information or underutilized equipment across reading rooms, the Library will be able to provide more sophisticated and useful technology, too. It will also repurpose physical space to reflect 21st century analog and digital information management programs. This will lend more direct access to transdisciplinary, multiformat collections and electronic resources by merging many of the Library’s services, collections, and equipment. The unification of these materials will then contribute to the synchronization of the Library’s website and digital resources. The Center of Knowledge initiative is just one aspect of a multi-pronged strategic initiative at the Library of Congress to create a 21st century library that is reflective of our researchers’ work. Also notable are six other Library initiatives that intersect with the Center of Knowledge’s mission: 

Knowledge Navigators and Human Capital Planning: The Knowledge Navigators initiative seeks to develop the next generation of expert researchers who will bring both domain knowledge and technical skills to research. The Library wants to have a role in assuring that our nation’s 83

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workforce has the ability to appreciate what good and valid research is, and to complete it successfully. World Digital Library, Science.Gov, and other multi-partner global programs: On a global scale, the World Digital Library, Science.Gov, and other programs are encouraging collaborative and collective work among librarians, institutions, and the information they hold. Social Media/Big Data/Non-traditional sources: The Social Media initiative strives to determine how we will use social media, as well as big data, in a Library setting. Information is no longer just stored in books, photographs, or even music and film. We are looking into how we can ingest all forms of information, provide access to them, and preserve them appropriately at the Library of Congress. Digital Resources: Along similar lines, the Digital Resources initiative deals with both the ingestion and conversion of digital materials. This includes converting analog materials into digital formats, but also ingesting and providing perpetual access to more digital material. One-Library Website Development: The One-Library Website project focuses on upgrading and modernizing our website. The idea is that users should be able to access the Library’s website and its collections no matter the format of the resource or where it is stored within the institution’s collections. We have so much material, but we want it to be easily and directly accessible by researchers, whether they are on-site or remote. Bibliographic Framework: The Library has launched a Bibliographic Framework (BibFrame) review to plan for and accommodate future needs. At its core, BibFrame will develop a transition path from our current MARC 21 framework toward one that is based on linking data and exploiting the semantic web.

The Center of Knowledge initiative will continue to improve and evolve as each new milestone is achieved. The Library of Congress intends to lead the way in information organization and access, and the Center of Knowledge will help us to accomplish this. As the size and depth of our collections expand, we want to make sure our patrons’ research experience is optimal— especially now that we are able to serve a growing number of patrons who aren’t able to visit us in person. The Library of Congress must respond to the current expectations of its patrons, and also anticipate their future needs. The Center of Knowledge initiative, along with other Library initiatives, will position the Library of Congress to be a national asset for everyone to use.

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Deployed Law Librarian By Derek K. Jones, Law Librarian, U.S. Department of Justice

Life as Law Librarian is challenging enough but holding down a military career during wartime accentuates that challenge. Pulling legislative history materials and putting together or thoroughly vetting an expert witness can be a tough battle when information is not as readily available as you’d like or if the expert’s name is a common name like Bill Smith. Getting through the day-to-day battles of information gathering can become a rigorous task depending upon the circumstances. Navy Reservist Military duty, and managing a military career that is nearly opposite to your civilian job, can be just as difficult as legal research. Unfortunately the U.S. Navy has no rate for librarians or library technicians. The closest you get is JAG or Legalman which does involve legal research and the use of databases such as LexisNexis. However, when you sign up to be a Navy Yeoman (the Navy’s oldest rate) you are relinquishing yourself to becoming what is essentially an administrative assistant. Challenges of deployment Deployment is challenging enough given the fact that you are leaving family behind. It involves far more than temporarily being away from loved ones. Telling your co-workers that you will be gone for a whole year is no fun. While everyone is supportive of you and pretty much believe in your cause, there is still that thing in the back of your mind that says “what do they really think?” Will I have a job when I get back (despite USERRA protections)? During wartime there is the stress that things could get ugly while in the warzone. Will I be involved in combat or an emergency at any point? The training you get leading up to what is called “Boots on the Ground” (when you are actually in your Area of Operation) can be fun and frightening at times. Shooting off live rounds from M-16s and doing rollover exercises in Humvee simulators is serious business. If you think running with 80 pounds of protective gear on is the fun part, think again. It only gets fun when you meet people who are there for the same reasons as you and forge friendships with them. While away While away, you depend on family and friends to maintain sanity. Skype and care packages are a big help as well. When you are a law librarian, you can easily get behind with the database updates and current trends in the profession. Libraries in the sand were very interesting. These facilities were in tents just like everything else. Somehow, the sand and the heat of the Middle East stayed outside the library tent. So did the combat atmosphere. 85

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When you walked in the library tent you walked into a library. It would feel just as if you had walked into your local library back home. The librarians and technicians were contractors or third country nationals. There were books, of course, with titles mainly dedicated to military and general topics. The guilt of not being there to help out at your civilian job becomes more intense when you walk in a library. You really start to forget everything about your normal day-to-day after a while and you learn to adjust. Challenges of returning Long after you’ve become accustomed to drinking tons of water and dealing with sweltering temps you begin to countdown to coming home. While you are dreaming it, coming home seems to be the easiest thing to do. It can actually be one of the hardest though. Besides having to say goodbye to shipmates and soldiers that have become friends, you also have other challenges. These challenges include processing paperwork and going through post-deployment screening and medical routines. The long flight back to the U.S. is usually followed by cheering crowds at the airport and then a little vacation before returning to your civilian job. Back to normal Back to normal is anything but that. It is more accurate to call it rejoining your family and dealing with a year’s worth of missed school plays and dinner dates with the spouse. You’re faced with getting up to speed with database changes, security measures from your IT department, and restarting relationships with your patrons. All of these things alone can stress you out but nothing is more stressful than trying to get over the guilt. Getting to a point where you feel like you are contributing to the workload is the biggest prize since this brings you full circle. After a while you start to see that it was all worth it. You begin to think of deployment in terms of something a little deeper than the fact that you are defending freedom. You begin to think of it as your defense of your co-worker’s freedom to do what they do on a daily basis!

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Lexis for Microsoft Office

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Centralizing Distributed Resources and Making Them Searchable By Kimberly F. Yang, JD, MLS, Research, Education and Outreach Librarian, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Health Sciences and Human Services Library This article is about using existing software to improve access and reduce duplication of free electronic newsletters previously saved in multiple places by staff from different divisions. Many free, non-fee-based subscription newsletters from banks and brokerage firms contain economic market commentary and analyses that researchers from different divisions at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Board”) use. However, staff received and saved these bank and broker newsletters in their email accounts, or downloaded them. Since newsletters were received as often as daily, duplicate electronic copies occupied more and more space on the organization’s servers and hard drives over time. This mode of preserving newsletters was unwieldy and did not allow full-text search of the publications for when researchers wanted to retrieve a newsletter article previously viewed. Define project scope & assign. The Research Library at the Board embraced the task of investigating whether centralizing these resources and making them full-text searchable using Microsoft SharePoint was desirable and feasible. SharePoint was selected as a potential platform, because it was existing enterprise software licensed and available to the entire organization. An intern, the author of this article, was hired to investigate the desirability and viability of the project and to build a SharePoint prototype site, if needed. Analyze existing resources. First, before going to the effort of creating a SharePoint site that would serve as an electronic library of publications, the Research Library wanted to assess whether a similar resource already existed within the organization. It was possible that a unit within the organization had already come up with the idea of centralizing the newsletters as a searchable electronic resource – in which case it might simply be a matter of making that resource available organization-wide. Interview stakeholders. After interviewing key staff, we determined that one section had a Market Commentary intranet page where the most recent newsletters from a select list of banks and brokerage firms were available for download by clicking on a link. We interviewed those responsible for the webpage to determine whether simply making that page accessible organization-wide would satisfy user needs. We learned about limitations to the current site (no full text search capability, and no way for 89

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users to retrieve archived newsletters older than the six most current issues) and other suggestions for improvement. The suggestions indicated that the following improvements would be helpful:   

Full-text search capability of all newsletter content, including archived newsletters Access to archives of old newsletters An ability to sort or view the newsletters by firm name, date, type, or other criteria.

Conduct focus groups. With the information gained from interviewing key stakeholders, focus groups were convened for what would later be named, “Bank & Broker Newsletters,” with the following objectives:    

To To To To

gauge the extent of user interest in a newsletter library identify uses for the newsletter library identify desired functions and capabilities of a newsletter library identify desired content for the newsletter library

Don’t call it a focus group (even if it is). The email invitations to participants did not use the term, “focus group.” Instead, we used the subject line: Your advice needed on potential electronic library resource, and greeted each participant by name. We wrote a telephone script used to follow-up on the email invitations by calling potential participants to confirm if they would participate and to ask them to suggest names of others to participate. We then used the recommender’s name when inviting the suggested participant. We scheduled focus groups in the buildings where potential participants worked to facilitate ease of attendance. Consider the mission. Because the section responsible for the Market Commentary page had only dedicated enough staff time to maintain the page as it was, if a more functional electronic library was desired for the entire organization, then a centralized effort was required. The Research Library undertook the project as part of its mission to provide information services and resources to support Board research and operations and collaborate with other Board offices on projects to enhance the research infrastructure. Use existing resources when possible. The Research Library chose to build a SharePoint site to house PDFs of “Bank & Broker Newsletters,” because SharePoint is existing enterprise software licensed to the entire organization. We only had to grant permissions to all staff in order to enable them to access the site. SharePoint also allows users to email links to PDFs of newsletters. By forwarding a link to the newsletter instead of the PDF itself, users can share information with their colleagues without generating duplicate electronic copies. The software had the added benefit of having

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already been approved by our Information Technology Division, thus avoiding the time-consuming new software approval process. Analyze feedback & build prototype. Based upon feedback from the focus groups, we decided there was sufficient interest from economists and researchers to build a prototype SharePoint site as an electronic library holding the Bank & Broker Newsletters. Comments from the participants informed what metadata fields and content (i.e., which newsletters) we would include in the prototype. The Bank & Broker Newsletters prototype site was built entirely by the summer intern, who also created an internal project SharePoint site on which all project-related documents (interview summaries, focus group invitations, agendas, contact names, user survey results, etc.) were stored. Conduct user testing. Once the Bank & Broker Newsletters prototype, or test site, was ready for preview, an online user survey was created with SurveyMonkey to solicit feedback from focus group participants on the functionality of the site. Since the focus group participants had recently given us their input, we decided that they should be the test users of the prototype as the most invested and most likely to supply feedback via the online survey. We gave test users the option to include their names on the survey, if they desired a response to their comments. We received extensive comments on the survey about the prototype site. Survey respondents who supplied their names were emailed replies addressing their specific comments or questions. We did so, because we wanted respondents to feel that their time was appreciated and that their feedback did not end up in a vacuum. The reply emails also served the purpose of building goodwill if further testing or consultation was required in the future. Enough positive feedback on the prototype was received that the Research Library decided to proceed with building a live version of the Bank & Broker Newsletters site. Obtain permissions & build collection. The next step was to obtain permissions from the banks and brokers that produced the newsletters that the Research Library wanted to use for site content. Because the library intended to save the newsletters on an internal server for search and retrieval by any Board staff, we communicated that request to the banks and brokerage firms from which the Research Library secured permissions. Then about six months’ worth of newsletters were uploaded to the site in order to populate the site with sufficient content to make it worthwhile for users. Launch, market & publicize. Once the Research Library decided to launch the Bank & Broker Newsletters site, the electronic library was promoted at the Research Library Open House, at presentations to various Board divisions, to the SharePoint user group, via tabletop notices on 91

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cafeteria tables, and by announcements posted on various organizational websites. During these events, additional feedback from users was solicited. In addition, we returned to our list of contacts including those who had previewed the prototype to ask their feedback to fine-tune the live site. Review & improve. Even now, continuous improvements are made and marketing efforts continue. A Macroeconomist’s View, which provides a view of the five most recent issues of newsletters published by title, was created based upon the request and tailored feedback of a dedicated user. New marketing efforts are periodically instituted. Recently, after the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting, a group email was sent to let Board researchers know that the Bank & Broker Newsletters could help inform them of what investment banks were saying about Board actions and to track what market commentators were saying about FOMC actions. These Bank & Broker Newsletters also enable Board economists to see how Board data is being used in other settings, by other actors in the economic marketplace.

-----------Note: At the time this article was written, Kimberly F. Yang was an intern at the Research Library of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, winner of the 2012 Federal Library/Information Center of the Year, Large Library/Information Center category. 92

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Best Practices in Taxonomy Development By Lee Lipscomb, Assistant Librarian, Federal Judicial Center The theoretical concept of taxonomy development is foundational in the field of library science, but how does the theory transform into the pragmatic approach demanded by the workplace? The transformation starts with a fundamental understanding of the meaning and function of the term, taxonomy. The term taxonomy is derived from the Greek words taxis (arrangement, order) and nomos (law) (Taylor & Joudrey, 2009, p. 379). Taxonomies were associated with the sciences, typically used for the classification of specimens or scientific information. Taxonomies are more recently associated with the Internet, establishing the framework for website navigation. The study of library science generally gives significant focus to taxonomy development in its core course, Organization of Information. Within the study of the Organization of Information, the taxonomy is identified as one of many systems of categorization and has multiple definitions (Taylor & Joudrey, 2009, p. 378).  “System for naming and organizing things into groups that share similar characteristics” (Montague Institute, 2012)  “A knowledge map of a topic, typically realized as a controlled vocabulary of terms and or phrases” (Wason, 2006)  “Orderly classification of information according to presumed natural relationships” (Wason, 2006)  “Taxonomies…thesauri…classification systems… are controlled vocabularies” and are synonymous as their differences, if any, are negligible (Warner, 2002) (Taylor & Joudrey) Defining the term tends to confuse more than clarify, so much so, that the description of a taxonomy’s appearance and structure proves more helpful to the nascent librarian than a definition. The most typical form of taxonomy is a hierarchy. At the top level, general terms or descriptive phrases are used. Each of the general terms has beneath it a set of terms that provide more refinement of the top-level term. Each of these second level terms may have a set of refining terms beneath it (Wason, 2006). These skeletons of hierarchical structural categorization began as “traditional classification schemes” and have expanded into “subject heading lists,

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folksonomies, ontologies, Internet directories and gateways” (Taylor & Joudrey, 2009). The definitions and descriptions considered above tell us something about the potential appearance of the finished taxonomy, but they do not speak to the establishment of a process for achieving that finished product. Taxonomy development theory remains just theory for the librarian who is in need of a strategic plan, not simply thought-provoking conceptualizations. Consequently, when the student becomes a librarian tasked with drafting taxonomies, the practical application of library school theories becomes daunting. However, creating taxonomies is simple once a process is established and followed. The practices described below are introduced with the intent of dispelling the concerns of a first time web taxonomist. Identify Your Content Knowing the universe of content to be classified is not the same as identifying your content; just as knowing that a forest contains trees does not identify the types of trees the forest contains. Granularity is important in identification of your content. The more closely and deeply one looks, the more options appear for categories and categorization. Using every category that can be isolated is not the final objective; identifying every category for potential use is. First, make a cursory review of all content, identifying major areas of classification. Next, identify the key content within each classification and prepare a list of these items. These key pieces will serve an essential function later in the process. Finally, create a list of key content types (e.g. audio recordings, books, catalog records, podcasts, video recordings, etc.). So, how does this translate when performed in the real world? Suppose that we are categorizing items for the Federal Judicial Center’s (FJC) website. Many of the items listed are catalog records (trees) of materials produced by the FJC (forest). The name Federal Judicial Center begs the conclusion that only legal nomenclature is required for the web taxonomy. However, upon examination and review of all of the records it is observed that although a majority of items are legal (tree type) in nature, many are from other disciplines such as business/management and administration, education, history, literature, and science (tree types). These disciplines will provide our major areas of classification. Within these major areas of classification, there are key content items that will make our list of key content. For example, within the legal discipline the Benchbook for U.S. District Court Judges, Manual for Complex Litigation, and the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence would make the list of FJC legal materials. These publications are flagship materials that are the basis for 94

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education, training, and research projects at the Center. Since they are books, they contain tables of contents, glossaries, and indexes that can be mined for taxonomy terms. However, the key content list should not contain only books because of their usefulness for extracting taxonomy terminology, unless the entire collection is composed entirely of books. The list should be representative of the collection, containing at least one item of each type currently in general use. Indicate each content type on a separate list of all potential content types. This will provide all the terms needed for inclusion in a Format section of the taxonomy. If your web site will utilize faceted search technology, then having a list of all current formats will provide a helpful filter for users. Identify Your Audiences Knowing your audiences is important in classification. In fact, classification by audience can be an effective method for organizing taxonomies. Listing all audience segments as terms on the website, as we did on the FJC’s intranet site, is an excellent complement or alternative to subject term use. In fact, the best practice would be use of audience nomenclature, in conjunction with subject nomenclature within a filtered search mechanism to assist patrons in the location of materials. The Brookings Institute at http://www.brookings.edu/search?start=1&q=economy and the Law Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/search/?q=civil+law&in=partof%3Alaw+library+of+con gress both provide excellent examples of how to make web taxonomy multidimensional by using both subject and audience taxonomies to empower filtered search. Creating audience-based taxonomies is simple. First, identify key audience types. Many materials will already be associated with an audience because they were created for that particular audience. Next, consider the content types these audience types will access based on audience characteristics and activities. Finally, view the content from the perspective of each audience. This may require polling the library’s patron base by survey or interviewing sample patrons from each constituency within the patron base. Then, identify audience types within that patron base. Envision how users in each audience type will search for content based on the results of these investigative measures. Also consider prior interactions with patrons from each audience type. As an example of the first steps in the development process, the Information Services Office and the Information Technology Office at the FJC recognized that many of the materials developed are for use by judges and attorneys 95

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who work for the federal courts. We developed an audience section for our taxonomy devoted to listing each of our user groups hierarchically, according to court function, so that each group could access pertinent information. The following is a depiction of a portion of the final product of the hierarchical taxonomy sections for the Judges and Attorneys & Law Clerks user groups:  Judges o Circuit/Appellate Judges o District Judges o Bankruptcy Judges o Bankruptcy Appellate Panel Judges o Magistrate Judges  Attorneys & Law Clerks o Attorneys & Law Clerks o Circuit Mediators o Staff Attorneys Once the audience taxonomy is developed, it should be shared with key stakeholders identified prior to or early in the website development process. Select stakeholders based upon availability for consultation, willingness to provide feedback, and readiness to participate in website testing. As tagging of materials with the vetted audience terminology takes place, stakeholders should perform searches for materials specific to their user group. The stakeholders should assess the search results and provide feedback to be shared with those tagging content to ensure the relevancy and accuracy of the material tagging process. Let Content Lead A customized and content-specific taxonomy is the best path to findability; however, reinventing the wheel is not necessary. One method is to search for online thesauri in similar subject areas as the content for categorization. Some useful web thesauri in specialized subject areas are:  Art http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/aat/index.html  Education http://eric.ed.gov/  Law http://www.glin.gov/  Medical http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/  Science http://www.cabi.org/cabthesaurus/ Another method is to explore websites with similar content. For special libraries with varied collections, inspect websites with comparable content to all or even just one of the library's subject collections and leverage the taxonomy terms located for the future tagging of each respective collection or collections. For example, a librarian noting that the most prevalent topics for the FJC’s web content are judicial administration, law, and education could mine the sites of the: 96

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  

National Center of State Courts (Judicial Administration) Library of Congress’ Law Library Reading Room (Law) Vanderbilt’s Peabody School of Education Library (Education)

As a special library with a varied collection, it would be difficult to find a single site that captures all of the FJC’s web content topics. However, if the special library covers one topic, such as medicine, then using a single site to mine for that distinct topic would likely be an easier task. This technique also works well with site maps since the map terminology is typically generated from the website’s taxonomy. Thesauri lend themselves to the development of hierarchical taxonomies while the use of site maps works best for flat taxonomies since thesauri tend to contain more levels of hierarchy and site maps generally have fewer, if any, levels. Identify Your Structure The key question to ask is, “Does the content require a hierarchical or flat taxonomy?” However if the librarian does not understand the difference then this must be the threshold question, “What is a flat taxonomy and how does it differ from a hierarchical taxonomy?” Essentially, a flat taxonomy contains all terms on a single and equivalent level whereas a hierarchical taxonomy contains terms on multiple levels based on each term’s respective relationship to the other terms within a specified category. For a more thorough discussion of this topic, the following sources are recommended:  Understanding Taxonomies http://certifiedknowledge.org/blog/understanding-taxonomies/  Taxonomies Defined http://www.shareesblog.com/?p=314  How is the "hierarchical" taxonomy structure different than a flat list? http://drupal.org/node/710812 An excellent illustration of the divergence between these two taxonomy types exists within the FJC’s website. The site utilizes a hierarchical taxonomy as the backbone for its search function. Using only selected top level topics, similar to a flat taxonomy structure, derived from the site-wide hierarchical taxonomy presented to the user as the Browse by Topic navigation feature. This illustration also demonstrates the earlier point made regarding the utility of using both a flat and hierarchical approach creating web site taxonomies. The Browse by Topic taxonomy (flat) and the Ethics & Codes of Conduct section of the site-wide taxonomy (hierarchical) are depicted below to demonstrate this concept and illustrate the intersection of the two types:

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Browse by Topic (flat) o Ethics & Codes of Conduct o Evidence o Federal Judicial Branch Governance o Federal Judicial History o Federal Rules of Practice & Procedure o Habeas Corpus o Immigration Law o Information Technology o Intellectual Property Law o International Law & Litigation o Judges & the Art of Judging o Judicial Security



Ethics & Codes of Conduct (hierarchical)* o Bias o Conflicts of Interest o Continuing Legal Education o Court Decorum o Ex Parte Communications o Financial Disclosure o ○ E-filing o Judicial Discipline o Judicial Disqualification o Judicial Independence o Malpractice/Professional Liability o Professional Responsibility o Recusal

o Juries o Leadership & Management o Mental Health o National Security o Native American Law o Opinion Writing & Editing o Prisoner Litigation o Privacy o Pro Se Litigation o Probation & Pretrial Services o Professional & Staff Development o Public Health o Section 1983 Litigation o Sentencing o Social Media *Note the multiple levels of terms under the top level heading 98

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Let the content lead when making the initial assessment whether to utilize a flat or hierarchical taxonomy for optimal user access and consider the following principles:  Flat taxonomies naturally conform to content that covers a broader range of topics on a superficial level  Hierarchical taxonomies naturally conform to content that covers a specific topic in depth Additionally, a hierarchical taxonomy requires more customization and manual development because once decisions regarding the inclusion of terms are made, then decisions regarding hierarchical placement must follow. Generally, more work is required for the long-term conservation of a hierarchical taxonomy; therefore, be prepared to devote the man-hours for maintenance personally or pinpoint a co-worker who can. Despite these difficulties, always let the content make the determination of whether a hierarchical or flat taxonomy is best. After the initial assessment, avoid the temptation of shoehorning existing content into an impressive preexisting taxonomy located online. Either, reassess the content and uncover another adaptation or develop a custom taxonomy from the ground up. Bootstrapping content to an ill-suited taxonomy will not work because the configuration process will be contrived and will result in limited functionality of the organization’s site. Regarding impressive taxonomies, Taylor discusses the diversity of taxonomy types available online, “traditional classification schemes, subject heading lists, folksonomies, ontologies, and Internet directories and gateways, as well as subject-specific tools that actually call themselves taxonomies” (Taylor & Joudrey, 2009, p. 379). Though called by many other names a taxonomy is a taxonomy just the same. Look past the taxonomy’s name and focus on subject, structure, and terminology to determine if it is suitable for appropriation. More importantly, investigate whether its appropriation is legal—copyright infringement is a crime. Taylor also provides some great examples of subject taxonomies; consider reviewing some of the examples below to become familiar with the appearance of taxonomies:  Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Taxonomy for Plants http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains Domainshttp://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html



National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) Taxonomy for Biotechnology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/taxonomy/ 99

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Association for Computing (ACM) Taxonomy for Computing http://www.computer.org/portal/web/publications/acmtaxonomy



American Library Association (ALA) Taxonomy http://www.ala.org/support/drupal/tax/list

After locating an established taxonomy appropriate for use or determining the structure of the one to be designed, put forth the time and effort required to customize the taxonomy to properly fit the incoming content. This effort will result in optimal long term functionality and form of the website. Identify Your Terms Since the all the structural decisions have been made at this point, terms must be constructed into a currently identified structure (flat or hierarchical taxonomy) or used to fill out the preexisting taxonomy identified by the librarian. But where will these terms come from? Now, refer to the point, stated above, concerning the mining of key content items (e.g. books, documents, records, etc.) to isolate taxonomy terms under the previous heading of Identify Your Content. This portion of the development process requires the librarian to return to the key content list created earlier. At this phase in the taxonomy development process, the librarian should actually perform the step of sequestering the quintessential key content items from the rest of the list, defining a new list of preferably five or less items within each classification area. The earlier identification for creation of a list of key content was to assess the structural needs for building the taxonomic framework. The instant identification is for the purpose of scanning the tables of contents, glossaries, and indexes of each key content item to identify essential terms to include in the taxonomy. As terms that are essential are detected, they should be tucked into the taxonomy based on their relationship to the terms already within the taxonomy. As more terms are added, placement of terms should be adjusted so that the final product is logically organized, based on the categorization customs of those working in the disciplines of the terms referenced in the taxonomy and the reasoning of those who will perform the tagging. Assistance in performing the tagging, as well as in the development and revising of the taxonomy is beneficial, if it can be secured. Critical review of the development process and taxonomy by an outside source is always constructive.

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Throw Out Lifelines Identify colleagues with taxonomy development experience or subject matter expertise. These colleagues will be the best sources for information because of their familiarity with the categorization process or categorization common to the subject area, respectively. Librarians are professionals in a community that encourages making contributions back into the community; most librarians are willing to offer assistance to newer community members. Having a prior relationship with a colleague that can assist is generally not necessary to request their collaboration on a project. Refer to the websites below to identify mentors and networking opportunities for locating mentors:  SLA Directory of New Taxonomists (Protégés) Seeking Mentors http://taxonomy.sla.org/get-involved/mentor/directory-of-proteges/ 

SLA Taxonomy Division Blog http://taxonomy.sla.org/2012/09/11/taxonomy-question-of-the-dayim-a-reference-librarian-now-do-i-need-any-special-training-tobecome-a-taxonomist/



Listing Pages & Taxonomies (librarians with ALA membership using Drupal 7) http://www.ala.org/support/drupal/tax



ALA Association for Library Collections & Technical Services Cataloging and Metadata Management Section (CaMMS) http://www.ala.org/alcts/mgrps/camms

Once you have identified a potential mentor, establish contact and provide an informal overview of the project. Next, ask about their willingness and availability to assist, eliciting specific commitments and avoiding overreaching. Do not hesitate to ask for help when you need it, while respecting the boundaries established in prior discussions with that colleague. The transition from theory to reality is not insurmountable. Remain composed and work through the process established by the following best practices discussed:  Identify Your Content  Identify Your Audiences  Let Content Lead  Identify Your Structure  Identify Your Terms  Throw Out Lifelines A well- crafted taxonomy is the essential foundation of a highly responsive website beneficial to users. It will serve as a shining example of taxonomic excellence worthy of emulation by others in the library community. 101

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Works Cited Montague Institute. (2012, January 7). Ten Taxonomy Myths. Retrieved December 26, 2013, from Montague Institute Review: http://www.montague.com/review/myths.html Taylor, A. G., & Joudrey, D. N. (2009). Organization of Information. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Warner, A. J. (2002). A Taxonomy Primer. Retrieved December 26, 2013, from Lexonomy: http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385e/readings/WarneraTaxonomyPrimer.html Wason, T. D. (2006, February 16). Dr. Tom's Taxonomy Guide: Description, Use, and Selections. Retrieved December 26, 2013, from Thomas D. Wason, PhD: http://www.tomwason.com/drtomtaxonomiesguide.html

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True North Thinking By Ken Wheaton, Systems Librarian, Alaska State Court Law Library It is human nature to think and express our thoughts, however not everyone challenges or analyzes their thoughts using the critical thinking process. According to Meghan Casserly of Forbes in an article titled “The 10 skills that will get you hired in 2013” critical thinking is number one on the list of most in-demand skills for getting jobs. She defines critical thinking as “using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.” Why are critical thinking skills in such demand? Studies have shown that the Columbia Space Shuttle, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the New Orleans levee disasters were a result of the lack of attaching importance to the critical thinking process. In an article by Sarah Yang at the “UC Berkeley New Center” Bob Bea, an engineer considered to be an expert on these disasters, states there is a common trend in these disasters, “they are system disasters, they’re caused by human and organizational malfunctions”, they occur from a “failure to learn from past mistakes.” One of the biggest airline crashes in history occurred in 1987 in Detroit. Findings found that it was caused by the crew’s failure to use a taxi checklist that ensured the flaps were extended prior to takeoff. Also there was no power to the aircraft takeoff warning system. The checklist was overlooked on this flight due to some confusion from a last minute runway change related to incoming severe weather. Some pilots have indicated that sometimes the circuit breaker to the warning system is turned off during takeoff to prevent pilot distraction the system can cause. In this case, an assumption was made that the checklist had been completed. Today, 15 years later, electronic checklists are now being used in aircrafts as a result of the use of the findings from this accident and the critical thinking process. Toyota has used a form of critical thinking for years, it is call the A3. Basically, it consists of a Plan, Do, Check, Act (P-D-C-A) report (sometimes called a storyboard). It is a method of critical thinking to encourage knowledge sharing and decisions based on fact and data analysis taken right where the work was performed. This type of thinking has helped them recover from a series of recalls resulting in Toyota still being one of the world’s top selling automakers. In a recent conversation with someone in the medical profession, it was mentioned that some people think they can lose weight on a gluten free diet. This is a diet for those who have celiac disease and those with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Nutritionists know for weight control, exercise and a well103

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balanced diet is the best process to yield lasting results. Today there are many gluten free foods produced that can be high in calories just like their gluten containing counterparts. Here is a fad about losing weight on a gluten free diet which is not based on current information or is based on only part of the complete knowledge regarding weight loss. I witnessed a good example of the application of critical thinking for customer service in a difficult situation beyond the company’s control. It was at Chicago O’Hare International Airport while being grounded due to a severe thunderstorm heading that way. Virgin Airlines did something a little different than the other airlines while waiting for the storm to pass. The employees cheerfully held games to keep waiting passengers entertained. Passengers were able to win prizes such as a drink or meal when they got on board their flight. Bottled water and treats were provided to their customers while they waited out the storm. There are a number of extra plug-ins for cell phones and electronic devices in the Virgin Airlines waiting area. They must certainly be very much appreciated, especially during the long delay. At the other airline check-in counters I noticed people were very unhappy and complaining to airline staff. Some passengers even saying they would never fly with that airline again. Not sure how Virgin Airlines is doing financially but they sure have the right idea for knowing how to remain competitive, especially in a time of high fuel prices, by providing exceptional customer service. The above situations illustrate how critical thinking skills are essential in all areas of today’s knowledge economy. Some industries are doing better than others implementing critical thinking skills. Here is a list of core skills that help lead to better critical thinking decisions. 1) Review the accuracy of your thinking or decision. Is it based on experience or knowledge? How relevant is your source of information? Did you use data and facts to gain a better level of understanding? 2) Challenge your thinking and ask for input from others. No one person has all the best answers. 3) Be open enough to realize there might be a number of causes.

Critical thinking can lead to better decision making and allow for better problem solving. Librarians are in a great position to promote critical thinking. For years in both the public and private sector they have pointed out the value of accurate, reliable and timely information sources. These types of information sources that librarians advocate for and the knowledge they provide to their patrons is at the very foundation of the critical thinking process. You may be providing the key knowledge or information sources to someone who will use them in their critical thinking process to prevent a 104

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future disaster, provide a better product, or suggest a new customer service opportunity.

References: Casserly, Meghan. "The 10 Skills That Will Get You Hired In 2013." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Dec. 2012. Web. 08 Sept. 2013. . Yang, Sarah. "Disaster Expert Cites ‘failure to Learn’ for Deepwater Horizon Blowout." UC Berkeley NewsCenter. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Sept. 2013. .

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Making Digital Preservation More Manageable: Best Practices from the Veterans History Project By Andrew Cassidy-Amstutz, Archivist, Veterans History Project, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress

Creating a digital preservation strategy within a library or archives setting can seem like an overwhelming challenge to both seasoned professionals and recent graduates alike. However, creating a new digital preservation strategy or refining and updating a pre-existing one does not have to be viewed as an all-or-nothing endeavor. The Library of Congress, working in conjunction with other partner institutions, has created a working draft to describe different levels of digital preservation in an effort to mitigate digital preservation risks. Working off of this document, the Veterans History Project has been able to develop and establish several digital preservation workflows that take advantage of both the strengths and weaknesses associated with our collections. In the following paragraphs, I will briefly describe these levels and how the Veterans History Project has adapted them to best suit our collections. Before I begin describing these levels and our digital preservation workflows, some background about the Veterans History Project and the scope of our collections may be beneficial. The Veterans History Project is a congressionally mandated effort to collect, preserve, and make available the personal experiences of America’s veterans. Over the last thirteen years, it has grown to be the largest oral history project of its type and currently contains over 90,000 collections. Primarily consisting of audio and video interviews of men and women discussing their experiences, the Veterans History Project also accepts manuscripts and photographs. To fulfill its mandate, the Veterans History Project works with individuals and groups across the United States to facilitate the donation of collections from interested parties. In order to accomplish this and provide these services to the widest range of the American public possible, the Veterans History Project tries to balance the competing needs of maintaining a consistent collections policy in order to standardize the donation process while ensuring that as many people as possible are able to submit either their stories or their family’s stories. Due to these competing interests, over the course of its existence, the Veterans History Project has received a wide variety of both file formats, including VOB, TXT, JPEG, MP3, and WAV, and media carriers, including CD-Rs, DVD-Rs, VHS tapes, floppy disks, and microcassettes. With an average of 300 to 400 new collections arriving each month, one of the primary challenges for the Veterans History Project is ensuring that the 106

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files and data contained within those carriers is harvested, ingested, validated, and preserved across several different digital environments. The value of digital preservation cannot be overstated, particularly when discussing the digital management of archival material. The digital preservation of archival collections is an ongoing process involving a continuous cycle of repeated iterations designed to ensure that the data in question are available, accessible, and accurate. This classification of digital preservation is many steps removed from the interpretation of digital preservation currently promoted to the American public. The interpretation of digital preservation currently adopted by the majority of the American public is in many respects a temporary remediation solution that does not actually address the long-term preservation needs of a specific digital object. This approach manifests itself in particular in the wealth of options available to Americans interested in transferring their home movies, photographs, and other recordings to a digital medium. Many companies advertise their expertise in transferring these items to DVD for both the long-term preservation of the material and the convenience of the customer. However, DVDs are subject to a number of long-term storage issues, such as manufacturing defects, damaging environmental storage conditions, and unexpected data corruption. It is worth noting at this time that digitizing archival materials and transferring them to DVDs or another digital format is not inherently ineffective. If done consistently as part of a larger digital preservation strategy, this stage of the process can greatly enhance the longevity of digital materials within an archival collection. However, it is important to emphasize that this is only one part of a robust digital preservation strategy and should be used in conjunction with several other processes to ensure the availability, accuracy, and accessibility of a digital object. In the working draft mentioned earlier in this article, these processes are grouped into five different categories: Storage and Geographic Location, File Fixity and Data Integrity, Information Security, Metadata, and File Formats. Each of these categories consists of multiple levels and is intended to serve as a moving goalpost as institutions successfully incorporate recommended levels into their digital preservation strategies. (For anyone interested in learning more about these levels and the rationale behind their creation, detailed information can be found at http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ndsa/working_groups/documents/NDSA _Levels_Archiving_2013.pdf.) The levels associated with Storage and Geographic Location begin with having two complete copies of the data in question with at least one copy in a different geographic location and end with having at least three complete copies in geographic locations with different disaster threats. This category 107

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also includes the basic step of removing data from tangible media (optical disks, hard drives, etc.) and depositing it in a storage system to the final step of having a comprehensive plan in place that will keep files and metadata on currently accessible media or systems. Currently, the Veterans History Project retains both the original media carrier that arrived with the donated collection and, where possible, a separate copy of each carrier’s data on a long-term preservation storage server and managed through the Library's Content Transfer Service (CTS). CTS is the primary tool used by the Library to manage its digital content across multiple custodial divisions and service units within the larger Library. CTS’s servers are backed up regularly and the content on them is distributed amongst multiple geographic locations with different disaster threats. The levels associated with File Fixity and Data Integrity begin with checking file fixity during the ingest of the data if that information has already been provided or creating file fixity metadata if that information was not provided with the content. At this category’s highest level, institutions should be able to verify file fixity of all content in response to specific events or activities, replace/repair corrupted data, and ensure that no one person has write access to all copies. To accomplish this, the Veterans History project creates a checksum for each file being ingested using Bagger, a software application that produces a package of data files conforming to a specific specification. The bag consists of a base directory containing a small amount of machine-readable text to help automate the content’s receipt, storage, and retrieval as well as a subdirectory that holds the content files. During this process, the Bagger software generates a checksum for each file in the bag that is then used to verify the contents of the bag during each subsequent preservation action. After the data has been bagged successfully, we ingest the completed bags into CTS. CTS allows users to virus-check all ingested content, verify the fixity of selected content at fixed intervals and in response to specific events or activities, detect corrupt data, and it also has the ability to repair/replace corrupted data upon request. Similarly, the levels associated with Information Security begin with identifying who has read, write, move, and delete authorization to individual files as well as restricting who has those file permissions. At its highest levels, institutions should maintain logs of who performed specific actions on individual files and should perform regular audits of those logs. To track security, the Veterans History Project receives email alerts whenever staff members use the Content Transfer Service system to manipulate any of the digital collections tracked by CTS. It maintains logs of

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who has performed modifications, deletions, and other preservation actions on any of the files within the custody of the Veterans History Project. The levels associated with Metadata begin with creating a basic inventory of the digital content in question and its storage location and expand from there to include storing administrative metadata, transformative metadata and log events, technical and descriptive metadata, and standard preservation metadata. The Veterans History Project maintains an inventory of its digital content and its associated storage location within both a Microsoft Access database and the Content Transfer Service system. Furthermore, the Veterans History Project also relies on the Content Transfer Service to automatically generate multiple types of metadata including administrative metadata, transformative metadata and log events, technical metadata, descriptive metadata, and preservation metadata. The levels associated with File Formats begin with adopting a standardized set of known open file formats and codecs as much as possible and creating an inventory of the formats in use within a given collection. At the end of the File Format spectrum, institutions are encouraged to monitor file format obsolescence issues and perform format migrations, emulation, and similar activities as needed. The Veterans History Project encourages its donors to use a standardized set of known open file formats and codecs when compiling a collection for donation. In addition to this, the Veterans History Project has also created an inventory of the file formats within its collections to better monitor and track file format obsolescence issues. The Veterans History Project is fortunate to have many of the digital preservation resources of the Library of Congress available to us and at our disposal as we implement our digital preservation workflows. We have also been able to take advantage of the resources available to us in the way that best suits our collections. As was shown in the preceding paragraphs, we continue to try to incorporate the levels described above in a way that maximizes their effectiveness within the limitations of our collections. The examples provided above can serve as a roadmap for anyone interested in beginning the process of creating a digital preservation strategy for their respective repositories or brainstorming how to incorporate the next level of digital preservation into their current strategy. Above all, digital preservation is not all-or-nothing monolith; it can be broken down into manageable sections that can work within the intricacies of any archival collection.

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Taking Stock – One Library’s Journey: From Concept to Completion By Christine Danieli, Head, Information and Access, U.S. Naval War College Library He who rejects change is the architect of decay. The only human institution which rejects progress is the cemetery. ~ Harold Wilson (1916-1995)¹ When Dr. Allen Benson, the new Naval War College (NWC) Library Director arrived in Newport, RI in November 2011, he asked simple, yet thoughtprovoking questions – did the library understand the extent of its holdings and did our database reflect what was physically present on the shelves? This sparked serious discussion on the feasibility of conducting an inventory and subject analysis of the collection. Only by addressing these two issues could the library prepare for thoughtful weeding and collection development. This article briefly outlines the process one federal library underwent on its inventory journey. The Process: In June 2012, the Circulation Branch Chief became Inventory Project Manager and an Inventory Team was formed. An action plan was developed; responsibilities were assigned; resources identified; a timeline was established; and a completion date was targeted. The goal was to restore accuracy to our database by accounting for all in-house and on-site materials. The 5-member team would meet regularly to do formative evaluations to ensure we were focused and on track. We were concerned about the cost, in terms of time and labor, and about the benefits to be derived from conducting this inventory. Who: The Library Director asked the Inventory Team to recommend either an in-house inventory or that we outsource the work. While an in-house inventory would mean “free” labor – using library staff and/or students/NWC reservists or hiring from the local talent pool – it would be a piecemeal, time permitting effort, disruptive to both patrons and staff. While designated staff could input data directly into our Integrated Library System (ILS) using the inventory module, purchasing several scanning devices would be an added expense. Outsourcing would place the responsibility for hiring and supervising workers on the inventory company. They would use their own equipment, generate reports and complete the inventory according to contractual specifications. Cost was a variable and bids came in ranging from $17.5K to $53.9K. After weighing the pros and cons, we recommended outsourcing.

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What: Only materials in the general collection and in our two on-site storage vaults (overflow books and the Rare Book Collection) would be inventoried. Microfilm/fiche would be excluded from the inventory, due to handling and time constraints. Preparation: The Team researched and identified nine inventory companies. Three looked promising; others were eliminated when they failed to acknowledge or return telephone calls or email inquiries. We held on-site visits. The Library Director sought funding for the library inventory. At the time, a government-imposed Continuing Resolution Agreement was in effect. This meant that if the inventory was deemed a new project, it could not proceed during the current fiscal year, which was ending on 30 September 2012. Fortunately, the NWC Comptroller ruled that the inventory was not a “new” project. The Team worked diligently to compose and forward to his Office the required documentation: a Statement of Work, a List of Evaluation Factors, a Request for Contractual Procurement and a Justification for Priority Review Letter. Bids were solicited and in November an Evaluation Board was convened to review/rate the competitors. Contract Award: The contract was awarded to an experienced, international supplier of inventory counting and merchandising services, who would provide all materials and equipment. Besides the manager, the workforce consisted of 27 well-trained, full time, permanent employees who would be transported, on-time, to/from the inventory location. The company would use its own Wi-Fi frequency to speed data flow from the scanners to a central server and would not interfere with the NWC network. Inventory tags would be hung on each range and all barcoded items would be scanned, counted, and the numbers recorded on these tags. Four reports would be generated – an inventory report, a missing items report, an out-of-order report, and an exceptions report – and delivered to us within three weeks. Funds from the library’s operating budget would cover the inventory expense. The inventory was scheduled for December 2012. D-Day Approaches: E-mails were sent to the NWC community to announce the Library’s decision to inventory its collection and large screen TVs around NWC streamed information about the upcoming inventory. Signs were placed on both the circulation and reference desks. Duplicate barcodes were placed on phase boxes so they would not have to be opened during the inventory process. “Best practices” for inventorying items in the Rare Book Collection were identified, such as wearing cotton gloves when handling fragile materials. The Systems Librarian created a master file of the items to be inventoried. Circulation requested the return of all charged out materials, which were then re-shelved and nothing would circulate during the inventory. Only the 111

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first floor of the library, where the OPACs, Reference Collection, newspapers, current and bound journals are located, would be accessible to patrons. A second inventory reminder was e-mailed right before the holiday recess. The inventory was scheduled for late December since the majority of students and faculty would be on leave. As the inventory date neared, the contractor requested a sample of barcodes for testing and an onsite test was conducted on December 21st which revealed that our latest file had not been uploaded into their computer. All “bugs” were remedied to our satisfaction and on December 26th, we sent them our master file, closed our catalog, and all circulation and cataloging activity ceased. Library staff were instructed to assist the inventory crew by answering all questions and by setting all problem materials on carts for further review. D-Day, December 27th … Vans transported the workers from their headquarters in Massachusetts to the Naval Station’s Pass Office for “vetting” – a requirement for access onto the Newport Naval Base. The next day, 25 employees returned and on the final day, the number fell to 10. Mother Nature and Other Surprises: A Nor’easter roared overnight into Day One of the inventory with wind gusts of 44mph. Rain fell locally while the rest of the state had snow. NWC scheduled roof repairs on an adjoining building for December 28th and 29th which meant the inventory crew had to find alternate parking. The Team also learned that the Naval Base’s main gate would be closed to all traffic on the 29th, with vehicles being rerouted through another gate. Snow began falling by late morning on Saturday, increasing in intensity as the afternoon wore on. The inventory crew was unable to return on Sunday due to other obligations, so they worked until the inventory was completed around 7pm. A total of 213,763 items were scanned. Observations: Since the company’s expertise was in retail inventory, it was not familiar with some unique items to be inventoried, and therefore underestimated the amount of time and number of employees needed to efficiently conduct our library’s inventory. With weather conditions steadily deteriorating throughout Saturday afternoon, the employees worked quickly to finish up the inventory before facing a 3-hour commute back to their headquarters. Subsequently, entire shelves containing smaller documents and pamphlets were not scanned and items were returned to some shelves haphazardly, sometimes backwards and out of call number order. The Library Inventory Team identified several non-scanned areas/shelves and determined that the oversight was significant enough to warrant a return visit by the Inventory Manager. The Library left the inventory tags intact and the Inventory Manager returned on January 16th to “void” and rescan all erroneous tags 112

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and scan the missed sections. Another report was run to give us a more accurate account of our holdings. With all scanning problems rectified, payment for the inventory, as specified in the contract, was authorized. LESSONS LEARNED: Be Prepared – Weed the collection before the inventory. Shelf-read the stacks to ensure items are in call number order. Placement of barcodes on all library materials should be consistent. All materials, including phase boxed books, should have barcodes on the outside so they don’t have to be opened during the inventory. Staff – Proactively define the tasks and expectations for staff involvement in the inventory process. For instance, have staff look for anything out of order, straighten books on the shelves, etc. after the inventory crew has finished scanning a row. Utilize staff to the maximum extent possible. Anticipate problems; inform the inventory company of any library idiosyncrasies that could affect the scan. Library barcodes differ from publishers’ ISBNs or a retailer’s SKU. Contracts – Plan, plan, plan. Contracts require careful, critical wording and exact specifications. It is time-consuming. Allow enough time from the bidding process to the contract award. It is imperative to lock in an inventory time on the contractor’s calendar. Security – Know your library’s security regulations and inform the inventory contractor. If “vetting” is required, have the contractor supply all employee information well in advance of the projected inventory date. Our customary 5-day lead time was insufficient for vetting a large number of workers, so we began the process in late November. Even so, one worker was denied access to the base and several others were detained because they arrived without proper photo identification. All workers were issued day passes, wore “library” inventory badges and were accompanied at all times by staff. Rare Book Collection – Because items in this collection were both fragile and valuable, library staff worked one-on-one with the inventory crew. They wore white cotton gloves and opened books, pulling tombstones for the inventory crew to scan. It was a slow process. Lighting – Our library stacks have lighting sensors. We contacted our Facilities Department to deactivate lighting sensors during the inventory because they would activate when someone entered a given row and then switch off if no movement was detected, leaving that person in darkness. First Aid – Have a First Aid kit available for emergencies. Workers may suffer paper cuts, encounter rusty staples, sharp covers, etc. and require a 113

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bandage. Be observant. Books might fall from shelves and step stools could become trip-hazards. The Missing Report – Problem items, enough to fill eleven book trucks, were sorted into categories: broken spines; fragile or damaged items; spine label errors; call number errors; barcode issues. Problems that required review and action by designated library staff included: 

     

Barcode problems included wrong barcodes, no barcodes, incomplete barcodes, double (different) barcodes on single item, same barcode on two different books, same barcode on two books with same title, OCLC number instead of barcode. Bound volumes had new barcodes affixed to them after the original barcode was “lost” during the binding process. The records in the catalog needed correcting. Individual periodical issues were barcoded when only the bound volumes should have been. Barcode placement varied. Barcodes were placed on material in the pocket of the book in addition to the back cover; sometimes it was a totally different barcode. Some barcoded materials had incorrect location codes which made physically locating the item challenging. “Dummies” in the correct call number location on the shelf, signifying that the item was oversized and actually on the bottom shelf, were either skipped or missed. Missing items were referred to Collection Development for replacement or deaccessioning.

Conclusion – The physical inventory was completed by mid-January 2013. From the scan of over 213K items, 1,600 were declared missing. The goal of accounting for all materials in our catalog was accomplished. The next step is to identify our collection’s strengths and weaknesses by having a subject analysis done. When we inventory again, we will definitely be mindful of the above-mentioned lessons learned. The NWC Library is sharing its inventory journey, hopeful that other libraries will learn from our experience, have a better understanding of what an inventory entails, be thoroughly prepared for the task, and realize the importance and necessity of teamwork. _______ Notes 1. Speech to the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, January 23, 1967.

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Application of Non-Traditional Principles to Library and Information Science for Digital Information Projects By Wanda C Dávila-Barreto, Digital Assets Manager & Project Manager, Food and Drug Administration

Introduction The digital age has given us new ways to create, track, share, and preserve information which has also created other issues in the preservation of digital information. These issues however, will not be discussed in this article. To keep up with changing technology, librarians are borrowing practices from other disciplines that have been tried-and-true to achieve success in technologically-driven projects. These practices can boost our deliverables to better package the information we are striving to make accessible. In the digital age a large part of accessing and using information is affected by both the user experience and the intuitiveness of the user interface (UI). This article explores the use of practices outside the discipline of traditional library and information science to projects for accessing digital information. To illustrate the positive impact of these practices I will use examples from projects conducted at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, specifically an in-house repository project to which we apply library and non-library practices. Our information environment The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH)5, a center within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)6, works to protect and promote public health through the use of medical devices. Within CDRH a small group of librarians works at the Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories (OSEL)7 to provide better access to the information which OSEL needs to meet its mission in a more time-efficient way. At OSEL we take advantage of the tools made available at FDA, like Microsoft SharePoint, to better share information. We have also implemented the use of open source tools, such as DSpace, to improve OSEL’s offerings to its researchers and improve information and knowledge management practices.

5

http://www.fda.gov/Medical Devices http://www.fda.gov/ 7 http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofMedicalProductsandTobacco/CDRH/CDRHOffices/ucm115 989.htm 6

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Connecting with stakeholders It is imperative that before, during, and after a project is begun stakeholders are included in the process. Stakeholders who are actively involved can help make a technology project successful and accepted into current and new processes. To achieve this, we have met with division directors and staff members at different points in the project. In a project that seeks to produce a product that fits into or substitutes for an existing process, it may be necessary to meet often with those people involved in the process. Exploring practices outside the traditional realm There are many practices that librarians already follow to ensure information is delivered successfully to users. Additionally, there are other practices that can be followed to increase the success and organization of a digital project. One of these practices is project management8. There are various approaches to project management, each of which can be determined for use based on the type of project being pursued. At CDRH we choose to follow an Agile System Development Life Cycle for our digital projects. This approach allows the use of short sprints or iterations that produce completed usable sections and testing of completed products throughout the length of the project. We chose this approach after exploring our options through informational interviews with practitioners, searching the literature, obtaining training and utilizing online resources. To facilitate project management we used Microsoft Project and Microsoft SharePoint to help track our progress and team deliverables. In an agile approach tasks are repeated throughout the project to complete sprints or iterations. Here are some of the practices that are part of project management we followed to complete our tasks to provide products that improve the user experience: Business analytics Business analytics (BA) iteratively looks at an institution’s data and business needs to build products that align with the mission and forecast success. BA uses the data gathered on the processes performed by target users to make informed decisions on improving these and the products being offered. Within BA, requirement analysis is conducted to gather information on what type of product we need to complete and how it should be packaged. In the repository projects conducted by our group of librarians at CDRH we apply BA extensively at the beginning of each project to set a scope and gather user requirements. Throughout the project, BA is applied to ensure we are continuously meeting user needs

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and applying any flexibility necessary to accommodate unforeseen changes. Accessibility Access to information, or the lack thereof, is one of the first issues discussed in library and information science education and it’s an issue that excites many librarians. We librarians tend to have a natural yearning to work on these issues. Each user community has specific needs for types of information and how it is accessed. The focus of most of these conversations is on the type of information that is being accessed or is being limited. But before this can be addressed we need to provide a proper vehicle for all users in a community and provide accommodations to those with disabilities. In the federal government, the implementation of Section 508 rules in federal websites provides access to users with disabilities. As part of our digital projects we included the application of Section 508 rules and tested our digital products for Section 508 compliance. Usability evaluation Any technologically-driven project should have an evaluation9 to measure its usefulness and determine additional needs. This includes evaluating the content itself and the intuitiveness of the interface. In a successful technology project this evaluation should happen often and at key moments. This can help team members apply changes as needed to roll out a product that users will find relevant and effective. Please see Suggested Resources below for further information on these practices. Conclusion The dissemination of information in this so-called digital age is still in evolution. To keep up with this it is necessary for information professionals to explore techniques and methods that may not have been part of library school education but that are a natural fit for our profession. As more librarians engage in digital projects, non-traditional practices may soon be viewed as part of the many applied practices in the library and archival sciences. With our knowledge of information organization we can contribute to other disciplines and share with our users better information management principles. By implementing non-traditional principles of information management, we can help fill gaps and clarify overlaps of information that cost institutions time, money and knowledge.

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As we continue to practice non-traditional approaches to digital information projects, we gather valuable lessons. Through our work within CDRH we have learned that applying non-traditional principles have opened the doors to more involvement in projects and professional growth opportunities that would not be possible within strictly traditional librarian roles. As new projects are placed in our queue, we should seek more knowledge and exploration of non-traditional approaches as well as learning opportunities to refine our skills. Suggested resources Project Management Institute. (2004). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Newtown Square: Project Management Institute, Inc. Section508.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2013, from http://section508.gov/ Witten, I. H., Brainbridge, D., & Nichols, D. M. (2003). How to build a digital library. Burlington: Morgan Kauffman Publishers. Usability.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2013, from http://www.usability.gov/ Section 508, an amendment to the United States Workforce Rehabilitation Act of 1973, is a federal law mandating that all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the federal government be accessible to people with disabilities. [from http://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/Section-508]

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Innovation: It’s in the DNA By James King, Information Architect, NIH Library What do we, as information professionals, need to do in order to survive and thrive in the 21st Century? How do we respond to challenges from the likes of Thomas Friedman who demonstrate that “average is over”? Can we learn from the organizations that are driving disruptive change in the industry to see how to adapt our organizations, our profession and our careers to this brave new world? In the “The Innovator’s DNA” (Dyer, Gregersen, and Christensen; Harvard Business Review, December 2009), Harvard studied the people behind some of the most innovative and disruptive business strategies (Amazon, Apple, eBay, etc.) in the world and found five skills that CAN BE LEARNED and serve as a model for us to survive and thrive in the digital era. The five discovery skills or “Innovator’s DNA” are questioning, observing, experimenting, networking, and associating. Not only do I agree with their findings about these traits, but I also realize that we can learn and develop these, and that my involvement with SLA helps me strive towards each of them. Questioning – asking questions to dig deeper Questioning often reveals sacred cows and entrenched traditions that are holding us back from improved ways of serving our customers or streamlining our back office operations. Having well-researched facts about how other organizations operate and how executives view our profession (as is described in the SLA Alignment report) I can be better prepared to ask questions about why certain practices or processes are still being observed in my organization. Observing – watching the world around us By observing and studying our customers and other organizations around us, we can learn many valuable lessons and change our services for the better. With the diversity of SLA’s division programs at the SLA Annual Conference, and interesting local DC/SLA chapter events, we have the opportunity to observe how other industries are adapting in the digital age. In addition, reading articles from a variety of sources or following the Twitter posts like mine from the Information Futurist Caucus (#SLAKINF) can also help us to monitor the rapidly-changing information industry.

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Experimenting – willing to try new things Willingness to experiment is a critical trait of an innovative person and a willingness to risk failure is a hallmark of an innovative organization. Involvement in chapters or divisions can encourage experimentation by providing a “safe haven” without a direct risk to your pay or benefits. Through volunteer efforts with SLA, we can build our skills in running meetings, managing work teams, building proficiency in managing webinars and even building technology skills such as WordPress Web site management. Networking – building relationships with peers Networking is probably one of the hallmarks of participation in conferences or attending local chapter events. Having an opportunity to build relationships with peers, find mentors, interact with new and existing information providers, and make new friends is the key to building a professional community that people want to be a part of. Even with the growth of social media, our virtual relationships are stronger with a face-to-face foundation which can happen at the annual conference and in local chapter events. Those networks can provide a mentor, a friend, or even a future job prospect. Global associations like SLA also allow members to network globally which helps to broaden our perspective and to further question some of our assumptions. As a result of this networking, I have people I can call on from around the world and have been forced to rethink some of my assumptions about key issues. Associating – creating connections The final skill of Innovators DNA is associating which pulls together the four actions (questioning, observing, experimenting, and networking) to create new connections. Those mental connections are the spark of innovation and have spawned new business processes and changed the world. For example, modern medical sonogram technology finds its roots in a desire to detect underwater objects in response to the sinking of the Titanic in 1912 (http://www.radiologytoday.net/archive/rt_120108p28.shtml). Learning from others who have made unconventional associations to create new services for our customers helps us to exercise that “associating” muscle ourselves and overcome potential blind spots. Building a culture that allows and encourages these innovative traits at both the manager level and employee level will challenge traditional leadership and traditional librarianship but will result in a more relevant and innovative organization. Whether we have the support where we are or not, are we taking advantage of the opportunities available to us through SLA to build these innovative traits or simply running the treadmill to retirement? 120

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James King was the 2010 President of the Washington, DC Chapter, SLA Fellow, and is the long-time convener of the Information Futurists Caucus. He is the Chapter Cabinet Chair Elect on the SLA Board of Directors. [http://about.me/edit/cmndr_king]

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Mobile Solutions from LexisNexis

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E-Gov on the Web: A Brief Summary of Electronic Access Through On-Line Resources By Jennifer Klang, Head of Reference Services, U.S. Department of the Interior Library Electronic media – the internet, smart phones, e-books – are all great inventions and “initiatives.” These new technologies and services come with a new set of challenges, however. As information professions we must strike a balance between providing value and service and the tendency to fall into the dreaded “time-sink” of the endless Google search. As users of new media, we need to find a way to integrate new media formats effectively into our lives, without allowing them to take over. As a reference librarian I have noticed that users, increasingly, want their answers quickly and formatted in a concise, easy-to-use manner. Some users don’t mind dabbling a bit or experimenting as they move through the internet. Customers in our library now find themselves working on projects on all sort of media devices, and often from the road. The lines between work and personal time have become blurred. However, as information professionals we need to be aware of the how we are using our time. Making ourselves more efficient, in turn, makes us more valuable to our institutions. When I was considering this year’s topic “E-Initiatives and E-Efforts,” it reminded me of my own struggle to find new ways to provide greater value to my institution and my profession. It also brought to mind a class that I teach at the Department of the Interior Library on Useful Federal Government Resources. I always enjoy teaching this course. It is a great opportunity for me to offer some tips and new resources to those who attend, and the students always seem to have other great resources to offer. It also provides me with an opportunity to update my arsenal of great government resources and discuss updates and changes to existing sites. In this article, I plan to focus on three great government-related resources that I use regularly and that are discussed in my course. I believe that these resources represent the crossroads where government and e-efforts meet. As government transitions into an electronic age of digital information, resources like these will lead the way. Some are provided directly through federal government agencies while others are offered by education institutions. They successfully attempt to meet the growing demand for more transparent government and greater access to information, while maintaining free access to all citizens of the world. Thomas is often one of the first resources I mention as a valuable tool for federal government information. Thomas is a great (and up-to-date) resource for bills, laws, and Congressional documents of all sorts. It 126

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provides a variety of Congressional documents, with both citation and fulltext access. Many files date back to the late 1980’s, however full-text access is generally limited to items produced since the 1990’s. Thomas also provides a great resource for tracking bills as they move through the Congressional process, as well as links to House and Senate Calendars. Visitors to the site will find text of Congressional Record Floor Debates, Hearings, Reports, Public Laws, Roll Call Votes and even Treaties. This database is one of the best examples of government e-initiatives. It is regularly updated and revised and has become a great free resource for the public. Particularly in cash-strapped times like these, Thomas has become a free go-to resource for organizations that follow Congressional legislation. At the Department of the Interior Library we receive a large number of reference questions regarding Native American issues. The questions we receive range from genealogy questions tracing a family’s heritage to information on legal issues for transfers of land allotments on tribal lands. While we don’t provide legal assistance, we can offer suggestions for resources. One such resource we frequently recommend for those organizations or individuals on a budget for background legal information is the Oklahoma State University. The digital library collection available through the library’s website contains Indian Claims Commission Decisions and Kappler’s Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties. For those that aren’t familiar with these resources, both provide important materials for Native American legal research as well as an opportunity to familiarize oneself with Indian affairs more generally. The Indian Claims Commission was created by the Act of August 13, 1946 to hear claims of “any Indian tribe, band, or other identifiable group of American Indians” against the United States. The Act provides broad grounds for recovery, including claims based on “unconscionable consideration” for tribal lands which were taken and “claims based on fair and honorable dealing not recognized by any existing rule of law or equity.” This description is taken from the title volume of the decisions set, a 43 volume set which includes an index where users can locate documents by either subject, tribe or docket number. Within the decisions, users will find orders, opinions, final awards (where applicable) and Findings of Fact related to tribes. OSU also provides access to additional resources of interest in Native American Law. Kappler’s is also a valuable resource for Indian legal documents. It can be used to locate nearly every law and treaty inked between Native American tribes and the US Federal Government. It covers treaties between 1778-1883, as well as Public Laws from 1902-1971. It also provides complete copies of Executive Orders related to Indian Reserves and Presidential Proclamations related to tribes. The final website that will be mentioned here is the Cornell Legal Information Institute – a terrific e-initiative providing access to a large number of legal items at no cost to the public. Visit this site, affiliated with the university, to view US Code, Federal Rules of Civil Procedures, Federal Rules of Criminal 127

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Procedures, Code of Federal Regulations, Supreme Court Opinions and a great deal more. The site offers vast amounts of content, including a wonderful legal dictionary/encyclopedia called Wex. Many of the definitions available through Wex are provided by the Nolo Plain-English Legal Dictionary – another free on-line favorite for those conducting legal research. Definitions are also provided with subject indexing, linking them with other related topics that might be of interest to the user. One example is found in the definition of “a priori” which means that a particular idea is taken as a known. Additional subject headings are assigned to “a priori” such as civil procedure, courts and procedure and criminal law and procedure. Wex also provides articles on legal subjects citing major related cases and offering suggestions for additional or related information. These 3 initiatives are just a sample of all the great (free) electronic services and offerings available on the web. These services are an invitation to provide your users with guidance in useful resources and materials. As information professionals, we are trained to review resources. We are able to consider their value to our users, and their overall worth. We can also serve as a bridge between the worlds of “fee and free.” Our experience and knowledge of electronic resources can benefit our users as we guide them to the best resources – based on both need and cost. Paid databases offer services that free sites cannot, and we can teach our users when (and how) to use these resources. At the Department of the Interior Library we are frequently asked about access to full-text resources. The value provided to users by paid databases that offer these types of materials is often apparent in the time and frustration that they save our customers. As information professionals move into a future filled with new innovations (and distractions) we should strive to remind our organizations of the value of our skills. We need to demonstrate that we understand the benefits and costs of different services and how to best provide access to them. We also need to continue to keep up on the latest innovations and technologies, without getting caught up in the hype. In the “final analysis,” libraries will need to find lasting solutions to problems of accessibility and document retrieval in an increasingly electronic world. We owe it to the future of our profession to concentrate our future efforts in a positive and productive way; and in a way that brings meaning and order to the chaos of information and the Internet age. Jennifer Klang is the Head of Reference Services at the Department of the Interior Library in Washington, DC.

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Houston, We’ve got a Problem: Moving from face-to-face training to online By Suzanne Morrison, Branch Librarian, U.S. Courts, 8th Circuit

During these budget crunching times, training is moving out of the classroom, away from the face-to-face module into the online virtual world. As a passionate face-to-face trainer who feeds off the synergy of classroom students, I can vouch that this new shift is not without its pain and pitfalls. My advice for those being faced with this situation, though, is to get onboard and relish the adventure. The dice are tossed. The decision is made. The future stares at us. Embrace the challenge and enjoy the journey. Let’s explore some of the potential pitfalls. 1. Adjusting material and style to best communicate your ideas 2. Engaging and motivating the participants 3. Learning the features of the software platform

The demands on the facilitator in the virtual environment vs. the face to face classroom differ widely. Body language is nonexistent. Verbal cues are missing. Are the participants paying attention to the screen or catching up on emails? As facilitators, we need to pay particular attention to concentrating on the course material and on our communication skills. Keep in mind the following: 





Voice Vary your speed and cadence. Participants become very focused on their facilitator’s voice. Allow enthusiasm for your subject to come through and engage your audience. Dump the filler language by slowing down your pace, taking a deep breath between thoughts, and deleting the “umms” from your vocabulary. Do not “think out loud” and bore your participants with mindless chatter. Short, clear, concise sentences are needed to relay your information. Even better, try working with two facilitators. This gives you the opportunity to vary the tonal qualities of the production while introducing a new synergy into the production. Pace Vary the pace but remember to carefully enunciate and allow your participants time to digest the information you are providing. When asking a question, permit time for the participants to “think” about their answer and pause. If this is difficult for you, silently count to ten before opening up the discussion. Material Be a master of your material. Your expertise steers the participants down the path that you have designed for them. Let your objectives lead the way. 129

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Your skillful knowledge allows you to speak freely, not robotically, and NOT read from a script. (This does not mean that you should go without a script, though. Always prepare one and keep it handy. This ensures that you do not stray from the subject and can be back on target quickly if needed.) Please do not make the mistake of reading from the script nor from the slides. Nothing is deadlier in the virtual environment. Keep the slides short and clean of clutter, avoiding a deadly word dump. Move the slides along and do not allow them to linger too long on the screen. Feel free to include graphics that add meaning, but keep them pertinent to the material.

Engaging our participants raises the bar when moving to a virtual platform. Thankfully, there are numerous methods of doing this. We can increase interaction by using the available tools. Try some of the following: 









Whiteboard At the beginning of the session, introduce the class to the virtual world by engaging them in chat while using a whiteboard activity. Ask a simple question as everyone is signing on: What is your favorite hobby? What do you expect to get out of class today? What do you know about today’s topic? Let them play and make comments on the whiteboard. Greet them as they come online keeping the atmosphere fun and light. Once class begins, introduce everyone to the tools available on their screen. Chat Encourage them to use chat to ask questions. Try to monitor it during the presentation and answer questions as they arise. Raising your hand Tell them that you will be asking for volunteers to raise their hand during class in response to questions. Assure them that you are not above calling on someone when no one volunteers. (If possible, keep track of who you have called on so you can engage everyone in the conversation by the end of the class.) Polling Use polls and surveys to keep the participants engaged. Give them a few moments to answer the question and then refresh the poll to allow for immediate feedback. Breakouts Use time to have a breakout with groups to discuss an assigned scenario or question. Or, just take a few minutes for two or three individuals to explore this same situation in a private chat. Be innovative in presenting your material.

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Knowing your software platform is essential to a good production. I encourage everyone to work with a producer if at all possible. 





A producer works behind the scenes to make sure that the technology is moving smoothly and is available for any participant that has a problem with a glitch. It also helps for the producer to monitor the chat area and to help the facilitator stay on top of it. Keep in mind that when dealing with technology, especially when there are numerous individuals logged in at numerous sites, there will be glitches. It is the nature of this environment. Prepare for it and greet it with good humor. Think fast on your feet and move forward to another activity or try something different. Practice, practice, practice. This is paramount to your success. Practice your material and have someone critique your material and style. Practice all the tools available on the software that you plan on using to engage your participants. Record a session and listen to yourself. Always log into your software an hour prior to class. Check out the tools. Make sure that your slides are downloaded. Does that embedded video still work? Is the poll ready to pull up for the class? Checking and doublechecking your software and tools is no different than setting up your classroom prior to a face to face class.

Enjoy this new medium. Master it and learn how to maximize the learning experience for your participants. Remember that the Apollo 13 crisis and problems were later called “a successful failure” and “NASA’s finest hour.” President Nixon presented the entire crew with Presidential Medals of Freedom. I cannot promise you a medal, but I can promise you an exciting and exhilarating ride. I believe that expertise depends upon the developed ability to empathize and to act intuitively, combined with a strong motivation to teach well which arises from an unusual degree of integrity and commitment, and good will towards one’s students or pupils. We would like to think that our subject matter is so riveting that our participants never stray. Once again—get over it. It is our job to rein them in. Presenting online demands a different approach.

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Building Tours: A Case Study By Kera Winburn, Law Librarian, U.S. Department of Justice

*Note: The RFK building is not open to the public. Tours discussed in this article are for the employees of DOJ and their families. Traditional librarian duties typically bring to mind finding books and articles; cataloging; acquisitions; staffing reference desks; and developing training courses and programs. When the Internet came along the professional duties shifted somewhat and librarians found themselves creating and maintaining web pages; negotiating licenses for online databases; and navigating apps for the iPad and Android devices. With a constantly changing profession, it is not surprising that we find ourselves assuming new duties outside the traditional scope of librarianship. Oftentimes, a shift in duties provides us with the opportunity to bring new patrons into the library. An example of this occurred at the Department of Justice (DOJ) Libraries in May of 2009. At that time, the library staff was asked to start scheduling and giving tours of the Robert F. Kennedy building. Previously, this duty resided with the building maintenance component DOJ Main Library reference desk. Photo courtesy of Lonnie Tague. at DOJ, but this required staff members coming from another building to provide the tours. With library staff already working in the RFK building, it was natural to transfer this duty. The tour includes the history of the Department of Justice and the position of Attorney General along with the artwork in the RFK building. Main library staff began assuming the duties by going on a tour with the previous tour guide and unearthing a recording by a former library staffer from the early 90’s giving a tour. Both tours were transcribed by the staff to share with colleagues. Additionally, staff combed through books about the history of the Department and the artwork in the building to have the knowledge to provide the tour. The librarians established procedures for scheduling building tours that worked for the staff. This included having one librarian primarily assume the 132

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responsibility of scheduling tours, while another librarian was back-up for when they were out of the office. When a tour request is received, the tour coordinator sets the date and time, discusses the length of the tour, decides where the tour guide will meet the group, determines the number of participants and finds out whether any special accommodations are required for the tour. Additionally, the tour coordinator stresses that the tour is only of public portions of the building. All of this information is then included on the tour calendar, including the contact information for the person requesting the tour. Originally, the tour calendar was paper. The staff started using Outlook, which allowed everyone to know about upcoming tours.

Reference desk lamp. Photo courtesy of Lonnie Tague.

The next step in the process is for the tour coordinator to contact their colleagues at the main library and ask for a volunteer to provide the tour, as all the librarians are tour guides. Once a librarian agrees to be the tour guide, their name is added to the calendar appointment. Finally, the tour coordinator sends a calendar appointment to the tour guide and the person requesting the tour. Establishing the procedures for scheduling the tour included knowing the questions to ask the requestor and selecting the tour guide along with learning the history of the Department and the artwork in the building. It became a somewhat lengthy process. As a result, an unintended consequence occurred – marketing the library. Giving tours of the building increased exposure of the library and thereby the services librarians provide. In several instances, tour participants later approached library staff to request assistance on research projects. These were new patrons to the library. By taking a tour, employees became familiar with resources in the library. Also, the tour provided them with a contact in the library that they could ask for help with research projects. In turn, this allowed the library staff to further support the mission of the Department by providing relevant and up to date information.

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In the end, duties are constantly shifting, and we need to think outside the box to bring new patrons into the library. While the DOJ library staff had little say in assuming a non-traditional library duty, the outcome was very profitable for both the Library and the Department.

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Marketing the Library – One Office at a Time By Stacie Marinelli, Former Reference Librarian, National Library of Education, U.S. Department of Education If the library were a rocket ship floating through our galaxy, we could look down on earth and see a big spinning planet. Reentering the atmosphere, we'd begin to visualize the continents and seas - each land mass filled with different topographies, climates, and cultures. Back at home, we are faced with a comparable double perspective when we enter our agencies each day and consider how to communicate to our customers. On the one hand, we want to provide services to everyone in the whole institution (the spinning planet). On the other hand, we routinely provide specific types of services to fill the needs of individual branches or departments or offices (all the continents and the countries within them). The National Library of Education (NLE) has entered a period of revitalization, with a new Director and Managing Librarian, website redesigns, and a newly conceived collection. Our strategic plan includes reaching out to different offices and tailoring our services to their needs. While I've long been aware of the role of embedded librarians and have always reached out to individuals within offices to discern staff needs, the idea of small group interventions was another way for me to think about marketing. Before embarking on our new projects, I wanted to learn more about library marketing in order to better understand both available options and some possible barriers to success. Levels of library marketing When thinking about the two different levels of library marketing discussed above, the economics terms "micro" and "macro" came to mind, but I discovered that marketers generally use the terms mass marketing and segmented (or targeted) marketing. "The process of dividing your entire universe of library users into groups based on common profiles and common wants and needs is called segmentation… The objective of segmenting your library users is to find one or more distinct, identifiable groups that are small enough for you to become an expert on their…needs." (Fisher et al., 2006, p. 44). Marketing the library involves both the far off and the up close views of our workplaces. It can involve spreading promotional materials as far and wide as we can, inviting everyone to open houses and classes, developing a large scope collection, and in general reaching out to the whole agency. Mass marketing is important – we want everyone to know where the library is and what we can do for them – but it can be time consuming, costly, and not 135

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always effective in getting the message across. Promoting services to an entire organization with one message can also leave out the more specific needs of entities within the agency. Building the library's reputation "country by country," zeroing in on specific departments or clientele, can often be more expedient and successful. I wish someone would write a book about library marketing in government agencies, because the majority of library marketing books I was able to find were about college and public libraries, whose needs, funds, and strategies differ greatly from those of government libraries. While government librarians have given marketing presentations at SLA conferences and articles in previous Best Practices for Government Librarians have covered the topic, there doesn't seem to be a comprehensive book that looks honestly and comprehensively at government library marketing. The vastness and complexities of a government agency necessitate new marketing approaches. Communication with thousands of people, many working on vastly different endeavors, and the frequent perspective of "silos" (each office working on its own, even when missions overlap) make mass marketing difficult. And while all types of libraries have some of the same issues (e.g., college students as well as federal employees default to Google rather than use the library's many commercial databases), barriers for large agencies also include lack of visibility (for both physical and online locations), web browser firewalls, and funding issues, to name a few. In order to adapt to the constraints of government agencies, librarians must be creative in coming up with strategies. Marketing, One Office at a Time Directed by management, NLE library staff has implemented a targeted marketing plan that involves making contact with different offices and developing presentations focused on specific client needs. Preliminary planning required that decisions were made on a variety of issues, including how to choose the offices upon which to focus and who to contact to find out if office staff members were interested in meeting with us. We also considered ways to effectively utilize library staff expertise and how to develop each onsite presentation. Once we set meeting dates, we prepared our presentation and handouts. The handouts I've put together included contact information, URLs of our main intranet sites, an outline of the services we offer (literature reviews, citation searching, document delivery, setting up alerts, data retrieval, value-added packets, instruction, legal searches, etc.), available resources (books, databases, and other online materials), and our willingness to tailor these services to the needs of the office. I also developed sample bibliographies for some of the areas covered by that particular office, along with a list of relevant websites, associations, and journals. These packets 136

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were emailed to meeting participants and print copies were also passed out during presentations. Meetings have been conducted in person and with attendees joining by audio or videoconference. In one case, we had several people pictured on a screen in addition to the group in the meeting room. After presenting an overview of resources and services, the rest of the meeting always consists of a whole lot of listening. Many times attendees didn't know we could do certain things for them until we detailed our services. Other times, attendees surprised us by asking if we could perform tasks or initiate projects for them that we hadn't considered, but that were certainly within the scope of our services. After each meeting, I always followed up by sending a summary of what was discussed, the needs expressed by meeting attendees and proposals for future projects. Participants were asked to confirm these meeting summaries and to prioritize projects from the list of proposed activities. NLE staff met to discuss meetings and outline future strategies. Here is an overview of steps we've taken when developing a focused office presentation:     



Made contact with department liaisons and set up meetings with interested parties. Prepared packets tailored to each office to distribute to meeting attendees. Met with individual offices to explain library services and hear staff ideas. Sent follow up emails after meetings to summarize what took place and asked attendees for confirmation that we had captured what they expressed. Met with library staff to discuss the best ways to deliver the services requested by offices. Created implementation plans, taking into account staff expertise and interests. Could these plans be put into action now or would new resources or training be needed? Kept the lines of communication open with staff from each office.

Marketing the library is an ongoing process. Over the months, we have developed a network of contacts and have met with staff eager to work with us. Our focused marketing is bringing more departments to our attention and they are asking for novel services. By concentrating on groups of staffers who need our services, we've also started to create communities, linking clients with whom we've met with to staff members in other divisions who are involved in related work. We haven't forgotten the importance of mass marketing that could raise NLE's visibility agency-wide, but as we make ourselves known in small group 137

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meetings, staff in offices who have met with us have spread the word among their divisions. With these encouraging results behind us, we plan to continue to market the NLE – one office at a time.

Some recommended reading: 1 - Fisher, Patricia H., Pride, Marseille M., & Miller, Ellen G. (2006) Blueprint for Your Library Marketing Plan: A Guide to Help You Survive And Thrive. Chicago: American Library Association. 2 - The secret of marketing your library. (2013) Colorado Libraries, 36(4). Presented at CALCON 2012, Colorado Association of Libraries' 2012 conference. Retrieved from http://coloradolibrariesjournal.org/articles/calcon-2012secret-marketing-your-library 3 - Doucett, Elisabeth. (2010) What They Don't Teach You in Library School. Chicago: American Library Association. 4 - Marketing and Advocacy Resources Bibliography from the Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/flicc/bibliography2.pdf

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Coordinating With Librarians - Remembering to play nice By David E. McBee, M.L.S. Several years ago a friend and I were talking about another librarian. My friend made the comment that this other librarian was odd. I asked, “Is he really strange or is he just library odd?” Over the course of my twenty-five years of working in libraries, visiting libraries and attending library conference, I have come to the realization that librarians on the whole are a pretty odd lot. Before anyone takes offense – be assured that I count myself among the odd. Of course, being odd is part of what makes us interesting and part of what takes us into the realms of research and reference. That’s why many of us think outside the box. Some of us don’t even see the box! Appreciating our differences: We are all different. Some of us are extroverts; some of us are introverts. After taking a Myers-Briggs exam (there are several free ones online – or visit http://www.myersbriggs.org/), I learned that I am an Introvert. Then I read the descriptions of the various facets and combinations. Lo and behold! There’s nothing wrong with being an Introvert. It is useful to know what our type is and understand the people around us so we can work better as a team. Yes – we all have to be part of a team. Even solo librarians work with other people. I am an introvert who has learned to be an extrovert. Sometimes I have to psych myself up to attend a party and interact with people. And then I need some serious downtime. The point of taking the Myers-Briggs exam is to learn better how you work and how you can be more effective with your colleagues. It helps if other members of your staff take the exam so everyone can learn to work together more effectively. There are other ways of accomplishing this – find what works best for your group. The important thing to understand is that everyone on the staff is a little different. They will each approach the same task in a slightly different manner. Respecting our differences: When I was working as a cataloger the library hired a director of Technical Services. She wanted to sit down with me and review my work procedures. I had a moment of resentment. I had been doing my job for over a year 139

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and I didn’t need anyone telling me what to do. Fortunately the moment passed. I considered that was now her job to supervise me so she needed to see what I did. And, since she had a lot more experience in libraries than I did, I just might learn something from her. In fact, I learned a lot from her – including how to be gracious to staff members who can be resentful. She was always fair and showed respect for all of her colleagues. Get acquainted: In June I attended the SLA Annual Conference in San Diego. The highlight of the conference for me was a presentation by Capt. Winston Smith, USN, Commander of the San Diego Naval Base. So much of what he said resonated with me and what I have been trying to do over the past year. He says he spends 1/3 of his time visiting the ships at the navy base, 1/3 of his time meeting with the tenants and other commands on the base, and 1/3 of his time outside the fence – engaging with the local communities. These visits aren’t inspection tours – he wants to know the people and them to know him so he can be approachable and better understand their needs. So, in a library we should spend 1/3 of our time with our colleagues, 1/3 with our customers and 1/3 with our administrative stakeholders. Some of these interactions will be formal such as staff meetings and presentations. But don’t forget the informal – grabbing a cup of coffee or sharing lunch. Find connections with others that don’t involve classification schedules or acquisitions. But when you are working with your staff – make sure they know you appreciate what they are doing. Remind them how their work fits into the big picture and serves the mission of the organization. Know thyself: This is an aphorism that dates to Ancient Greece. And we still forget its importance! Again I recall something that Capt. Smith said in his presentation in June What is your psychological driver? Identify your own strengths and weaknesses. When we know our strengths we are free to let others be strong too. Another person’s expertise isn’t viewed as a threat when I know that I have my own expertise. Hopefully our expertise is complementary and we can learn from each other. When we combine our efforts we can accomplish more for our organization.

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Putting it into practice: A year ago I started a new job. I am a director of an agency library program. I give support and policy guidance to my libraries but I have no supervisory authority over them. They are themselves a consortium – each is independent of the other. They are funded and supervised locally. Fortunately I have a boss who sees the importance of my visiting the libraries and meeting with the librarians and the local supervisory and command staff. This has helped me to understand the work in each of the libraries as well as get to know my librarians. A few months before I started one of the librarians organized a monthly conference call to coordinate work on the eJournals resource. I was surprised to learn that this was a recent development. In addition to visits to the districts to meet the librarians, I started a weekly email to update everyone on what I was doing and sharing any agency information that I knew of. I usually get some feedback on those –so that tells me that they are reading the messages. My agency has several librarians who have been on board for many years. I have made an effort to reach out to them to learn the history of the agency as well as the particular history of the library program. They have been a big help and have saved me from making several mistakes. They have pointed out matters of protocol as well as practical matters of working with the Department of Defense. Email has become my default means of contacting people. I have had to overcome that and pick up the phone and talk to my colleagues. The personal meetings with my librarians and the personal phone calls have been the biggest asset to me in working with them and learning how to best support them in their work. Nothing can beat that personal touch. I learn a great deal by meeting others and it reminds me that I still have a lot to learn. I encourage other librarians to be constant learners. Learn from others at all levels of experience. One librarian I know is also a potter. She tells me that she is always intrigued to watch a novice potter throw clay on the wheel for the first time. It allows her to observe an untrained approach and gauge what her instruction might be for that person. And sometimes she learns something new. -----About the author: David E. McBee is currently Command Librarian with the US Army Corps of Engineers. Mr. McBee’s comments are his personal thoughts and he does not speak for the Corps of Engineers 141

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or the Department of Defense. When he has time he updates his blog – www.librarybuzz.blogspot.com.

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LexisNexis SmartWatch

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The Archives at the Secretary of State of Honduras: It’s Rescue, Recent and Future Development By Nilda Lizeth Lopez Fernandez, Legal Advisor and Coordinator for Historic Archives at Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Honduras

I.

Introduction

The President of the Republic directs the foreign policy of Honduras; it befalls on the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Honduras the task of carrying out the mandate. On January 11, 1839, the Constituent Assembly in the presence of President Juan Lindo and Vice President Dionisio de Herrera decided that the Executive Power would carry out its work through three Ministries (now Secretaries of State), namely, Foreign Relations, Defense, and Treasury. According to Oscar Acosta, Honduran writer, journalist, anthologist, essayist, diplomat, and scholar, the article “The Foreign Secretaries of Honduras” the first time the position is held as Minister for Foreign Affairs, from September 25, 1824 to April 6, 1826, corresponds to General Jose Francisco Morazán Quesada.

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From that moment on Honduran history registers the participation of the government entity that is now known as Secretary of State for Foreign Relations. According to the Memory of the Foreign Secretary for 1950, the position of Librarian is registered; position which we assume is tasked with the work of organizing administrative, diplomatic, consular documentation in addition to the books and periodicals related to the topic. Over the period of many years the Secretary was located in different buildings, which created a situation of constant movements from one location to another and a constant reorganization of documents. The last one of these processes took place in 1998, where the Secretary is currently located. Despite the efforts of different government administrations, the identification and management of the archives could not be accomplished. Throughout most of its existence the historiography of Honduras, with very few exceptions, has enjoyed the access to the documents and archives of the Secretary. In December of 2009, the basement of the building where the archives and documents were deposited was flooded. It is at this time that the authorities decided to rescue the institutional memory thus located. It is through this short presentation that I wish to present to you at this time, the efforts to rescue and manage the existing documentary patrimony of Honduras at the Secretary of Foreign Affairs.

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Archives of the Foreign Secretary before 2009 II.

Rescue and Management

The Constitution of the Republic of Honduras (1982) establishes the protection on behalf of the State of all the historic patrimony promoting its defense, conservation and dissemination. It is in this sense that, that the Law for the Protection of the Cultural Patrimony of the nation, Congressional decree 220-97, establishes that cultural patrimony acquire their true value only when their precise history, origin, context are divulged for the knowledge of the entire population. The law established that the documentary and bibliographical heritage is part of the Cultural patrimony of Honduras and therefore, must be protected by means of conservation, rescue, restoration, investigation and information 148

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to future generations. In the year 2008 the bill for the Creation of Archives was presented to the National Congress of Honduras. It is yet to be approved. In this context, it is important to say that the Transparency and Access to Information Law (2006) requires that each government institution preserve and safeguard public information, including confidential information, obtained or generated in the carrying out of functions, as long as it has administrative or judicial value, or for a period of not less than five (5) years. In so doing, the requirements for transparency expected from the government institutions will be met, allowing the citizens to know how public action came about, allowing their participation in decision making processes and generating confidence in the carryout of government. In addition, the National Archive System is created through which the Institute for Access to Public Information will be able to support to the National Archive with respect to the formation and protection of national documentary archives. It established guidelines for conservation, specific criteria of the archival organization, integration of the subsystems to the national system, program and guidelines for the organization of files, retirement of files, guidelines on destruction of files. At the Secretary of Foreign Relations the task to rescue and management was one of great proportions because of the diplomatic, consular, administrative correspondence found in more than 9,000 hard bound volumes, approximately 3,000 books related to the subject of foreign affairs, 33,700 copies of the Official Gazzette, over 300 treaties and conventions, some from the 18th and 19th century. In addition, 4,000 boxes of documents yet to be identified were found. All of the above directed us to the need to organized a Historic Archive, including the task of strengthening the documentation efforts of the Commission of Sovereignty and Borders, with in the Foreign Secretary, whose archives has also been moved to the basement without following specific criteria.

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Flooding of December 2009

Offices of the Central Historical Archive of the Secretary, November 2009

Process of management and documentation, January 2010

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Management of the Hard Bound Volumes, December 2009 and January 2010

Exchange for new files, January 2010 Currently, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs has three physical areas that contain stored documentation: 1. The Historical Archive: protects documents from the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries’, mostly diplomatic, consular, administrative correspondence and in some cases manuscripts dating back to the colonial time regarding property of territories in different parts of the country. 2. The Administrative Archive: contains the administrative documentation generated by the many sections and units of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs in the last ten years. 3. The Archive of the Sovereignty and Border Commission: contains all the information regarding territorial and maritime limits and borders of Honduras, as well as the documentation of the cases and judgments that have been elevated to the International Court of Justice.

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Main Historic Archive, 2013

Archive of the Sovereignty and Border Commission COSOF, February 2010

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III.

Urgent Need to Create the Central Archives Unit

There is an urgent need to establish the Central File Unit at the Secretary of Foreign Affairs in Honduras, just as it operates in other Secretaries of Foreign Affairs in the rest of Latin America. The management and organization of an archival system is essential to be able to coordinate y a timely and efficient manner each one of the areas of work such as the ones listed above, in addition to the ones listed above, in addition to the ones that may arise according to the needs of the institution. At the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Honduras its various archives are physically and structurally separated, including the following: the Archive of the Sovereignty and Border Commission (COSOF) , the Administrative Archive and the Historical Archive. In the future, the Archive for Treaties and Conventions may be one important to consider creating, due to the specific themes it addresses. The situation currently creates different patterns of work and in many occasions results in inaccessibility when information is requested. In the archival world the idea of coordinating one sole unit that includes all areas of interest within an organization, greatly facilitates various processes. In addition, within the framework of institutional work and specifically with reference to the systematization of the documentary heritage of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, it is vital to create the tools that allow officials and employees to be able to access, analyze and study of documents, so that in the near future, the information is accessible in digital form. In this way, the public will become informed and interested in the work that the Secretary has developed since its inception in 1839 in the area of foreign policy, international relations. This shall also contribute to the conservation of documentary heritage and in the short run, strengthen problematic areas of the national historiography. The fact is that the need to conserve the primary historical sources constituted by the archives requires the need to classify them, in order to disseminate the information contained within them and constitutes the peoples’ collective memory. A community without history is devoid of national identity, as is declared by some of the International Conventions in the framework of the objectives of the Organization of the United Nations for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO). This is also the case with Ramon Rosa, the most important intellectual of Honduras in the second half of the nineteenth century who said: “a country without archives is a country without a memory.” In Honduras, documentary heritage is constituted by public and private archives. Among the first, one can include the municipal files and those 153

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generated by public entities. The latter include bank, church, hospital and university records. All of them establish their own conservation policies. The Honduran Documentary Heritage is protected by the Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage. It includes the creation of a specific law for the organization and functioning of the documentary heritage. However, several years have gone by and the bill has not yet been approved by the National Congress. In this respect, the Secretary of Foreign relations has a vast amount of documents accumulated for decades, including some from previous centuries, which have remained in the custody of the Main Archive of the institution. It is important to clarify that all the documentation in those archives has been piling up, in various boxes and files without any order or sequence. The physical spaces they occupy do not meet the minimal conditions for their conservation, meriting as soon as possible the construction of an infrastructure. The building could also contain the Diplomatic and Historical Archive, documented by the directions and specialized units such as the Sovereignty and Border Commission (COSOF) and the Direction of Treaties and Conventions. IV.

General and Specific Purposes of the Organization of Files

The authorities of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs want to create a system to facilitate and modernize access to documents that are located in the Archives of the Sovereignty and Border Commission (COSOP), the Department of treaties and Conventions, as well as the documentation comprising the historic Central Archive (Historical), resulting in their organization, classification, registration and proper digitalization. The following are the objectives to be developed: General Objective: To create the necessary tools for the organization and dissemination of information specifically for the internal and external researchers, creating data bases, inventories, and digitalizing information that is valued by the same experts in the field, allowing them to locate it quickly and efficiently. Specific Objectives: 1. Create a data base for the most relevant documents in the Archive of COSOF, the Direction of Treaties and Conventions, and in addition, rescue the oldest documents that are part of the Historic Archives of the Secretary of Foreign Relations. These activities should be assessed by specialized technical personnel.

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2. Restore and scan in the largest possible way the historical collection which is kept in the Archives of the Secretary of Foreign Relations for a better preservation, avoiding direct manipulation of documents as much as possible. Previous to digitalization efforts, the National Archive of Honduras (ANH) and the Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History (IHAH) should be consulted so that they can assign specialized personnel that is able to supervise the digitalization efforts. The above is part of the framework in the Convention of Reciprocal Assistance which is in force between the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the IHAH. 3. Sign a Convention of Reciprocal Assistance with the Secretary of Culture, Art, and Sports- National Archives of Honduras, which will allow for greater collaboration and commitment of the parties in the rescue and safeguard of the historical documents. 4. Collect the information regarding the Secretary of Foreign Affairs which is kept in the National Archives of Honduras. The documentation must be scanned before the agreement with the Secretary of Culture, Arts, and Sports is entered into. 5. Create a database with the signatures of the President’s and Secretaries of State of the Republic of Honduras with the purpose of doing exhibits or the impression of books markers with the autographed signatures. The purpose would be to be able to lobby for funds or to be able to hand them out during festivities such as the Day of Honduran Diplomacy, held on January 11 and celebrating the date of the creation of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. 6. Integrate the Documentary Collection of the Secretary of Foreign Relations in collaboration with the Honduran National Autonomous University (UNAH), this is the organization that has the greatest number of scanned Gazzettes, all the Bilateral and Multilateral Treaties subscribed by the Government of Honduras and the inclusion of the Secretary’s web page of the inventory organized by materials and countries in agreement with the Direction of Treaties and Conventions of the Secretary. 7. Include the Documentary Collection of all colonial and republican documentation, which consists of the Protocols of the public clerks of the 18th and 19th centuries. 8. Include the autographed letters of kings and presidents of other countries saved in the files of the Archives and that are kept in mesh guards and cardboard, documents which are very valuable in the history of Honduras. 9. Numerically sort in sequential order the diplomatic, consular and administrative correspondence of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, correspondence which has been bound in its majority until the late nineteen eighties and is located in the Central Archives. 10.Undertake a process of relocation of the old documents in acid-free boxes or the best recommended for the purpose of the preservation of documents, in addition with the opinions of national and international specialized authorities on the subject. 11. Lobby for national and international funds in order to finance the construction of the documentary heritage repository similar to those existing in other countries of Central America, with all the blueprints, guidelines, and international specifications to be able to conduct conservation efforts.

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V.

Conclusions

During the last four years, various initiatives and efforts within the Secretary of Foreign Relations have registered a clear tendency not only with reference to the different and important collections of documents, but also to the urgent need of conducting rescue, management, conservation and dissemination of information. The institutional awareness not only recognizes the value of the archives of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs for the purposes of collecting the history of diplomatic policy in Honduras, but also for the value and importance of documenting the historiography of our country. It is within the framework of the Law for National Cultural Heritage and the Law for Transparency and Access to Information that we have worked and committed regarding this issue. Finally, we have designed an initiative called “Project Rescue: Identification and Classification of the Central, Administrative and Historic Archives of the Secretary of Foreign Relations”. Currently, efforts are being made to be able to secure resources for the project at the national and international levels. -----Photos by Nilda Lizeth Lopez Fernandez

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After the Storm: Establishing Library and Information Services from a Temporary Location By Hildy Dworkin, Library Director for the New York City Human Resources Administration/Department of Social Services The information and opinions expressed in this article are the author’s alone and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of her employer, the NYC Human Resources Administration. Introduction The HRA McMillan Library provides services to the NYC Human Resources Administration/Department of Social Services (HRA/DSS, aka HRA). Under the umbrella of the agency’s Office of Evaluation and Research (OER) the library is located at the agency’s headquarters in downtown Manhattan. HRA’s building was badly damaged during Superstorm Sandy. It was unclear when the building would reopen. HRA is the New York City agency responsible for administering social services to all five boroughs of the city. The library is located at the agency’s headquarters, but is available to any HRA staff member in any office, in any borough. This brings the potential patron base to 14,000. Realistically, we average a patron base of approximately 300 during a given year. We may also provide service to other New York City agencies and City Hall. We were faced with the daunting task of re-establishing services to a large population without access to our equipment and files. As much as the inclination was to forge ahead and resume as quickly as possible, it was important to remember the role the agency has in the restoration of New York City and to prioritize services accordingly. In addition, agency staff were also victims of the storm and many were affected personally. Due to the damage caused by Sandy and limited transportation most HRA staff were not at their regular work locations for at least the first two weeks. By the third week after the storm we were assigned to a temporary location, but not an actual space to work. Finally, after several days of moving around, the three members of the library staff were finally given space in a conference room. However, we still did not have computers, phones, or any supplies. The rest of the OER team were assigned to a different location. HRA was the lead agency that provided assistance to victims of Sandy. We are public servants first—our work titles, second. The health and well-being of New Yorkers came before I could begin to figure out how to resume 157

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library service. We, with the rest of OER, were put on a special assignment. Once we had phones, we called victims of Sandy who had an initial visit to a disaster assistance center, following up to ensure their immediate needs were met and disseminate information for additional assistance. After two weeks of calls and one month since the storm hit, we were finally able to think about the steps to restore some library services. Considering the magnitude of damage the storm left and the agency’s significant role in aiding storm victims, it was important to choose selected services and evaluate the timing of resuming each service. Before I returned to work, I received an e-mail expressing concern that library staff would have no work since the library was closed. I replied with a few specifics adding that “As long we have PCs that can access the network and web, we should still have plenty to do.” Coming from a relatively large physical space with no access to files—paper or electronic, the challenge of continuing services was great. Setting Priorities Once we had PCs, I was ready to set priorities. My goal was to ensure that the library was visible and that it continued to be an integral part of HRA’s operations. While we have an extensive print collection, the majority of services are handled electronically. It was vital that the notion of service was not solely based on the physical space and that the library did not fall victim to “out of sight, out of mind.” Getting Back to Basics The question then was “where do we start?” Being dislocated affects us more than just not being able to be in our own space. It is disorienting—as if our “thinking” is tethered to the work space. We had no access to any documents. All library files (over 6,000) were not on a shared network drive, but resided in a shared folder on my C-Drive. I thought it best to start with what we knew and what we had access to with little or no assistance from other agency departments: 

The library’s catalog: we converted to a web-based catalog a little less than 2 years ago. Having access to all our holdings and patron records gave us a great head start.



We had access to a network drive that we obtained for a special project. This became our new central location for library files.



E-mail: I saved almost all e-mail I ever received since beginning this job in 1999. Old emails contain a wealth of information. Our agency began using Symantec Enterprise Vault for e-mail archiving, but I was reluctant to sign up 158

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for it because I like to have everything I need at my fingertips. However, since some of my older e-mails were saved to my hard drive, I learned the hard way that it was to my advantage to make use of the vault to ensure that whatever I had was accessible. All three staff and a common library email signed up for the vault. Even though the search function is limited, it was very good to have the emails available so they can be accessed via the network. 

Snail mail: luckily, the mailroom from headquarters was in the same temporary location and we had storage space in the conference room. Our print materials could be cataloged and circulated.



Internet exceptions: in order to continue some research activities we had to ensure that our exceptions were set so that we can visit sites without much interference from filters. I was able to accomplish this quickly because of the long-standing positive relationship I fostered with our IT security team.

This was just enough to start getting on the right track to resume some services. Concerned that there would not be enough storage space, it had been suggested that I suspend all subscriptions until we returned. I did not think this was the best solution. The frequency of many of our publications is monthly or less. I did not think we would accumulate more than a file box or two based on what we received in one month. There was also the fear of losing online access to those items that we have combination print plus digital subscriptions. In addition, this was a great opportunity to resume routing services with what we had. Subscription Management Now that I had a handle on what we knew, it was time to figure out what we needed. Subscription management is multifaceted and can be time consuming. We have 35 paid subscriptions—too few to justify using an outside book and subscriptions vendor; it would not be cost-effective for the library’s operation. If we centralized purchasing all bibliographic materials agency-wide under the library, then it may result in net savings. That not being the case, it has to be managed in-house. We had just begun creating a management system before the storm. The goal was to ensure I knew exactly what needed to be renewed in any given month and because of the varying expiration dates combined with the fact that processing payment varied depending on the cost of the item, we needed a tracking system. The spreadsheet was simple. Using colors to track the lifecycle of the subscription, at a glance I could see which were in process, which payment method was used, expiration dates, and contact information. It was simple, but contained a lot of information. In addition, another sheet in the 159

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workbook had a calendar to view the year at a glance indicating which month a subscription needed to be renewed. Another spreadsheet was created for access containing our usernames and passwords, account information, and websites. I had another for the costs. Other documents contained patron and routing information. In all, it was a lot of information to recreate from memory. My library research assistant had created the original tracking spreadsheet and after some discussion she was able to create a new one containing all our periodical titles. In the meantime, my other assistant compiled a list of patrons who regularly received print materials. This was integrated into the subscription management workbook. At the same time, I searched hundreds of e-mails for account information, usernames and passwords, expiration dates, and anything else that would help us. We utilized the “forgot password/username” online to fill in the blanks. We took this opportunity to create more uniform passwords and usernames so that all staff had easier, faster access to the information. Since some of our purchases are paid by credit card, I needed to obtain that information as well since the card was locked in a secure location in the library. In addition, publishers were contacted for information. To those we owed payment, we informed them of our situation and that payment would be made as soon as possible. The evolution of the subscription management workbook was one of the positive outcomes of being displaced. Today we have an efficient comprehensive tracking system. Restoring Library Operations Accomplished in just ten business days, we had enough account information and access to our publications to resume services. With more than one of the agency’s buildings closed, employees were scattered. We did not know who had e-mail access, but that was the best way to try and reach them. We sent an e-mail to each patron who received one or more periodicals regularly. I thought it was important to send individual e-mails rather than one e-mail to an anonymous group. The e-mail contained the publications the patron received and a chart to enter their temporary location address and phone number if they had one. We included a box to check “yes” or “no” indicating whether or not they wanted to receive the items at their temporary location. We even utilized our new and improved subscription management workbook to add a sheet containing the responses. At the same time, with the help of my deputy commissioner, an e-mail was sent to all senior staff indicating that the library was back in operation. I included links to our digital library, e-mail, and specific lists. We also needed 160

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to locate and contact those departments with which we conduct business regularly—especially finance and contracts. Right after we resumed services, one-time entry was permitted into the building to retrieve some materials we needed—files, supplies, etc. This enabled us build upon what we already did. Some Advantages and Lessons Learned There was a positive side to being displaced. Since we were in a conference room with staff from other departments, we took the time to market the library and gained some new patrons and learned what was lacking in their information needs. It gave us the time to listen. Without the day-to-day routine and people walking in and out of the library, we had more time to devote to special projects. In collaboration with our IT department, a library portal is being developed to enhance our digital presence in the agency. This was a good time to schedule planning meetings with IT and conduct our own library-related research in order to see what other libraries have done and learn all we could about the tools. Having less available to us enabled us to think beyond our regular routines. We created a better organized space for shared files. I had time to brainstorm about library policies and procedures with my assistant. We seemed to say often, “oh, when we get back we can do that!” Discussions around disaster preparedness for libraries seem to concentrate on the actual space. We were lucky that there was no physical damage to the library. Also, when the library is within a larger institution, there may not be plans specific to the library. After 9/11 I did not have the opportunity to contribute to the agency’s disaster preparedness plans. Since our agency is vital to the well-being of the citizens of New York City, the priority naturally is to plan for those operations that affect services to the public. It is important then for the librarian to take the responsibility of ensuring continuity of services to the staff. As much as we have all heard “back up your files,” I only applied this to important information in case of system failure that affected network and Internet access. Many of our back up files are print. I never considered that we would be without access to those files. It was lucky we had a ready-made shared drive at our disposal. A few weeks after we resumed services, we were moved to another temporary location. All the work we did allowed us to move with little or no disruption of services. We reaped the benefits of our newly organized shared drive and other improvements. We remained there for an additional six 161

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weeks before returning to headquarters. The experience gave us the time to create more efficient procedures that we were able to implement immediately. Summary Getting Started  Identified what was familiar to help staff get their bearings.  Created new routines.  Determined what I could control.  Determined the obstacles.  Identified immediate needs from which to build upon. Resuming Services Determined what we needed:  Internet exceptions restored.  Locate agency business partners.  Obtain materials to resume purchasing.  Usernames and passwords to access accounts.  Recreate patron routing lists and locate these patrons. Restoring Library Operations Ten business days later we:  Had enough account information and access to our publications to resume services.  Sent individual e-mails to all patrons on the routing list.  Sent an e-mail to Senior Staff indicating that we were operational.  Gained access to the closed building. Routine Services Restored  All subscription management activities—routing and other periodical circulation.  Literature reviews and article requests.  Routine distribution of weekly information such as newsletters.  All electronic research assistance.  Purchased books and other materials for the commissioner and some Senior Staff. Some Advantages and Lessons Learned  Marketed library services to staff.  More time for special projects.  Enabled us to think beyond our routines.  Disaster preparedness entails more than reconstructing the physical space and contents. 162

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Created efficient procedures that we were able to implement immediately while displaced and continued when we returned.

-----*With editorial assistance by Letitia Samuel, Library Research Assistant, New York City Human Resources Administration/Department of Social Services

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Top Five Trends in Copyright By Gretchen McCord, MSIS, JD This article is based on a program presented at the Military Libraries Workshop in December 2013. I. Introduction Copyright is a complex area of law, and although all librarians know something about it, what each knows and how each thinks about copyright is different from that of others. Thus, having only ninety minutes to discuss the quite large subject of copyright requires selection of a more specific topic. Because we are at a very turbulent and exciting time in history in the world of copyright, identifying current trends seems a perfect topic. (Please see www.digitalinfolaw.com for information about workshops, webinars, and other opportunities to learn more about copyright.) Current technology makes it easier, quicker, and cheaper than ever to infringe copyright, and to do so on a massive level. The turbulence and excitement we see in the world of copyright today is a result of such changes in technology and the reactions of both copyright owners and information users. What I have identified as the top trends in copyright derive directly from that. But before we launch into trends, let’s clarify what we mean when we’re talking about “copyright.” Why do we have copyright law in the first place? Contrary to popular thought, the purpose of U.S. copyright law is not to protect copyright owners, but to encourage the production of new works. The way we go about meeting this goal is by, on the one hand, providing copyright owners with rights to control uses of their works, for the purpose of incentivizing authors to create; while, on the other hand, placing limits on those rights so that others may use the works to build upon and create their own works. Copyright law is all about trying to find and maintain the balance between those two means so that we can best achieve the end goal of copyright: promoting the growth of the body of works out there. What is copyright? In a nutshell, copyright is a “bundle” of exclusive rights granted to creators of protectable works, minus certain exceptions to and limitations on those rights.

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To be protected by copyright, a work must be “original,” contain a “modicum of creativity,” and be “fixed in a tangible medium of expression.” This means that the creator of the work must have contributed something of his or her own – must have done more than simply copying something already in existence and more than simply stating facts – and that it must exist for more than a fleeting moment in time, and in a form that can be perceived by human beings. These are the only requirements under current copyright law. In the past, however, certain formalities were required in order to obtain copyright protection, such as publishing the work with a copyright notice. The rights granted to a copyright owner are the rights to reproduce the work; to create derivatives; to distribute copies to the public; and to perform or display the work in public. The Copyright Act defines very specific exceptions to these rights, but they are few in number and limited in scope. For libraries, the most pertinent are Section 109, the first sale doctrine; and Section 108, which gives libraries and archives the right to make limited numbers of copies under very limited conditions. To make uses of a work other than those that fall within the statutory exceptions (without obtaining permission from the copyright owner), one must rely on the right of fair use. A little about fair use. Fair use, as librarians well know, is a complex area of law, with very little black-and-white. Entire books have been written on fair use (watch www.digitalinfolaw.com for my own e-book on fair use, coming in early 2014), so the following is the most general of overviews. Fair use is a flexible tool that can be applied to any situation to answer the bottom-line question: Would allowing this use go further towards promoting the goal of copyright law than would disallowing the use? Making a determination of whether any given use constitutes a fair use is very factspecific process, made on a case-by-case basis. The Copyright Act requires that a court consider four factors in making a fair use analysis, but it may also consider other factors that it thinks are relevant. Each of the factors, as well as the fair use decision overall, should be viewed on a spectrum. Those factors are: the purpose and character of the use you wish to make (including whether the use is closer, on a spectrum, to being commercial or non-profit educational); the nature of the work used (including whether the work is more factual or creative in nature); the amount and substantiality of the amount used (whether you have used more than, or content other than, that needed to achieve your purpose); and the potential effect of the use on the marketplace for the work.

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II. Top 5 Trends in Copyright The ease with which, and degree to which, copyright can be infringed using modern technology scares copyright owners (keep in mind that the owners of most copyrights currently being exploited are corporate owners such as publishers and movie studios, not individual creators). This is a totally legitimate fear, but the copyright owner industry often over-reacts in its responses. For example, consider the infamous 25,000+ lawsuits filed by the Recording Industry Association of America in the 1990’s and early 2000’s. This type of reaction, in turn, may cause information users, including libraries, to act from a place of fear – fear of the copyright owner industry. In the context of fair use, this too often means that libraries impose on themselves stricter limits than the law imposes and choose to not fully take advantage of the rights granted to them under the law. The following trends reflect this overall “mood” currently prevalent in the copyright world. Trend #1: Corporate copyright owners attack fair use. In recent years, corporate entities representing thousands of copyright owners either filed or financed three important lawsuits alleging that certain digital uses of copyrighted materials constitute copyright infringement. The uses at issues were ones that fair use advocates, as well as the defendants, considered to be strong cases of fair use. Two of the lawsuits were filed by the Authors Guild over the Google Books project. The third lawsuit was filed by three academic publishers against Georgia State University over its inclusion of scanned images in its electronic reserve system, but the suit was organized and financed by the Copyright Clearance Center and the Association of American Publishers. The Google Books project consists of Google’s plan to digitize, in their entirety, millions of print books, many of which are still protected by copyright, in the collections of several of the largest research libraries in the country. Each participating library is allowed to keep one digital copy of each book scanned from its own collection. Google search engine users can search the full text of the digitized books, but the results displayed for books protected by copyright are limited to no more than three “snippet views” from each book. Limitations prevent a searcher from piecing together an entire book, snippet by snippet. Full text is available only to visually impaired users. In the third lawsuit, Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, and Sage Publishing alleged that the inclusion in GSU’s electronic reserve system of certain scanned excerpts from books constituted copyright infringement, despite the university’s recent revision of its copyright policy and requirement that faculty use a “fair use checklist” as a guide for copying. 166

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These lawsuits represent a much larger movement amongst corporate copyright owners to limit the legal rights of information users, particularly the right of fair use. The lawsuits are particularly disturbing to the library community because of the parties involved: Publishers and the CCC are suing members of one of their largest client bases, and, even more bizarre, the academic publishers in the GSU case are suing the very entities and individuals (faculty) that provide them with their content, and who do so for free! Trend #2: Fair use rights confirmed … for now. All three cases were decided in 2012 and 2013. The judges in the two Google Books cases found the uses to constitute strong fair uses, and the judge in the Georgia State case found seventy-five of the seventy-nine instances of alleged infringement to be fair. The Library Copyright Alliance filed amicus briefs in all three cases, and the Google court, in particular, relied heavily on the information provided by the LCA in its decision. While the library community rightfully celebrates these victories, however, these battles are not over. The plaintiffs in all three cases have appealed. Trend #3: Mass digitization projects (by individual institutions) explode. Libraries and archives of all kinds are leaping into digitization of large collections for the purpose of making specialized collections available to the communities who find them valuable. The content of these projects range from institutional repositories at research institutions to local history collections in tiny communities. Often the materials include a combination of public domain works, works still protected by copyright, works of unknown status, and orphan works (works still under copyright but for which the copyright owner either is not known or cannot be located). The biggest copyright challenges in these projects arise with orphan works. By definition, it is highly unlikely that these works are currently being exploited, often making it difficult for interested users to locate and/or access the works. Digitizing them and making them widely accessible can provide a tremendous benefit to researchers, which furthers the goal of copyright law. However, no law specifically addresses the use of orphan works. Many uses for such projects are likely to constitute fair use, but fair use involves some risk. Especially given Trend #1, many libraries are understandably hesitant to take such a risk … which itself contravenes the goal of copyright. Congress has proposed legislation to address the orphan works situation, but to date, no bills have passed out of committee. New guidelines, which can be very helpful, are available from certain private entities, in particular the 167

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Association of Research Libraries (www.arl.org/fairuse) and the Society of American Archivists (www.archivists.org/standards/OWBP-V4.pdf). Trend #4: Move from ownership to licensing. This trend is not new, but as it continues to build, we encounter more and greater challenges to the rights of information users. A “license” is a legally binding agreement (contract) in which the parties agree to exchange items of value. A valid contract will always “trump” the law, because it is an agreement between the parties to each give the other something to which it is entitled under the law. For the vast majority of digital works, we purchase not ownership of a copy but a license to use a copy. From a copyright perspective, this is important for two reasons. Some rights granted to information users under copyright law simply do not apply in the context of licenses. For example, the first sale doctrine (Section 109) allows the legitimate owner of a work to distribute it to the public, as in libraries lending works. Section 109 does not apply to it if the work is licensed instead of owned. This forms the basis for the challenges libraries currently face in being able to to lend electronic books. In addition, licenses may specifically require the licensee to give up certain rights granted under the law. Of particular concern are restrictions on fair use and Section 108 rights to make limited copies. On a positive note, however, we are also experiencing a growth in “author licensing” options, such as the Creative Commons and the “open access” movement. Trend #5: Open Access The term “open access” (or simply “OA”) is used in sometimes contradictory ways. Broadly speaking, it is a movement seeking means for allowing authors, rather than publishers, to make their works available to the public while retaining the copyrights, and thus more control, over their own works. “Open access” does not equate to “public domain;” it is about who owns and controls copyrights and copyrighted works, not about relinquishing copyrights. A range of OA models have developed, varying in terms of who covers costs, who hosts (publishes) collections, and what type of material is deposited. For example, some models require authors to pay at least a portion of the costs associated with making their works available. A growing model for academic publications is an agreement between faculty and traditional journal publishers in which the academic institution may include in its institutional repository either a pre-print of faculty articles immediately or

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the final published version once a specified period of time elapses since publication. Several attempts have been made to pass legislation requiring publications financed by federal monies to be made openly available, but none have yet succeeded. However, since 2008, the National Institutes of Health has required that papers based on research funded by the NIH be included in PubMed Central within twelve months of publication. III. Conclusion Where are we now? Despite its “do-nothing” reputation in recent years, Congress has begun acting on concerns that current copyright law is insufficient for the modern technological world. The House Judiciary Committee held five hearings on the issue in 2013 and plans to hold more, asking for testimony from a range of interested parties. So far, the structure and content of the hearings suggest that the Committee is focusing on ensuring protection for copyrighted works in the digital age and not on maintaining the balance in copyright law required by our Constitution. However, this is only the beginning of what will surely be a long process, whether the result is piecemeal legislation addressing specific concerns or a complete overhaul of the Copyright Act. Where are we going? The answer to this question depends on both who drives and who navigates. Congress drives the creation of law. But advocates navigate the route and choose the final destination. Congress regularly hears from advocates of the copyright owner industry, many of whom heavily invest financially in lobbying efforts. Advocates of information users are typically non-profit entities, such as libraries, education professions, and civil liberties organizations, who rely much more heavily on the voices of their constituents and members. Librarianship is the one professional most clearly representing information users. Without our active, knowledgeable, and productive participation in the development of these trends, including new legislation, we, as citizens, will lose the balance in copyright law. If we allow the balance in copyright to be tipped, irrevocably, too far in favor of the copyright owner industry, the result will be a society in which those who can afford to pay for education and even access to the written word, the fine arts, music, software, the Internet, and son on, will have it, and others will not. We will become the ultimate society of have’s and have-not’s. Where we are going depends, in no small part, on our profession’s participation in defining the route and the destination.

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A former librarian and currently a copyright and privacy attorney, Gretchen guides her clients in addressing complex legal issues encountered in the world of digital information and social media, with a focus on helping her clients find the solutions most appropriate for their entities and communities. She provides a range of training services as well as legal counseling in copyright and privacy law. Many of her clients are libraries and educational institutions, and she serves as Special Counsel to the Texas Library Association. Gretchen has been a leader in the library profession for over twenty years, including serving as the President of the Texas Library Association. Having already published two books on copyright law for librarians, her most recent book, What You Need to Know about Privacy Law: A Guide for Educators and Librarians, was published in late 2013 and is available from ABC-CLIO: http://www.abcclio.com/product.aspx?id=2147545768

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The Gamification of Libraries: How Games May Be Our GameChangers By Jennifer Matheny, Product Manager, LexisNexis Academic

I’m the kind of millennial who prefers real books to my kindle. This doesn’t mean I’m not excited and amazed by technology. It’s just that I miss the days of having heated debates over song lyrics – before someone could just pull out their phone and Google the answer to everything. How unromantic! My friend Angel, on the other hand, is my polar technology opposite. We’re both nerds, but Angel is the guy constantly looking down at his smartphone, responding to tiny chimes that go off through our conversations. One day, we were getting together for coffee and as I was going in for the hello hug, Angel didn’t even look me in the eye. “Angel,” I said, annoyed, “Are you not even going to say hi to me? What are you doing that’s so important?” “Getting points!” he said, looking up, with a big smile and a bright-eyed happiness that I had never seen from him before. Getting points? I had to hear more.

“I don’t do anything without getting points.” -

My friend, Angel

Manipulation, Genius, or All of the Above? Over coffee, Angel showed me the plethora of apps he had on his phone. There were old regulars like Foursquare where he was the mayor of a few places around our city. But, then he went on to show me apps that gave him points for watching TV, playing games, walking into stores, and actually, for just opening them up once during the day. In most cases, these points translated into virtual rewards, like a 20% off coupon for the store you walked into. In some cases, though, these points translated into gift cards, prizes, and even trips. I think Angel is a great example of a common millennial. Like me, he loves to (and needs to!) stretch a dollar as far as it can possibly go. He explained that his enthusiasm for these games and apps started off as just a way to get free stuff for things he was already doing in his daily life. After you download a few, though, you just search for more. Pretty soon, you’re going out of your way to walk into those stores, watch extra television, and do other things just in the name of earning points. While some people, myself included, might see this as a pretty insidious example of corporate manipulation, it actually seems to work. Viggle, the app that gives you points for watching minutes of television, is just about 2 171

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years old and reported 133.3 million user check-ins (episodes of TV watched) through Q2 2013, with each user watching an average of 73 minutes of television per session.10 Seeing evidence of how some of these games and apps have been performing11 draws me to one conclusion: we like being rewarded – which comes as no surprise. As my conversation with Angel continued that day, though, he mentioned how games have even helped him do things he didn’t necessarily want to do like exercise, read more books, and clean his apartment. He brought up how his mom would sometimes turn household chores into a game and trick him into doing things he normally wouldn’t want to do. Angel’s anecdote is actually very meaningful, as it is precisely the point of today’s gamification take-over: if a reward is offered for a simple task, there will be interested parties willing to participate. Usage = Success As a product manager, usage of my product, LexisNexis® Academic, is very important to me. Usage, in my opinion, translates to customer enthusiasm and delight. Seemingly, if customers are using my product more and more, they are happy with the service I am providing. However, when it comes to usage, success of LexisNexis® Academic is not solely in my hands. When Academic libraries succeed, my product succeeds. And, also, the converse is true. Which is why, I believe, the best things happen when we work together with librarians to update the products and innovate new solutions. When a topic like innovation is brought to the table, I want to hear a librarian’s opinion the most. If you think about it, the librarian’s job has been completely overhauled by new technology. It seems like only yesterday they were dealing with the library in a more physical sense – navigating the stacks, manual cataloguing, etc. Today, they’re dealing with virtual users and a virtual space - creating and maintaining their own library websites, producing YouTube videos to help their patrons, and writing code so their users can remotely login to databases, like LexisNexis® Academic. The job almost demands an entirely different skill set – and today, the “tech unsavvy” need not apply. Academic librarians, however, are still the gatekeepers of scholarly knowledge. If you ask an academic librarian where to find the best information, they’re not going to send you to Google; they’re going to send 10

http://techcrunch.com/2013/02/14/viggle-tries-to-right-the-ship-after-failed-getglue-merger-revenue-rises-88registered-users-up-42-for-the-quarter/ 11

http://www.internetretailer.com/2013/01/17/shopkick-turns-quarterly-profit-first-time ,

http://www.viggle.com/2013/09/viggle-releases-fy-2013-results-revenue-increases-significantlyregistered-users-top-3-million/ 172

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you to a properly vetted and trusted research database. A source’s credibility is of paramount importance and librarians want to pass that concept on to their students and patrons. If the source can’t be trusted, its information is worthless. They’re continuing to fight the good fight against unremarkable content. The good news for librarians is that physical usage of Academic libraries is increasing12 after years of continued and dramatic decline due to increased enrollment and the recent trend of library refurbishment to transform libraries into “multi-purpose spaces, study spaces with more relaxed furnishings.”13 The bad news, however, is that budgets for library resources (including the employment of librarians, themselves) are being slashed. 14 The data – the meat and potatoes of what the academic library is supposed to be – is actually being marginalized to make room for a cleaner, fresher aesthetic. It could be that physical usage of the library is increasing because it’s a cooler place to hang out, not that users are suddenly more excited about research. With these factors in mind, how do we make sure that students still have access to and use the best content? How do we make sure that users know how to use a research database? I’m thinking that my friend Angel might have the answer. Games and Apps for Libraries In 2011, the New York Public Library released a few game-changing (in my opinion) mobile apps. 15 The main application is a practical app first and foremost. You download the app and enter your library card barcode in order to link the app to your library account. Then, you can see all of the books you’ve recently checked out and if you have any fines or whatnot. However, NYPL has also released magazine-type apps that highlight a specific collection of content. You flip through photos and descriptions – all of which drive you to want to see the collection in person. However, the NYPL app I was most interested in was a game called “Find the Future” that takes users on a scavenger hunt through an exhibition of the same name. Through the app, you read clues that lead you to various books or objects inside the library. When you find the object, you scan its QR code and move on to the

12

http://www.ala.org/news/mediapresscenter/americaslibraries/soal2012/academic-libraries

13

http://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/blog/2013/aug/06/university-libraries-

learning-shapes-design

14

http://www.ala.org/news/mediapresscenter/americaslibraries/academic

15

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/26/nyregion/new-apps-from-the-new-york-public-library.html?_r=0#h[] 173

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next. The game, then, gives you points for every object you find and scan during the scavenger hunt. The quicker you do it, the more points you get. There is another app called Librarygame, developed in the UK, specifically for Academic libraries. Academic libraries license Librarygame from the developers and customize it for their own needs. Librarygame (found at http://librarygame.co.uk) allows libraries to collect data about how their users are engaging, while providing their users with a fun, game experience. A student would download library game and connect their student ID to the account, just as with NYPL’s app. However, Librarygame has levels, badges, and challenges for the user. It is also fully linked to social media and allows two users to compete against each other for more points. Users can also create books, create their own user-curated bookshelves, and get book recommendations based on their selections. A concrete example of an Academic library already using gamification is Grand Valley State University. I believe GVSU used the best of what the NYPL and Librarygame apps have and put them together into Library Quest, their own proprietary Library Game.16 Library Quest was just launched in early 2013, but had been in development for over a year before that. Like NYPL’s Find the Future, Library Quest orients new students to the library by a mobile scavenger hunt via scanning QR codes. There are points, levels, and badges that the users can attain. However, GVSU Library awards actual prizes for the highest scores each year. The app isn’t just for new students – current students can track their library usage and curate their own bookshelves, as well. The thing I found the most inspiring about the GVSU story is that, although Library Quest was developed by a 3rd party for about $12,000, they plan to repurpose the app to teach information studies. It’s a learning tool, as well as a teaching tool. Gamification is Here to Stay Using games to teach is a tried-and-true method in our education system. However, the concept of adding rewards via virtual points and badges is the new part of the gaming trend that we need to pay attention to. With the common consumer getting more used to games and more corporations using games to seduce people into their stores or products, I think this trend is not on the way out any time soon. LexisNexis launched the Think Like a Lawyer game to Law School students last year to great success. TLAL was a trivia game that used the Lexis Advance product to help users answer questions about areas of law. The faster you got the answer correct, the more points you got. There were global leaderboards and leaderboards for each school so that students could 16

http://acrl.ala.org/techconnect/?p=3783 174

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compare their scores. TLAL was a great tool to introduce new Law School students into the somewhat daunting task of learning a database. Plus, it’s fun! They were so busy earning points and competing against their friends, they didn’t realize they were learning how to use Lexis Advance. The Think Like a Lawyer Game embodies the reasons why games would be such a great thing for libraries. As a product manager, I hear so many times that databases are too hard for students to learn – that they just want to find exactly what they want without having to look too hard for it because they’re used to a simple experience and not Boolean searching. I get it – it’s a daunting task to learn something new. But, dumbing down the content isn’t going to help anyone. Gamification helps us dumb down the learning process without dumbing down what we’re actually learning. Simply, it’s learning things in a smarter way. Imagine a future academic space where student app developers are assigned to each professor, like a work study program. The professors would work with the student developer to create a game based on their course curriculum. Instead of grades, students would get points for not only their assignments, but for their engagement. The course apps would be connected to library resources so that students had seamless access to the best content possible. The more articles you read for class and the more time you spend posting on the course’s message board, the more points you accumulate. There is a class leaderboard so that you can see how your classmates are doing, as well. At the end of the semester, the student with the most amount of engagement points gets a real reward of a 20% increase on their final exam. I think it’s just a matter of time!

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Library Connect celebrates a decade of partnering with the library community The mix changes and the quality content continues By Colleen DeLory, Editor, Library Connect Newsletter, Elsevier Much like its 18,000+ librarian subscribers around the world, Elsevier’s Library Connect program has used technology to extend its reach over the past decade. The program began with a newsletter, awards, and seminars and workshops around the world. These communications and events continue to this day while additional channels have been added such as a webinar series and Facebook and Twitter communities. Rethinking the mix Throughout the history of the newsletter, the editors have had a clear vision of the kind of content to feature — global library best practices, trends and tools shared by information professionals like you. In 2014, we switched to an eonly model and retired the print publication. As in your libraries, the switch to providing content electronically is a natural response to our subscribers’ changing needs. More and more, librarians are sharing content online via websites, blogs and social media. In 2013 Library Connect introduced its first infographic, a striking visual portrait of The Social Librarian, demonstrating how librarians are extending themselves and empowering library users. The infographic was shared extensively on librarian blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Pinterest and Tumblr. 176

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We will continue to offer quality articles, but also plan to further explore the area of rich visual content. Delighted with Drupal! With the launch of a full Library Connect website in 2011, Drupal provided a much more searchable platform for discovery and sharing of content, from articles to video. It’s also easy to upload and publish content. But no website ever remains static and a current website refresh will consolidate various streams of content and highlight trending topics, such as open access and research data management. How social can you get? With 4,700+ Twitter followers, the Library Connect Twitter channel seems to have taken on a life of its own. We like to take a bit of credit for that as we do cull through an enormous amount of academic and news feeds to cherry pick just the right type of content for our followers. I say we because a number of colleagues contribute to the social media feeds. Like you, we also have to carefully consider whether we want to add new channels to our social streams. We want to ensure the ones we have are kept fresh and relevant, and therefore to date have decided against further expansion. Though I have to say, I am looking forward to spending some time sprucing up our YouTube page as we have been “In the Studio” lately and have new video to share. Around the world webinars These in studio videos have been supplemented by a series of live Library Connect webinars. Like all Library Connect content, the webinars are free and intended for an audience of academic, government, medical and corporate librarians. Check out our popular 2013 webinars on librarians raising researchers’ reputations and open access, and sign up for upcoming events. How do I manage? I still use good old spreadsheets for editorial and production calendars, but I have started moving into new arenas for content curation such as Evernote 177

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and Twitter lists. I also look at the impact of our content with tools such as Google Analytics and Hootsuite, which helps inform future programming. The value of Library Connect hinges on the quality of its content. I’m fortunate to be able to attend a few librarian conferences each year to stay abreast of new developments in the field of librarianship, and I actively pursue online channels of learning. Most importantly, I have the librarian contributors to thank for the success of the newsletter. They generously give of their limited time to write articles that reach around the world and home again. Get connected! Sign up for a free Library Connect Newsletter subscription: http://libraryconnect.elsevier.com/subscribe Follow Library Connect on Twitter: http://twitter.com/library_connect Like Library Connect on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/libraryconnect

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Reaching Your Career Potential: Thinking Outside the Box By Deborah Hunt, MLS, ECMp, Principal, Information Edge; Past President, SLA.org Abstract: Career agility is a must as librarian and info pro jobs continue to evolve or go away. We can leverage transferrable skills to take our careers in new directions. Do I look like a librarian? Often when working with digital asset or document management clients, they don’t realize I have a library degree (even though “MLS” is displayed on my business card). When I’m recommending they do a permanent hire of someone with an MLS/MLIS, I generally get this sort of response: “A librarian cannot possibly do this kind of work.” That’s when I educate them and say “I’m a librarian.” They are often speechless. They do understand though, because they’ve seen the value and skillset I’ve brought to their project that has saved them time, money and frustration. We need to ask ourselves:    

What’s in a name? Who are we? What do we want to be called? Does it matter?

More importantly, we must tell stakeholders about the value we bring to the organization and then show them and tell them over and over again --otherwise they will not understand our value and how the work we do is pertinent to the success of the organization. Where are we going as information professionals/librarians? We need to know this if we are to control where we are going and how we’ll get there. We have to be proactive, taking control of our work and our profession. Are we exploiting and taking advantage of the opportunities in our work and schooling? Are we being proactive and saying “I can do that” or see a need and take on a project that no one else can or will? If we think we are too busy, and we all are busy, we shut out opportunities. Let things go that no one else cares about or at least that your major stakeholders don’t care about.

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“LIS skills are good currency, but only for those with the flexibility and insight to exploit the opportunities.” ~Stephen Abram, Managing Principal, Lighthouse Partners and Associate of Dysart & Jones How do we transform ourselves, our jobs and the places we work? What are the trends that are happening that impact us and that must drive what we do and how we work? In all libraries and organizations, our value must be continually demonstrated and delivered as we transform what we do and how we serve our patrons, students, customers and clients. This is especially true for those we serve who may think a library is not of value or have not used a library, its services and its resources in a long time. Transformation = Value + Empowerment What we do needs to positively contribute to the bottom line of our organization or that of our clients. It does not matter what library or organizational type we are in, whether it is for-profit or not-for-profit --- we still need to demonstrate how we contribute to its health and well-being. I have a colleague who has worked as a part-time reference librarian for several years in a busy library. Recently, the library hired a full-time librarian and this colleague applied and went through the interview process. She was not hired. Why not? Was it because she didn’t take on projects beyond her regular job duties? Was she irresponsible on the job? Was she a poor reference librarian? No! It’s because she did not shout from the rooftops the value she brings to the library and it patrons. We may think that others know how good the work is we do, but often those in positions of power to hire and fire, do not know the value we bring to our organization. We must tell them, verbally and in writing and we must tell them continually and then we must show them. We must never assume they know. As we expand our skillset and move into expanded areas in a library, information center or in information and knowledge management, we are transformed and become invaluable to our organizations and clients and contribute positively to the bottom line. Demonstrating our value We have to engage our users and clients on their terms and add value where we can.

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Do you have a very visible web and other online presence on LinkedIn or a work-related or professional blog? Are you the innovator in your organization to implement, model and test Web 2.0 and other strategic tools? We need to be comfortable that we add value, possibly in ways new to us. We are likely working with millenials and others for whom texting and Web 2.0 networking is where they are at. This may not be true of all our potential users/clients, but we need to be agile enough to live in the print, digital and virtual worlds. This doesn’t mean being an expert, but knowing enough to speak intelligently about Web 2.0 tools and how to use them. “We must find a way to involve ourselves in projects, products and plans that not only ensure our continued employment, but also have an effect on the bottom line [and] have maximum impact on the organization. [We must] effectively align ourselves with the primary objectives of our organization.” “Reinventing ourselves for success” by Jamal Cromity and Barry Miller. Information Outlook, Dec. 2009, p. 29. What are some roles outside the library? Here is a sampling of emerging job titles. What do they mean to our users and customers and to us as information professionals? • • • • • • • • • • •

Metadata Librarian Human Factors Engineer Information Architect Brand Archivist Knowledge Manager Library Partnerships Manager User Experience Researcher Digital Initiatives Librarian Taxonomist SharePoint Power User Document Logistics Manager

With these types of job titles in mind, the skills required and requested by employers and clients continue to expand and change. “Hiring managers assume someone with an MLIS degree has learned the requisite library skills. What differentiates job candidates are the other skills managers want.” ~Jill HurstWahl, Associate Professor, Syracuse University School of Information Studies How do you differentiate yourself from the pack?

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Transferrable Skills There are transferrable skills we already have (or perhaps need to strengthen) that will empower us to become more valuable in our libraries or move into careers that utilize our info pro and librarian skills. Are you turning information into strategic knowledge? Our IT colleagues are working in these areas, but don’t have the skills we possess or can strengthen:     

Enterprise content management (ECM) Document management (DM) Digital/media asset management (DAM/MAM) Records management/records information management (RM/RIM) Knowledge management/knowledge services (KM/KS)

Many of you may already be doing this, but have not used these terms and definitions. Most staff in these positions are IT people, who are good with systems, but not with organizing strategic information to make it findable. This is what we do! I’ve heard my public and school librarian colleagues say that this is for specialized or academic libraries, but that is not true. Most public libraries have a history room or other local collections and every school has historical information that needs to be accessed. One of my colleagues is in the midst of a multi-year digitizing and indexing project in a public library history room. He will be monetizing and selling products created from this ongoing initiative. Another colleague is working with private K12 schools to help them organize the thousands of photos they take each year. These photos are not only for parents and students, but also for alumni and trustees and are important for fundraising. We are the solution Most organizations do not have a good way to leverage their institutional knowledge and are drowning in print and digital assets. Most staff have little or no control over their documents and intellectual capital which means they are spinning their wheels. Knowledge professionals (that’s us) are an asset in any organization and more power will come to us if we take advantage of the opportunities out there. We can help! Let’s be agile enough and forward thinking and acting so that we can move on in our profession and earn the respect and gratitude of those we work with, as well as job security and appropriate compensation. 182

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Invest in yourself I’m passionate about what I do and what we do as a profession. Together we can create a more healthy and sustainable future as we grow our skillset and shout from the rooftops the value that we bring to our employers, potential employers and clients. Together we can make change happen, but we must invest in ourselves. Throughout my career I have, most times, paid for my professional conference attendance and for my membership dues. And those investments have paid off in enhancing my work and career opportunities. Invest in yourself. If you don't, who will? Moving forward As info pros, we have a good solid footing from which to grow and develop new and expanded skills. Yes, we are all busy, but if we want to remain employable and moving forward, there are many opportunities to do so, if we think outside the box and act. How will you do this? • •

• •

Volunteering with SLA or other organizations is a great way to expand your skillset Interning is a popular way to gain new skills and network. (Interning isn’t just for students anymore; mid-career internships are a great way to learn new skills.) Taking a class or certification course or attending professional development events Invest in yourself!

WHEN will you do this? In the fall of 2012, my colleague, David Grossman, and I started writing The Librarian’s Skillbook: 51 Career Skills for Information Professionals (www.librarianskillbook.com). We set a goal to do a book signing by the June 2013 SLA conference. That is a measurable goal. We set aside time each week to work on the book. Otherwise, it would not have gotten done. You can do this too. Select a goal, create a timeline, and take small, consistent steps to attain it. Take charge of your career. No one else can do it for you. It’s up to you. Remember, magic happens outside your comfort zone.

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Kudos to the 2013 Movers & Shakers and Some Thoughts on Creating a Path to Being Remarkable By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis As I was writing to the DC SLA membership in my role as DC SLA President, I realized that what I was talking about was something that I wanted to share here on the Government Info Pro too. First, I want to applaud all of the recent Library Journal 2013 Movers & Shakers. I want to call particular attention to those who are DC SLA members, SLA Government Information Division members, or are members of the FEDLINK NewFeds Working group. 

Kenn Bicknell of LA Metro



Jessica Hernandez, FDA



Naomi House of INALJ.com



Hannah Sommers, National Public Radio

Congratulations to each of them! Having seen many of these individuals in action, it doesn’t surprise me to see they made this list of outstanding achievers. In my position as Senior Information Professional at LexisNexis and through my professional activity in SLA, I’m regularly inspired by those around me who step up to the plate and put their energy and vision into play in a tangible way. One of the great things about being a member of a professional association and working in a profession where many astute and energetic colleagues abound is that we have the opportunity to connect with people like Kenn, Jessica, Naomi, and Hannah. They are remarkable professionals. Like all the 2013 Movers & Shakers, each of us strives to develop a path that helps us build and grown our own personal brand of being a remarkable professional. Kenn, Jessica, Naomi, and Hannah have shown us some impressive ways to build those pathways to remarkable. Now, how can we take what they’ve shared with us through their actions and efforts and use it to enhance and refine our own paths? How do we make our own path and each step we take along that path clearer, better, stronger? How do we become and remain remarkable as information professionals?

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Here are a few ideas: Take advantage of the most extraordinary professional resources available to you – each other. Connect. Connect. Connect. Mix up the way you connect so, for instance, you have a virtual community of peers as well as a local group of professionals you network with in person. If all your professional connections tend to be in one area - all law librarians for instance - or are all regional - DC area librarians, then work on expanding your network. Be "connect-able" yourself. Make sure you have an updated LinkedIn profile. And put a picture there please! Be active in your professional association. You’ve invested years of study at significant cost to getting your degree. Don’t stop investing in yourself now that you are in the workplace. Professional associations allow us to be part of a membership that facilitates our efforts to obtain and provide professional support, learn from each other, and inspire each other. Take full advantage of it! This is a powerful professional resource to have at your fingertips. Break the boundaries. If you are located in a place where several associations co-exist, cross the border now and then by attending something sponsored by a professional association you haven’t joined. AALL members – say hello to your friends at SLA and ALA. SLA members – say hi to your colleagues at AALL and ALA. ALA – you get the idea. This goes beyond library associations. For instance, think about SAA (the Society of American Archivists) and ASIS&T (Association for Information Science and Technology). And you can explore well past these suggestions. What are your interests? Where could you be going professionally? What do you need to know or build an expertise in? Are there professional groups you can check out in these areas? Remember, there are a lot of virtual opportunities to connect and learn beyond what we can sometimes get stuck thinking of as our professional borders. Whatever your professional association affiliation, connect with your colleagues. Yes, I'm saying connect again here because it's not enough just to join, you have to participate at some level. Volunteer. Attend a program or event. Plug in virtually through via webinars. Build engagement through social media channels. There are people with expertise out there who are willing to share it with you in webinars, podcasts, blog posts, listservs, and via Twitter and other social media channels. Find them. And connect. Try something new. Never do webinars? Sign up for one. Don’t have time for an evening program? Try a lunchtime event. Like in-person communications? Push your boundaries and sign up for a Twitter account or just follow someone’s Twitter feed for a while like mine @libraryfocus to 185

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see what you can learn by taking a different path or pushing past your comfort zone. Think only about libraries? Look at what people beyond what the library landscape are doing? How can you use that? Make a plan. Think about actions you are going to take as an information professional in general and within the framework of your organization to be remarkable over the next year. Consider what your path to getting there is going to look like. How are you going to learn, what are you going to teach in return, how are you going to expand your network and reach? How are you going to develop and promote your personal professional brand? How are you going to make a difference both personally and professionally to yourself and in turn, your colleagues (both inside and outside the organization)? Finding a way to develop and grow professionally is a must for every one of us. Don’t feel daunted or overwhelmed by the task though. Really, it’s fun, and exciting, and energizing. It will keep you fresh and agile in a changing marketplace. It’s important to remember, you don’t have to take huge actions to make a difference for yourself or others. I’m a big believe in baby steps to get to your goal. So what’s your plan and what’s your path to get there? I sense a few great Best Practices for Government Libraries articles coming out of this question? Read more about writing an article for Best Practices here Submissions Now Open for the 2013 Best Practices for Government Libraries. Originally posted on the Government Info Pro by Marie Kaddell on April 03, 2013 | Permalink

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Where’s Your Destination? By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis The summer months brings up thoughts of destinations. Sun drenched vacations at the beach. Fun-filled road trips across the country. An Alaskan cruise. An airline ticket with your name on it to an exotic location. Or maybe just all the comforts of home with a staycation. For me, it draws forth a restful picture of one whole week in Ocean City, MD reading in the sand with a big glass of iced tea always at hand—sun shining like it’s got a big smile on its face, the waves and the music on my iPod blending to make the perfect song. What about you? Have you been somewhere wonderful this year for a day, a week, or longer? What adventures and memories have you had or are you looking forward to having. What have your destinations been or what will they be? What about from a professional angle? What about your professional destination? Have you considered all the choices available to you? How are you planning to get there? Do you have a roadmap? What are you going to do when you reach your destination? Here are a few thoughts on professional destinations: Set a Course Sometimes our daily work and the demands of life keep us from focusing on our professional goals and continued professional development. We stop thinking about our professional destinations in the midst of just taking care of our current responsibilities. But ask yourself—is this where I want to stop as a professional or is this just one destination on my greater path? Even with the most fulfilling job, there may be destinations within the workplace (or outside of it) you will want to travel to in time. Do you know what they are and where they are? Keep in mind that you can’t get where you are going if you don’t know where you are headed. As Thoreau said, “I learned this, at least, by my experiment: that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours.” Bottom line, know our direction and if you don’t know it, stop and figure it out. Then head toward it.

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Plan your Trip Once you know your direction, you need to plan your trip. Are there things you need to do beforehand to make your trip a success? For instance, if you are traveling to Disney World for a marathon, like DC/SLA President-Elect, Chris Vestal did recently; you’ll need to do some training prior to your departure and have some good running shoes on hand. It’s the same thing with our career. Are there tools you need to have in hand, education you need to get, expertise you need to find a way to build? As you plan for your career destination, make sure you understand what capabilities and knowledge you need to obtain to help you move towards your professional destination and be successful when you get there. Make the Most of the Experience I have always believed that all the things we do on the way to getting to where we are going can come in handy when we get to our destination. That’s not just what we learn in school and through formal training. It’s what we learn through the volunteer work we do. It’s what comes out of the relationships we build through professional associations like SLA. It’s the expertise we develop from serving our community, our colleagues, our family, and our friends. It’s what we gain from taking that extra step – to learn a little more than we think we have to, help a little more than we think we need to, and connect beyond the borders we find it easiest to stay within. August is just a drop past the first half of the year. It’s a great time to make mid-course corrections and still have a significant impact on how we use our time, energy, and resources this year to reach a destination we’ve set our sights on. Take a moment to consider where you’re trying to get to and make sure your sails are set in that direction. It’s okay if your direction takes some twists and turns. You’ll learn from that too. And while you are doing all this traveling towards where you want to get to, please make sure you are deriving the greatest value possible as a member of DC/SLA. Come to a session or attend a webinar and learn something new. Sign up for an event and build your professional network. Get involved in a big or small way in DC/SLA and build your expertise and knowledge. And while you are doing all that, remember to enjoy the journey. Everybody knows half the fun of the trip is getting there. Originally published as the August 19, 2013 DC/SLA President’s Message: Where’s Your Destination? Originally posted on the Government Info Pro by Marie Kaddell on August 20, 2013 | Permalink

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From Librarian to CI Pro: Reinventing Myself One Job at a Time By Kim Schultz, Market Research Professional, http://www.linkedin.com/in/kimlyallschultz Every person must reinvent themselves at some point throughout their career, whether due to a layoff, taking time to care for family, or simply feeling as though you’ve plateaued and want to try something new and challenging. I myself faced a reinvention just under two years ago and am currently facing the prospect of another period of career transition. In both cases I was relocating for family reasons, yet I also felt the urge to shift career direction. While I started off my information career in the more traditional realm of government librarianship, I found myself in a unique role out of graduate school, working in database research and outreach for a NASA contractor. I had one toe in traditional librarianship and one toe in ‘something else.’ Once I moved to an area with far fewer traditional library jobs, I had to start thinking outside the box. I had been interested in pursuing competitive intelligence but wasn’t really sure what it was all about. As luck would have it, a business research position opened up in my area. It seemed to be a perfect fit and sure enough I got the job! Once in this new position I faced quite a few challenges in order to reinvent myself from info pro to CI pro: Instead of focusing on managing discrete resources I had to focus on managing my users’ specific and ever changing intelligence needs. 

I discovered, somewhat painfully, that every industry has their jargon and established processes, and I had to learn and operate within a new business language.



With no other information professionals in my organization, I had to educate my colleagues about what I could do for them and make internal connections with those doing similar work. I also started relying on professional associations for continuing education.



As a solo researcher with no core team of colleagues I had to figure out how to make a visible impact to the organization. This was probably the hardest challenge.

Was I 100% successful at my first reinvention attempt? The simple answer is no. I had some hits and misses but I learned along the way. Career reinvention is a challenging process but that is what can make it so fun. 189

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Below are some tips for helping your own career transitions become a success: 

Be open and ready to learn: If you are working in a new industry become a sponge and soak up all the knowledge you can get: the hot topics, the movers and shakers, the go to websites, blogs, and conferences.



Network, network, network: Reach out to colleagues in your organization, show them how you add value, and become a key contributor in your company. Don’t forget to network outside of your office, both within the information profession and your specific industry.



Create a formalized education plan: Once you are out of the classroom it can be difficult to motivate yourself to continue the learning process. Take advantage of continuing education offered by your employer, professional associations, and courses offered online.



Consider your associations: Being active in professional associations will provide you with contacts and resources when you are looking to reinvent your next career move.



Look beyond...with social media: Follow your favorite thought leaders on Twitter, join in a LinkedIn discussion, and take advantage of the myriad social connections available to you.

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Nexis Direct

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What We Are Doing Now As Embedded Librarians By Ariel Deiaco-Lohr, Director, International Magazine Publishing and Business Development, International Licensing and Alliances; Monica Fulvio, Senior Taxonomist, NGS Technology; Karen Huffman, Manager, SaaS/Cloud Solutions and Collaborative Technologies, NGS Technology

Even though National Geographic has a vibrant library, three information professionals -- Ariel Deiaco-Lohr, Monica Fulvio, and Karen Huffman -- have opted to work in other divisions. As part of the organization’s resources, Ariel, Monica, and Karen tell their experiences since library school as they have evolved their careers as embedded librarians. Our Evolving Roles: A Day in the Life... Ariel Deiaco-Lohr I never intended to become an account manager, or to work in sales or publishing. From the start, I approached my MLIS as a useful businessoriented degree that could propel me to a career in knowledge management at a for-profit company or at one of the many government agencies located in and around DC. However, I have found that the skills and training I picked up in library school to be highly transferrable to my current job in account management and magazine publishing. For me, it is a perfect fit. My division works with publishing houses, on multiple projects, concurrently. We have to have the ability to both share information created by our headquarters, and collect and disseminate content and products created by our partners. It’s a huge flow of information, and my knowledge management and library science background has provided a few keys skills I apply daily in my job. I work with publishers around the globe, licensing my employer’s magazine brands and content, while helping them to increase sales of our licensed magazines outside of the U.S. Every day, I receive emails from our licensees and partners will specific requests for information and assistance. This is the heart of any sales and account management position. Answering these emails is made much easier by my training and experience in conducting reference interviews. Our licensees may only ask for one specific piece of information—for example, the rights to use a photo. My job as an account manager is not only to assist them in getting this information, but also to understand the context of this information need. By conducting a reference interview, I can better understand my licensee’s needs. Often times, this leads to a deeper 193

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knowledge of their sales strategies, and can lead to other ways that we can support their business with additional resources and services. Instead of simply providing a photo, I can point to best practices by other licensees working on similar projects, or provide additional content to support their project. In international licensing—and in any branch of publishing—copyright is undoubtedly king. My time in library school focused intently on copyright education and training, with a focus on fair use and digital copyrights. This literacy in copyright law, while it in no way replaces actual legal advice, has made me very sensitive to reviewing the uses of our content by licensees. It prevents me from sharing content without first researching if we have all the rights to use that content. It also assists me when reviewing international social media accounts and marketing campaigns which may use our content. Although it is not an intuitive leap to make, I would argue that many information professions would make highly skilled account managers simply for the two reasons listed above. It’s a very engaging and creative field, where I can apply the hard skills of librarian science in a very concrete way. Monica Fulvio I’m the taxonomist at National Geographic, where I’m leading a project to come up with a standard language for describing and classifying all of our public-facing content—articles, images, videos, e-commerce, membership data, and more—and then implement systems and workflows that apply that metadata. We’re also building out ontologies to underpin these taxonomies and controlled vocabularies with a richer network of information and relationships, largely based on linked open data. I also support our product team in planning for using this metadata infrastructure for new digital functionality. Taxonomy isn’t itself a product for us, but it’s the necessary infrastructure for much of what we want to do digitally. Want to be able to see that a member is in Rome on their mobile device, and that isn’t their home city, and suggest content about the area for them? This assumes that we have all of our content tagged both with a consistent location vocabulary that includes latitude and longitude, as well knowledge about our members and mobile usage. The core of my job—inventing and maintaining systems for organizing content, largely online—rests on information organization theory, even if I don’t use some of the specifics we learned, like MARC. I focused on cataloging in library school, and worked as a cataloging assistant through school, and being a taxonomist is much like being a meta-cataloger: How should we catalog this? What is important about this content to users, or to our systems, or to our products? What is the best structure & system for describing it?

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I also work with text analytics systems to programmatically generate or suggest metadata through entity extraction and automatic categorization. Working on these systems also has that meta-cataloger quality: When I catalog a document, how do I decide what it’s about? How would I teach a computer program to make that decision? There have also been softer elements of my LIS training that have hugely aided me in my career, to my surprise. The mediating quality of librarians, that ability and desire to act as an interpreter between different groups, facilitating the flow of information between them has been key. For me, this has been sitting on the border between editors, developers, and product owners. I also have to do a great deal of internal education about what metadata is, why it matters, how to best utilize it for products, and how to apply it. The library science training on how to think about informationseeking behavior and sense-making has helped inform my work with designing digital products; it’s a valuable and distinct framework for considering online interactions. Working as a taxonomist sure isn’t what I imagined I’d be doing when I started library school, but it’s a natural arc from my LIS degree, and getting to do this kind of knowledge modeling at National Geographic is a delight. Karen Huffman I am currently manager of Software as a Service (SaaS)/cloud-hosted applications and collaborative technologies for our internal business users and partners. It is a pretty “cool” job realizing all the fun apps I get to play around with. Since I started at National Geographic, I have had a wanderlust for systems and technologies as they offered challenges beyond my current roles, and I saw opportunities to streamline workflows and ease access. In addition, I was able to translate ideas from others into graphical representations and workflows. As a result I accidentally “fell” into the library world in my pursuit of a more technical job during the big Y2K system conversion projects that many organizations were facing with older systems that needed to be replaced before the year 2000. I remember when my director suggested going to library school and, I naively thought, how hard could it be to complete 36 credits!?! Well, was I in for a surprise! Despite some of my early frustrations with a reference class, I quickly found courses that excited me related to the technology side of the discipline including digital libraries, knowledge systems that would allow for easier access to content, and information organization. Throughout my master’s program while working in the libraries at National Geographic as well as a consultant for some public libraries and taking on leadership roles in the Special Libraries Association, I came to better understand the 195

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importance of user-computer interaction and design, action-oriented project management, and community involvement. With the explosion of the Internet and social networking tools, I started seeing opportunities for the development of collaborative communities using hosted solutions.

Word cloud generated by Wordle.net summarizing my current major initiatives.

In 2008 I was offered an opportunity to work for National Geographic’s IT division. They wanted someone with my expertise in the collaborative and social media arenas (or perhaps they wanted to squelch a rogue entity in the organization [LOL]). Five years later, my title has evolved to manager of SaaS/Cloud Apps and Collaborative Technologies. So what does this mean? My responsibilities are threefold: 1. Manage cloud-based services including Google Apps for Business, cloud-hosted file share solutions, real-time communication/collaboration tools, and my organization’s single signon solution. 2. Develop business strategies for evolving our enterprise architecture, regularly market our tools and services, and evolve our best practices and training materials for our internal business groups. 3. Participate and lead user community discussions and groups. Also collaborate closely with cloud vendors on product improvements.

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As a result.... ● National Geographic staff look to our guidance and "invite us to the table" earlier in their process. ● Our organization is recognized as a thought leader in the external communities. ● In the dynamic world of emerging cloud technologies, community conversations have greater value and impact than official vendor support. When people asked how I got to where I am, I have to say that I had not envisioned this role for me although I do see that it perfectly fits my work ethic, interests, and personality. Although I have related the path to my current position, I don’t know that I can recommend the road I took as the business and IT landscapes are constantly changing. What I can recommend is that you should listen to what others are doing; open conversions with internal and external communities; actively participate and share your expertise and experience; and, finally, move in the direction that makes sense for you. At the end of the day, when you realize what excites your bones (or boils your blood), you will benefit not only the organization in which you work but also yourself and your profession. Conclusion Although what we are doing now was not something we thought about when in library school, Ariel, Monica, and Karen all agree that their positions “fit” them really well. The information science discipline offers a foundation and skills that works well across many areas within an organization.

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Modern Tools Solve Ancient Riddle By Cindy Romaine, MLIS, Principal, Romainiacs Intelligent Research In order to manage evolving resources, librarians and information professionals need to envision and utilize new strategies for solving the ancient riddle of getting the right information to the right people at the right time. In this case study, we demonstrate how, by working collaboratively with the client, we used modern tools to produce a web portal that pulls data from nearly 100 sources, combines and filters internal and external information, and produces a daily briefing to keep stakeholders up to date. We also demonstrate the embedded and critical role that information professionals played in this project. Background The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit formed in the late 1990s in southern California to coordinate domain naming, address block assignment, and the overall safety and security of the Internet. Using a multi-stakeholder model, ICANN has the responsibility to build consensus and promote transparency. To achieve this, they generate a vast amount of information on a daily basis using many different systems, tools, and communication platforms. The Challenge As the amount of content and platforms at ICANN grew, it became increasingly difficult to manage and coordinate. It also became more difficult for ICANN stakeholders to keep track of the information that they needed for decision-making and issue tracking. ICANN’s platforms are rich with reports, news alerts, podcasts, correspondence, RSS feeds, videos, newsletters, blog posts, and Tweets. Without some kind of controls, newcomers and returning visitors alike have a difficult time navigating the all-too-familiar fire hose of data that is a constant challenge for information professionals at all levels. Denise Michel, advisor to ICANN CEO Fadi Chehadé, wrote in an email that ICANN.org "holds a tremendous amount of content in multiple languages, and several groups are discussing the same or similar topics. It is not always easy or quick to find the latest report, correspondence, meeting notice, etc., on a particular topic of interest."2 ICANN needed a way to allow interested parties to easily prioritize and filter the deluge of data and to personalize their view of ICANN’s activities. The Solution In late summer 2012, newly-appointed ICANN CEO Fadi Chehadé understood that solving these information and collaboration challenges were crucial to 198

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the entire ICANN community. He formed a small team and asked them to create a solution that would gather, organize, and distribute information about ICANN activities. Called “myICANN,” the idea was to provide users with a central place that would easily and consistently deliver the users with news of interest to them, without sifting through the entirety of ICANN’s data deluge. To accomplish this, ICANN needed a platform capable of aggregating and managing information from disparate sources and systems. ICANN chartered SecondRise and SecondRise worked with a content aggregation tool called Attensa, to develop a framework that streamlines information aggregation, curation, and distribution. While there are many tools available for aggregation, the Attensa product provides the features and functionality to manage, customize, and distribute internal and external RSS news feeds and email sources and provides daily briefings. Follow this link for a video of Fadi Chehadé introducing MyICANN and explaining the strategy behind the project. The Implementation Process From the beginning of the project it was clear that implementing myICANN would involve some unique challenges. We had nearly 100 separate information sources and a variety of publishing platforms. First we had to understand the nature of each source and ICANN’s overall communication objectives. Our implementation process included these steps:

   

Creating an inventory of information and publishing systems Assessing the topical classifications appropriate for ICANN’s communication objectives Mapping the information sources into the topics Monitoring the resulting topics and fine-tuning them as needed

A small group of information specialists reviewed the ICANN sites in order to understand the organization’s work products and processes. They met frequently with key stakeholders to begin the process of collaborating and coordinating the technology solution. A focus group of ICANN staff members offered initial insights into topic areas and corporate priorities. The initial assessment found the following issues and challenges: 199

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Findings

Challenges

There are many links to assist users in finding content.

Organizing links so that stakeholders can easily follow issues.

RSS feeds are in place for some content.

Obtaining comprehensive content from all relevant ICANN sources.

Certain websites contain static information which is used extensively, but which does not update dynamically.

Obtaining RSS feeds with relevant dynamic content.

Some RSS feeds produce the article title with no other content or context. RSS feeds for newsletters read the newsletter as one unit rather than multiple individual articles.

Preparing articles so they include descriptive content.

Many sites post native file documents (.pdf, .doc, .xls, .ppt.).

Preparing articles so content in attachments is available.

There is no definitive map of wiki content and topics.

Aligning website addresses, RSS feeds and content topics.

There is no tagging or standardized metadata.

Preparing a taxonomy to organize information against ICANN content.

Newsletters contain information that may duplicate information presented elsewhere.

Avoiding duplicate articles.

Deconstructing the newsletters so individual articles can be directed to the correct stream.

Aggregation Model In order to address these challenges, the team delineated the content aggregation model detailed in the chart below. Using a collaborative, consensus-building approach, information specialists organized the ICANN sources into logical groups, which were then refined by ICANN’s project stakeholders. After much discussion, the team established a taxonomy that 200

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aligned content against ICANN’s advisory committees, supporting organizations, and special projects for its initial launch. The content aggregation tool enabled the information professionals to create a topical organization structure for the relatively unstructured ICANN information. The information professionals automated the process of organizing and filtering the available information, regardless of source, into topics or activity streams. The myICANN portal pulls information from ICANN sites and allows content users to create their own custom views.

Figure 1. Content aggregation schema developed for myICANN project.

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Figure 2. Source – Topic Transformation. Note that aggregation and filtering allows content to be customized to the client’s specifications. Delivery & Personalization Since the information that ICANN produces updates constantly it is difficult for stakeholders to keep track of new information on the topics they care about. myICANN takes advantage of the aggregation tool’s ability to produce a daily briefing on the user’s choice of topics. Stakeholders can follow just the issues pertinent to them, customized to their areas of interest. It is delivered email, smartphone or tablet.

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Figure 3. Workflow diagram of the myICANN solution.

Figure 4. myICANN portal home page: www.myicann.org.

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Figure 6. myICANN DAILY BRIEFING: www.myicann.org Launch myICANN launched its beta version on October 15, 2012 in the opening ceremony of the ICANN triennial conference in Toronto. The CEO announced the project with a presentation to a group of approximately 600 stakeholders that was streamed live around the world, stating that “ICANN.org will continue to be a great vehicle for communications, for publication, for education. Anyone new coming to learn what is ICANN, that’s what ICANN.org is. But what we were missing is an area for stakeholder engagement, an area where people can come and get their work done. So I’m happy to announce today myICANN.org. You can go to it right now on any device, it’s completely mobile-aware and mobile-ready. Myicann.org is an addition to ICANN.org.” 1

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The press and bloggers, including PC World magazine gave the project universally positive reviews. During the initial launch, myICANN received 700+ page views per minute. As PC World said “myICANN allows users to sign up for email alerts related to 18 topics, including security, top level domains, and the organization's WHOIS service. Users of myICANN can also see a stream of their selected topics at myICANN.org. Critics of ICANN have long questioned the transparency of the organization. ICANN officials have defended the group's transparency, but acknowledged that all the information they release can be scattered across the website. Officials hope myICANN will increase participation in the organization, they said.” 2 Conclusion By collaborating closely with key stakeholders, understanding the nuances of the data deluge confronting ICANN stakeholders, and communicating continually about key dates and “must-have” results, information professionals showed that we can solve the information overload problem facing today’s knowledge workers and make them better informed and more productive. Endnotes Berkens, Michael “ICANN Launches MYICANN.ORG Beta” The Domains, October 15, 2012. http://www.thedomains.com/2012/10/15/icann-launchesmyicann-org-beta/ 2 Gross, Grant, “ICANN promotes new personalized website service.” PC World, October 15, 2012. http://www.pcworld.com/article/2012085/icannpromotes-new-personalized-website-service.html myICANN home page: myICANN.org Video demonstration by Chehadé: Fadi Chehadé Demonstrates MyICANN | ICANN 45 | Toronto | 16 Oct 1

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Ch-ch-ch-changes … By Bob Farina, MSLIS, Entrepreneur, Minor Potentate of Logogrammatic Research & Analysis, Data Wrangler, etc.

I was recently reminded by one of my staff that in the year I graduated college, she was born. Arrrghh! Oh well, the circle of life has its pros & cons I guess. But as I reflect on some of the library tech wars of the last century – PC versus Mac, microform versus CD-ROM, Beta versus VHS – I’m surprised that as a profession, librarians are still jumping at the bait that some publishers are still spinning above murky waters. In marketing terms, the new toys are part of the evolving, maturing nature of the industry, but we’re really all still chasing after that smaller, faster, more powerful chip that is expected to crunch gigunda-digits of processing power to put stacks of textbooks, tunes and videos into a multi-colored phantasmagoria of sight and sound the likes of which have not been seen since the last alien crash-landed on earth and handed our prehistoric forbears – “technology.” (Trumpets blare, the 2001 theme commences, etc.). Ok, so now we’ve got some cool devices that will someday make the Star Trek holodeck a reality, but where’s the beef? We seem to have more engineers who can build dreams but few dreamers who can build a future. Sustainability in human terms requires communication, cooperation, learning, and educating. The fact is that we’ve got a pretty good volume of human thought and knowledge with devices to stuff it into, but if it’s not entertaining to the masses, it only goes straight to DVD or PBS. It’s about money, honey! The really esoteric and intellectual stuff will be put in a cloud somewhere and publishers will sell chunks of “classic works” priced by the number of “likes” received in the social media. Of course if it’s text – as in old style prose (like this article), eventually no one will know how to make sense of it. In proper form, it would be txtd 4all 2 rd or made into an audiobook as read by Morgan Freeman. No longer is anything free, or shared, or passed on, or used more than once without paying by the drink, so to speak. Alvin Toffler has indeed beheld a son today. So where am I going with this? I’m just relaying that uneasy feeling about a rumbling beneath the surface that I feel when classroom “books” need a battery to be seen, intellectual property is only a commodity and the poor rely on paper mostly as a heat source. Ok, we’re not quite that far along yet, 206

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but what will become of the “keepers of knowledge” and who but the technical literati will continue to drive the evolution of the masses into a digital world of haves and have-nots? Our access to information is being marginalized by the expense of technological innovation which is aimed at our exploration of the galaxy and the “call of duty” to blow stuff up if only in the virtual realm. The world needs a little more knowledge, understanding, empathy & compassion, but our society hasn’t been putting much value in any of that for a while. Maybe it’s time for more people to put down some of their toys and become adults; learn some lessons to pass on to their kids and neighbors by talking to them instead of tweeting at them. That’s evolution.

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Drawings by Robert Farina

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No Fools Gold: Mining the Mother Lode of Volunteer and Professional Association Experience By Jan Zastrow, MLIS, MA, CA With all of the budget cuts, sequestration and furloughs going on these days in the Federal Government, it’s easy to feel at a loss, unmoored as a disenfranchised federal employee. But unlike so many other fields, our role as information professionals provides us the opportunity to work in an almost limitless number of organizations. We don’t have to work for the Feds, even in Washington, DC! This gives us a safety net—a kind of lifejacket as it were—to the tides of change blowing across our Sea of Careers. In the 2012 Best Practices for Government Libraries, Cindy Romaine, 2011 SLA President, wrote on the subject of transformation: “If there is one summary statement, it’s this: Don’t get comfortable!” Transition and transformation are the hallmarks of our profession, just as growth and development are too. Want proof? Think back to what your job looked like, say, 10 or 15 years ago. We will certainly continue to evolve no matter what the workday or “library” looks like in the future. We may not even be in a library at all; trends like shrinking workspaces, telework and “virtual doorsteps” will surely affect the where and the how of our work. In Library School we learned that we didn’t have to memorize every fact and figure that our future patrons might need, but where to look for the answers—we studied the resources. Now more than ever, we, as information professionals, provide access to evolving resources … and in fact, we are the evolving resource! My story illustrates the point. As a tenured faculty member at a state university and then employed twice in the U.S. Senate by two different members of Congress, I was familiar with bureaucracies. But my boss retired in January and no one on the Hill was hiring. Harrumph. Certainly I could look for employment elsewhere—at a federal agency, a think tank, a nonprofit, a corporation, another educational institution—but none of these would give me the same high-octane fix, the kind of gritty glamor of “making headlines and history” that the crucible of Congress offers up daily. Luckily, I’m willing (and able) to wait for the next go-round in the legislative cycle. The question then became how to keep my skills sharp, build expertise in new skill sets, and continue making connections until the next right opportunity came along. The answer in a nutshell: mining the value of 209

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volunteer experiences and getting more involved in professional associations. In order to keep myself current, I volunteered two days a week at the Image Collection and Fieldwork Archives at Dumbarton Oaks in their Byzantine collections. There I did archival research, outlined a processing plan and finding aid for one of its foundational collections, dusted off some longdormant rehousing and preservation skills, attended brownbags, hobnobbed with the visiting Harvard fellows, attended museum talks, you name it. My current project is working with the Dumbarton Oaks archivist/art historian in researching the “stumpers” from the 2,000+ footnotes and transcription of the founders’ original correspondence—an opportunity my former positions never afforded me and I’m loving it! I’ve also revved up my involvement with the Special Libraries Association and now serve on the DC/SLA Communications Team. I recap events on our blog, and with the assistance of our IT guru, I learned how to build a Social Media Directory. (To participate in the Directory please go to http://dc.sla.org/get-involved/social-media-directory/). I also serve on the Steering Committee of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference (“MARAC”) as liaison with the National Coalition for History, and am active with the Society of American Archivists. I’m a mentor to new professionals through the Records Management Roundtable, and serve as co-chair on the Electronic Records Committee of the Congressional Papers Roundtable. I also joined the National Press Club at the “communicator” level (most all librarians are eligible) and signed up for the History & Heritage Committee. We’re collaborating with the Library of Congress on an Oral History project so I’m learning a bit about conducting, digitizing and indexing oral histories. We also plan events to commemorate centennial milestones, develop historical web content and more. I take advantage of the Press Club’s professional development sessions to learn how to improve my use of Twitter and LinkedIn, even how to blog for a “beat”—it’s fun, I’m learning a lot, and I’ll be that much more marketable with some Social Media skills in my quiver. Life is full, and I’m anything but bored …. In fact I’m starting to wonder how I’ll fit a full-time job into my busy schedule! The point is, even for this late career Info Pro there’s lots more to do and learn. I’m thankful to have this time-out to explore new opportunities and interests. And when I go back to paid employment, I’ll feel refreshed and invigorated, full of new capabilities, ideas and most importantly passion, ready to commit myself fully for the last stretch of my career.

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Final takeaways: Tips, Tricks & Lessons Learned          

Dare to pursue (or wait for) your “dream job” Volunteer at places you’re interested in Get active in professional associations Find avocational outlets for your talents Consider starting your own business Network, network, network (did I say network? :) Offer to write about what you know Take a workshop, webinar or class on what you don’t know Enjoy your time off; it will fill up soon enough! Never, never, ever lose your curiosity, gratitude, wonder and passion

Jan Zastrow is a Senior Information Professional, Knowledge Manager, Certified Archivist and Librarian based in Washington, DC. She previously worked in the U.S. Senate, the University of Hawaii at Manoa Library, and as principal of HyperClick Online Services in Honolulu. Follow her @JanZastrow or email at [email protected]

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Learning About Current Federal Libraries’ Resources By Angela J.A. Kent, Recent MLIS Graduate

The 35th Federal Library Resources Institute, hosted by the Catholic University of America took place this past July 7-13, 2013. For one week, my fellow Library & Information Sciences (LIS) peers and I, visited and learned about the diversity of federal libraries. We used FEDLINK’s “Competencies for Federal Librarians” and “Seven Information Trends.” Led by Michelle Masias (Department of Justice) and Mark Brzozowski (The Catholic University of America), our class met librarians from nearly ten federal agencies in one week. Of the many federal libraries within just the D.C. region, the Federal Libraries Resources Institute visited and/or met with librarians from the following departments and agencies: the Library of Congress (LOC), Department of the Interior (DOI), Department of Justice (DOJ), the Federal Reserve Board, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Archives & Records Administration (NARA), the Government Printing Office (GPO), the Defense Technology & Information Center (DTIC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). If you’re interested in reading more about these specific experiences, I posted my daily entries on my blog here: http://ajakent.wordpress.com/category/clsc-887-federal-libraries/ The federal librarians we met had different information demands and, therefore, different ways of managing their library’s resources. Library of Congress: Library of last resort, library of first resort For some librarians, namely conservationists, the Library of Congress (LOC) is viewed as the library of last resort. The LOC, with its broad collection mission and resources can be viewed as the library of last resort. To house and conserve such a large collection, the LOC has invested in resources, like a box maker for fragile materials, not found in many other institutions. Additionally, the LOC invests in preservation and conservation testing and research, two areas that many other institutions cannot invest in. For these efforts, LOC preservations and conservationists can then share recommended preservation standards. These recommendations not only assist other libraries, but individuals who are looking to preserve their personal treasures. The other side of the LOC as the library of last resort, is the LOC as the library of first resort. This was presented most clearly by the Digital 212

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Reference Section. As most other librarians have experienced, the Internet makes it possible to assist individuals well beyond the boundaries of their physical libraries. At the LOC, some researchers will think first of the Library of Congress before their local public library. In order to manage and prioritize the digital flow of reference questions, the LOC invests in reference services programs that allow questions to be answered in order of receipt or delegated to the appropriate points of contact. Quite similar to Information Technology (IT) services ticket programs. Department of Interior: Agency of everything else What happens when your federal library has a history of being the “agency of everything else?” How do you preserve? How do you collect? How do you select hard and electronic resources? The Department of the Interior’s (DOI) library answers these questions on a regular basis, while also delivering research instruction that is open to the public. Their website reflects the variety (and challenge) of speaking to different audiences; notably resources for department employees (which span the professions of scientist to park ranger) and the general public. The evolution of resources can literally be traced within the DOI library’s stacks. Hard copies of union catalogs and Congressional Indexes, to their online access, to their in-person speaker series and training sessions, to their subscription to various online databases and digital libraries. There were two libraries whose missions reflected the lifecycle of government documents: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) library and the Government Printing Office (GPO). National Institutes of Health: From discovery to publication The National Institutes of Health (NIH) library focused their resources that helped their researchers with their discoveries, generating useful data from those discoveries, and assisting with publications. Specifically, they use Springshare’s LibGuides to ensure their resources are reaching across the NIH campus and around the globe, with online library resource analytics that are captured in part by Google Analytics. Unique to the NIH, they have invested in a full Bioinformatics Program (http://nihlibrary.nih.gov/Services/Bioinformatics/Pages/default.aspx) that supports and serves NIH researchers with generating analysis from raw data. They have also made a large investment in computers that can process and store large amounts of data, available through the library, supported by library IT staff. On the publication end, the NIH Library offers editing services, among other traditional library resources and services.

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Government Printing Office: From publication to preservation On the other end of the government document spectrum is the work of the Government Printing Office (GPO). While the GPO does not house or maintain a collection of government documents, they make government documents available and accessible through their catalog (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/), while also developing guidelines and procedures to ensure that government documents that are available online are accurate and unaltered. Their catalog, along with the article level metadata and faceted search options, makes the FDsys a significant source for legislative history, specifically, and government documents, writ large. Of note, was their emphasis in authentication (http://www.gpo.gov/authentication/faq/), particularly since we had not heard this emphasized by other libraries. Promoting public access to resources and data A common issue among federal libraries is the balancing of library resources and services for departmental employees and those that can be made available to the public. On a daily basis, federal libraries can be challenged with knowing that their resources are publicly funded, but cannot be made available to the public. While the purpose of a federal library’s resources is to ultimately serve the public interest, the route can necessarily become quite indirect. Yet, regardless of department, each federal librarian spoke directly about how they serve the American public and the importance of making publicly-funded, government documents and data available to the American public. One trend that I noted throughout the week was how federal agencies, and federal libraries specifically, practiced making publicly-funded government information discoverable and accessible. While providing “open source” information is a general library practice, federal libraries can also face security (e.g. classified information) or even accessibility (e.g. grey sources) limitations. Across the government, federal libraries are now assisted by the Open Government Initiative (http://www.whitehouse.gov/open) mandate and the Office of Science and Technology Public Access Policy (http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp/library/publicaccesspol icy). With regard to open data, at the National Library of Medicine, for example, they make that their data completely available so that users can develop their own products. The NIH is set to become the standard-bearer for government-funded publications for the rest of the science and technology government community. Ultimately, where others may be reticent or even against such actions, librarians are champions and leaders in bringing these materials and data to the American people.

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Resourcefulness and Creativity One of the few similarities shared among federal libraries is the need for resourceful and creative librarians. Sequestration, shrinking personnel, and more, must be faced, all while meeting the ever-increasing demand for information. This requires making the right library resource investments, getting what you need out of your resources in a (sometimes) creative way, and all the while addressing questions of access and security. If there was one resource that evolved the most within each of the federal libraries we visited, it was the librarians themselves. __________ Angela June Aranas Kent (ajakent.wordpress.com) is an MSc. LIS Candidate (2013) at the Catholic University of America. She is a member of the DC/SLA Program Planning and Strategic Planning committees and the immediate past president of the SLA/CUA student chapter. She was the DC/SLA’s Catherine A. Jones Memorial Scholarship Winner (2012) and the Annual Conference Travel Stipend Winner (2013).

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Venturing into Unknown Waters: Librarian Goes KM By Aileen Marshall, Co-Founder, Alleman & Marshall Consulting, LLC

“I don’t understand why collaboration within our team did not work! We have the technology, the programs! We even set up a Google site for everyone to work on. In the end, there was more confusion than when we started to work on this.” Sound familiar? Sounds like our little friend needs more than technology. He needs Knowledge Management … and you do, too! In today’s technology-driven work environments, remarks like this are unfortunately all too common. With workplaces becoming more and more decentralized, with employees and team members scattered across different regions, it is tempting to assume that setting up a digital workspace (be it Google Sites, Google Docs, SharePoint, Wikis or other tools) will magically tie everything and everybody together, enhance collaboration and increase efficiency with a few single keystrokes. Unfortunately, the mere existence (and implementation) of technology and tools with collaborative features is not a guarantee for successful teamwork. You and your organization will need dedicated Knowledge Management Professionals that will analyze your company’s work flows and processes, and come up with solutions that enable you to collaborate in a way that works for you. Do you have KM? When asked “How would you define Knowledge Management?”, a Knowledge Manager with years and years of experience once said: “As an impossible dream.” It so happens that since April 2013, I am living (in) this impossible dream. After spending about five years working in different libraries, I decided to reinvent myself accepted a position as a Knowledge Management Analyst, 216

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working as a contractor for the federal government. I’ve always been interested in using my education to cross the bridge from being a librarian to being an analyst. Little did I know what would await me, but I can happily say that so far, I’ve enjoyed every minute of it. I have a wonderful team and a great team lead (aka mentor) that allows me to develop my professional skills and evolve as a person. One of the first things I learned was that people either raise their eyebrows or frown when they hear “Knowledge Management.” “So, what exactly do you do?” they would ask, and I had to admit that it was a pretty good question. Throw in terms like “tacit knowledge and intellectual capital” and you will most likely have lost the majority of your audience. By connecting people, processes and technology, Knowledge Management is a holistic approach to solving problems in an organization. A functioning Knowledge Management program can foster innovation by encouraging people to bring new ideas to the table, improve decision making, streamline workflows and operations and therefore reduce cost and boost revenues, among other benefits. So what’s the problem here? Sounds great, doesn’t it? Why would an organization NOT ensure that they have KM? “Sharing? No way! If others know what I know, they might not need me anymore!” One of the most prevalent problems I quickly came to see are organizational cultures. Although organizations are seeing the value of corporate knowledge and fostering knowledge sharing, the best intentions oftentimes get lost once you go down the organizational structure. It’s human nature to sometimes resist change, wanting to keep things “the way they have always been done”. And then there’s the big problem of sharing knowledge. Yes, the very essence of any KM program turns out to be one of the biggest hurdles: People are scared to share. They worry that by giving up what they know, they will become expendable. What does all of this mean for us as Knowledge Managers? We need to showcase the benefits that a good KM program brings to everyone in the organization, from the bottom to the top. Explain that technology alone does not solve the challenges we face today: information overload, tight deadlines, and shrinking budgets. Changing the way people think, influencing an organizational culture is everything but easy, but with persistence, patience, good examples passion for what you do, you can make a difference and help your organization on its way toward success. As for myself, I enjoy the challenges I face very day, and I enjoy the look on 217

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people’s faces when I tell them that my LIS education has given me the skills I need to succeed in this job and the environment I am in. -----The contents of this article do not reflect the opinion of the author’s employer or the federal government.

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Lexis Diligence

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Yes, There’s an App for That: iPad and iPhone Productivity Apps for Librarians By Bonnie Shucha, Assistant Director for Public Services, University of Wisconsin Law Library

It seems like there’s an app for just about everything these days, from the very helpful to the truly bizarre. But with so many apps on the market, it can be hard to separate the former from the latter. The guide will introduce a number of helpful iPad and iPhone apps for librarians, both to help them increase work productivity and to better manage their daily lives. Most are free or very low cost. Apps are grouped into the following categories: Documents & Notetaking; Search; Speech & Language; Organization; Travel; and Consumer.

Documents & Notetaking PDF Master – free http://snap.vu/jrr5 Read, annotate, and share PDFs with this free app. With PDF Master, you can add notes, highlight texts, insert stamps and bookmarks, and sign PDFs. Share by email or transfer to cloud storage on Dropbox, Google Drive and Box. Pages - $10 http://snap.vu/nezk Create, edit, and view documents with this complete word processor for iPad and iPhone. Easily add images, create beautiful charts, and/or use one of the many available templates. Compatible with MS Word. Pages works with iCloud so your documents automatically sync on all enabled devices and computers. You can also share documents by email, transfer to other cloud storage, and print wirelessly with AirPrint, which includes page range selection, number of copies, and two-sided printing.

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JotNot Scanner Pro - $1 http://snap.vu/d6ya Use JotNot and your camera to create high quality PDF images of documents, receipts, whiteboards, business cards, notes, recipes, photographs, and more. Automatically detects edges and processes images to remove shadows, correct contrast, and adjust white balance. Supports multiple-page document creation and can add, delete, or reorder pages. For sensitive information JotNot can password protect your PDFs. Share your documents by email, transfer to cloud storage on Evernote, Dropbox, Google Docs, and Box, or print them through AirPrint. ImageToText – Free http://snap.vu/6vi6 ImageToText is another document scanner, but this one extracts text using OCR. Take a picture of a document and email it. Receive a copy of the image along with the editable text that is extracted from the image. Note that the quality of the image is not as good as the scans created with JotNot Pro. However, the quality of the extracted text is quite good, as long as the original in clean. English documents only. Evernote - Free http://snap.vu/7ikx This powerful note taking app helps you stay organized, save your ideas, and improve productivity. Take notes, capture photos, clip web pages, create to-do lists, record voice reminders and all are completely searchable – even printed and handwritten text inside images. Share notes and notebooks with colleagues and friends or post to Facebook or Twitter. Evernote is available in many languages and integrates with lots other apps. Although a basic account is free, the premium account offers additional storage and features, including offline access and advanced collaboration.

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Search

RedLaser - Free http://snap.vu/gae8 RedLaser searches millions of products across thousands of online and local retailers to find the best prices. Scan UPC and QR codes or type your search terms to compare prices and find the best deals and coupons for thousands of online and local retailers. Also includes product descriptions, reviews, and nutritional information. Using data from WorldCat, RedLaser will also tell you if the item you’ve scanned is available at a local library.

Google Search - Free http://snap.vu/nc7g This app from Google offers several advanced search features. Search hands-free with enhanced Voice Search. Simply say what you want and get results spoken directly back to you. Use pictures to search the web with Google Goggles. Snap a photo of what you see to find more information about products, logos, landmarks, famous art works, and even solve Sudoku puzzles. With Google Now, you can get directions with traffic estimates, bus schedules, flight updates, sports scores, package tracking, and more.

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Speech & Language

NaturalReader - Free http://snap.vu/pzi7 This text-to-speech (TTS) application converts PDF files, MS Word documents, and e-books into spoken words. Provides 30+ voices in 5 languages with adjustable reading speed. Use it to catch up on your reading when you’re on the go or to simply avoid the eyestrain of reading on a small screen. It is also a useful proofreading tool to help you identify mistakes and give you a sense of the natural flow of the text. NaturalReader is great for visually impaired users or those with dyslexia or other learning difficulties. Open documents from your computer, email attachments, Dropbox or the web. Simply tap a sentence, and NaturalReader begins reading aloud from that point. Follow along with written text that automatically scrolls up the screen as it is being read. iTranslate Voice - $2 http://snap.vu/dkzu Instantly speak another language, voiceto-voice. Just speak into your phone and iTranslate Voice immediately replies (both audio and text) in one of 42 languages. Look up definitions and translations for common words & phrases. Connect devices together with AirTranslate and easily engage in conversation with other people. Ideal for communicating with patrons in other languages or for travelling around the world. Also useful for practicing your own foreign language skills.

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Organization

Remember the Milk - Free http://snap.vu/nyib This app is the Swiss Army knife of to-do list management. Add tasks directly, via email, or tell Siri to add them for you. Set priorities, due dates, time estimates, repeating lists, tags, and more. Get reminders via email, SMS, and instant messenger. Sync with Remember The Milk online and with your mobile devices. Integrates with Outlook, iCal, Gmail, Google Calendar, Twitter, Evernote, and more. Simple Mind – Free (full version $5) http://snap.vu/rpup This mind mapping tool helps you brainstorm ideas and structure thoughts. Easily create, edit, and connect topics. Move or duplicate topics between mind maps. Unfortunately, only the full edition allows you to share and print your mind maps. However, as a workaround, you can capture a screenshot by pressing and holding the menu button (main button below screen), then pressing the power/lock button (at top edge of device). It is saved to your Camera Roll where you can then share it. Use this tip to capture a screen in any iOS app.

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Travel

TripIt - Free http://snap.vu/6yx2 TripIt is an easy way to organize and share travel details. When you receive a confirmation email from an airline, hotel, car rental, restaurant, etc., simply forward it to TripIt. It recognizes the reservation(s) and creates an itinerary with all your trip details. Share trip plans with family members or colleagues directly or via Facebook or LinkedIn. Integrates with GateGuru (below) to track flights. GateGuru - Free http://snap.vu/km25 This app contains real-time flight status specifically customized to your itinerary. Also contains a wealth of airport information. Email your flight itinerary to GateGuru or connect to your TripIt account (above). Receive flight status info with push notifications for changes, terminal and gate arrival and departure information, estimated TSA security wait times, airport maps and amenities, local weather, and more.

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Consumer

FastCustomer - Free http://snap.vu/dvxy Never wait on hold for a customer service agent again! Choose the company and department that you want to contact and tap "Have Someone Call Me." Then sit back and wait while FastCustomer does the work. The app will initiate a call for you, navigating the phone tree to whichever department you need. When an agent is available, FastCustomer will ring your phone (any number that you choose). It’s as simple as that. Gas Buddy - Free http://snap.vu/f3w3 Tap to find the cheapest gas near you. View results as a list or a map. Select a station and get directions. GasBuddy uses gas price information provided by users.

More Apps

AppsGoneFree - Free http://snap.vu/8n38 Looking for more apps? AppsGoneFree will alert you to high quality apps that are available free for a limited time. Is there an app that you’ve been wanting to try but were put off by the high price tag? Nominate the app and AppsGoneFree will approach the developers to let them know that there are customers who would like to try their app if they go free for a short time. 228

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Increasing You Prezence: Why Prezi is the Future of Presentations By Kathryn E. Crandall, JD MS, Research and Instructional Technology Librarian, Florida State University, College of Law Research Center

The average attention span of a gold fish is nine seconds. The average attention span of today’s adult is eight seconds. 1 How do you relay a concept when the recipient’s focus is less than her pet’s? By increasing your prezence! What is Prezi? At its core, Prezi is a virtual whiteboard. One large clean slate opens the door to a multitude of possibilities. However, what truly makes Prezi so special is its zooming technology. These zooming capabilities allow you to emphasize concepts while simultaneously enabling audiences to see, understand, and remember ideas. By using such capabilities to create a seamless and dynamic presentation, your audience’s attention will not only be caught but also held. Besides utilizing spatial design to create concepts and show relationships, Prezi’s varying enhancements and abilities makes it a multifunctional resource that’s ideal for any librarian. How do you use Prezi? Prezi allows you to create presentations from scratch or by using a template. Once the foundation of your story is set, you begin to paint the picture with diagrams, images, YouTube videos, background music, voice-overs, PDFs, PowerPoints and more. All of these enhancements are easily inserted into your Prezi and integrated into the design with the click of a few buttons. Shapes, symbols and color schemes are provided to make your designing easier and to highlight key concepts. After you have utilized the various elements and imported your own content, you use both visible and invisible “frames” to create the roadmap for the zooming technology to follow. This path of frames is what the viewer will monitor on the screen as they view your presentation. Prezi is truly multimedia. To view a Prezi, it can be made public or private, viewed online, viewed on an Android or Apple device, be downloaded as a PDF, or downloaded as a portable Prezi. The portable Prezi is great to use for displays since the screen ratio can be set to 4:3 or 16:9 and there is a timed slideshow feature that allows for automatic looping of the Prezi’s content.

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Why should you use Prezi? Whether for a casual meeting or a professional presentation, Prezi allows for a clear display of ideas. The benefits of using Prezi as a reboot to the traditional PowerPoint presentation have already been demonstrated. However, with all the capabilities of Prezi, I recommend taking it even further. The step-by-step information sharing design of Prezi is perfect for mindmapping sessions. By starting with a clean slate and working outwards, brainstorming with colleagues or planning individually now has a new canvas for ideas that can be organized strategically. Thanks to share-edit capabilities, any one person can create a Prezi and invite others to collaborate on the project from their preferred device. Plus, with automatic saving, Prezi is sure to capture everyone’s ideas and share them with the group simultaneously. Another way to use Prezi, especially as government librarians, is by using the display features. I personally have created a Prezi, downloaded it onto a display computer at my library’s front area, and set it to present automatically by using the loop options as well as the built-in timed slideshow features. Creative transitions and eye-popping zooms draw passer-bys to view the content on my display more than any other program I have used in two year’s worth of presentations. This use of Prezi is particularly helpful to government law librarians who frequently find themselves answering the same questions from the public seeking general legal assistance. Why not create a Prezi that provides answers to commonly asked questions and refer individuals to that Prezi when they walk-in? It is like creating an F.A.Q. area from which people can actually enjoy watching and learning. Furthermore, since Prezis can be made public or private virtually, this F.A.Q. is something you can make accessible to patrons from the comfort of their own home if you so choose. No matter what your reason for using Prezi, it is a great tool for any librarian to have in their tool belt. However, Prezi is just a tool unless you know how to use it properly. Now that I have piqued your interest, and hopefully I did so within eight seconds, I recommend getting started with your own Prezi account. Learn the ins and outs of Prezi by taking advantage of the wide array of training materials or by viewing a “reusable” Prezi. These are great methods to launch your own projects and begin increasing your prezence today! To learn more, please visit the Prezi website at http://www.prezi.com. ------------------------1. http://www.statisticbrain.com/attention-span-statistics/ 230

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Manage Your Research and Writing with Scrivener By Timothy J. Gallina, Clinical Assistant Professor of Law and Reference/Emerging Technologies Librarian, Kathrine R. Everett Law Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Completing a writing project often proves to be a daunting task for even the most seasoned librarian. You try to prepare the text of your document and manage your research, but soon face an overwhelming avalanche of open windows on your computer screen. Enthusiasm quickly turns into frustration when the project consumes all of your attention, leaving little time to work on other matters. If you have found yourself in this difficult situation, consider using Scrivener writing software for future assignments. As you will see below, Scrivener offers a bevy of innovative and accessible features that can help you become a more organized, efficient and productive writer. Now that you are aware of Scrivener, you will naturally have some questions. This article identifies a number of key elements that make the software an attractive resource for librarians. Without further ado, we begin our tour of Scrivener. What Is Scrivener? Scrivener is a writing program designed to assist users with all aspects of the creative process, from initial outline to final draft. Literature & Latte, makers of Scrivener, describe their product as a “writer’s shed.” The description is apt, as the software provides all the tools necessary to structure, compose and edit documents. Can Librarians Use Scrivener? Absolutely. Librarians can use Scrivener for a wide variety of assignments, including scholarly articles, annual reports, research guides and blog posts. In fact, I used it to write the very piece you are now reading. How Do I Get Started? After downloading Scrivener to a Mac or PC, new users will find an interactive tutorial and a series of instructional videos that capably demonstrate basic features, as well as an extensive user manual providing detailed guidance on every facet of the software. Although Scrivener presents an abundance of options, you do not have to be an expert in all of them to use the product effectively. To begin a new project in Scrivener, you must first choose a template. Potential selections include Chicago style essay, ALA and MLA format papers 231

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and research proposal. If these pre-made templates do not fit your needs, you may also select a blank template that will suit any project. What Are Scrivener’s Signature Features? Flexibility is the hallmark of Scrivener. You customize your user experience by relying on the components that will be most helpful to your project. While some parts of Scrivener only work for specific types of writing, many of its main features will appeal to librarians by guiding them through the full spectrum of the writing process. Whether you need help planning, organizing, writing, editing or formatting your project, you will find handy tools to finish the job in Scrivener. We will use a hypothetical assignment to demonstrate how Scrivener works in practice. For this purpose, assume you are working on a journal article about government libraries. You plan to include a literature review and an analysis of the current and future state of the government library system. Planning and Organizing Binder The central Scrivener interface consists of three panes: the Binder, the Editor and the Inspector. The Binder contains two of Scrivener’s most important features: 

Draft

The Draft folder is a vital element of Scrivener, which you will use to assemble the text of your document. Instead of composing one long document as you would with a traditional word processor, Scrivener lets you divide your project into a series of smaller documents that are compiled into a single text when you have completed your writing. You have complete control over the size of each document and can create as many or as few as you like. Depending on the length of your draft, you may end up with a dozen or more documents for a single project. In the case of our hypothetical government libraries paper, you could create five different documents: Introduction, Literature Review, Current State of Government Libraries, The Future of Government Libraries and Conclusion. You can break down the project even further by crafting separate documents for each specific argument raised in your analysis. Also, anytime you decide to rearrange the order of your paper, simply drag and drop the relevant documents to instantly reposition them. Splitting up your draft into a series of smaller fragments makes longer assignments more manageable and, as we will see later, also improves the editing process.

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Research

Many writers struggle to keep track of their research as they constantly click back and forth between various browser tabs. Scrivener eliminates this problem by allowing users to store all of their research in a single location. By facilitating easy access to your research files, the Research folder saves time and promotes efficiency. You can import multiple file formats into this folder, including PDFs, webpages, images, videos and audio recordings.

Inspector The Inspector is an important organizational tool that allows you to assign metadata to your underlying documents. Once you have activated the Inspector, you can add a status, color-coded labels, keywords and custom metadata to a document. You can then easily locate related items by using the Scrivener search box to identify documents that contain a particular form of metadata. Searching by status is especially useful, as it will remind you which parts of your draft are finished and which ones still require further attention. Corkboard One of the more unique features of Scrivener, the Corkboard can greatly improve the organization of your writing. It represents a modern twist on the old writer’s tool, the index card. Every time you create a document, Scrivener attaches a virtual index card to it. You can then add a synopsis to the card and label it by content or theme. As your project takes shape, you will soon have a collection of index cards for every chapter, section and subsection. When you switch to the Corkboard, you will be greeted by an eyecatching roadmap of your project with all of your index cards arranged in the order of their associated documents. You can also select a freeform mode where you position the cards in any manner of your choosing. Subsequent changes to the structure of your project will be automatically reflected on the Corkboard. Outliner In addition to the Corkboard, you can also organize your ideas via the Outliner feature. Selecting the Outliner reveals a multilevel outline of your documents with all of their synopses and any associated metadata (labels, status, word counts, etc.). The Outliner simplifies the process of organizing your work by enabling you to view and revise the entire structure of your draft at the same time. If you need to reorganize particular sections, drag and drop them within the Outliner. You also have the ability to edit titles and synopses and assign labels and statuses.

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Writing and Editing Composition Mode Composition Mode eliminates all of the panes and icons from the Scrivener interface, leaving you with a full-screen version of your document. Composition Mode requires you to concentrate solely on your writing, which can be very important when facing a tight deadline. Split Editor Need to refer to your research while you write? Initiate the Split Editor to view two documents at once. Suppose you found an insightful interview from a prominent government librarian that would be perfect for your hypothetical journal article. The Split Editor will divide the center of the interface into two panes (one for your document and one for the interview transcript), so you can freely check the transcript for quotes to include in the article without having to switch between screens. Scrivenings No matter your level of skill as a writer, you will need to make revisions to your work. If you have used the Draft folder in the manner described above, you will be left with a series of individual documents. Finding a way to edit all of these documents efficiently may seem problematic, but fortunately the Scrivenings feature alleviates this concern. In Scrivenings mode, you temporarily combine multiple documents into a single text so you can edit them concurrently rather than piece-by-piece. Using our hypothetical government libraries article as an example again, we can see the benefits of Scrivenings. Perhaps you have decided to split your discussion of the current library system into several separate documents one for each major assertion made in the paper. You will save valuable time by combining these documents via Scrivenings to see how the entire section flows together and make any necessary changes to each part simultaneously. Snapshots Before you proceed with any edits, use the Snapshot feature to preserve a copy of your draft. Scrivener auto-saves your work after every two seconds of inactivity, which makes it difficult to undo changes if you did not take a Snapshot. Once you have created a Snapshot, you may experiment with revisions secure in the knowledge that you can revert back to the original version. You can also compare two Snapshots to highlight the differences between the versions of your text.

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Formatting Compile When you have completed your writing and editing, the Compile feature will merge all of the contents of the Draft folder into a single document. You have the opportunity to select from a full array of formatting options – fonts, page settings, headers, footers and more. You can then export the finished product in a variety of file formats, including Microsoft Word, PDF, HTML, RTF and e-Pub, or print directly from Scrivener. Where Can I Learn More? If Scrivener has piqued your interest, download a free 30-day trial from the Literature & Latte website (www.literatureandlatte.com). Be sure to use the interactive tutorial for a basic overview and consult the user manual for more comprehensive support. Although this article has focused on its signature features, Scrivener offers many other options that may interest you. As you learn more about Scrivener, you will be able to take full advantage of its impressive capabilities to confidently tackle your next writing project.

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Balancing Act and Actions: Building Versatility and Leadership at Work and in the Volunteer Sphere By Naomi House, MLIS, INALJ.com, Publisher, Founder and Admin.; Former Reference, Marketing and Acquisitions Librarian at a Federal Library

Building your professional versatility and leadership skills, while often done in the workplace, can also be learned through volunteering. Many employers try and spin downsizing and staff freezes/reductions as “doing more with less” and as ways for their employees to take on more as well as gain new skills. The reality is that very often employees are tasked with “doing the same with less” often meaning less staff but also less other resources as well. This can lead to low morale and stagnation. While many times we cannot control our workplace roles and responsibilities, especially in tough economic times, for our own personal and professional growth we can use our time volunteering to gain some of the versatility and leadership training we may be missing at work. To be successful in both spheres requires planning because it truly is a balancing act. The Less Trap Doing more with less is rarely an achievable goal. Instead we either spread ourselves too thin trying to do the same things or more so that we end up not doing anything well enough, or we are truly doing less with less. It is not a great opportunity to actually gain new competencies because we are spreading ourselves too thin. We can feel trapped in the job and responsibilities while not feeling like we are gaining any new skills for our professional lives. Many times the best strategy, when work is not fulfilling your professional development needs, is to gain them through volunteering. Building on Borrowed Time Volunteering your time and expertise can also be a great way to gain new skills or further develop ones you already have. But if you are already working full time and involved in your local or national associations, the time that you can invest will need to be invested well in order for you to get the most out of it. Delegate your time! Planning will be key in making your experience pay off and in keeping you from burning out. I am speaking as someone who has learned from experience that employers are often concerned about hiring people who are juggling (even successfully) many different projects. Pick your projects and focus on just a few. I know we all want to make our resumes pop out by 236

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having tons of fields we claim expertise in but sometimes it is better to spend your time actually honing skills while not taking on so much that you do not have personal time. Scheduling your own down time to keep you happy and healthy is something employers look for - someone who truly considers themselves in the balancing act. Crafting Your Balancing Act While there is no roadmap or formula that will guarantee success I have found that concentrating on answering, for myself the following six questions/points has been key in preparing me to be more likely to succeed in my work/volunteer careers. 

Strategizing - what do I need & want? Making a list in advance of what you hope to gain (your wants for the position) as well as the parameters you are willing to accept to work within (your needs for the position) in advance will help you do a better job of matching yourself with a volunteer opportunity. Think about things such as virtual volunteering versus in person volunteering as some of the parameters you may not be able to be flexible on.



Planning - who can use me? OK, now that you know what you want (maybe to learn how to code, or how to do reference or even learning how to help people find jobs, what organizations are out there that could use you? Remember that contacting volunteer organizations is much like how you approach a cover letter - ask how you can be of service to them and focus on them, versus telling them what you will do or how they will help you. The emphasis is on them and their needs, at this stage. You can decide if it is a good fit at this point.



Executing - when can I do this? Timing is key to success! My volunteers work anywhere from 2 hours a week to 15 hours a week and they know this up front. Do not commit if you do not have the time as it will leave you with a less than stellar reputation in the field.



Stabilizing - what works? So now that you are both working and volunteering you must get into a rhythm and stabilize. It leaves a bad taste in volunteer coordinators memories when turnover happens or people do not follow through. Taking volunteer gigs on takes commitment and if it isn’t working addressing it early could help solve the issue and show you as a conscientious volunteer.



New - address efficiency often! This is in relation to both your regular job and your volunteer work. If you aren’t efficiently performing or using your time then you are wasting it. Address any issues with your supervisors earlier rather than later. Make changes to be more efficient and try new strategies as well.

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Perform - just hit your marks. Often people take on volunteer gigs and they want to leave a big, huge, incredible impression but volunteer agencies first and foremost want you to hit your marks. If you can’t complete what is asked of you first then you aren’t truly serving them.

Find me and the INALJ community at: INALJ: http://inalj.com INALJ Jobs: http://inalj.com/?p=1441 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ineedalibraryjob Twitter: E-mail:

http://twitter.com/needalibraryjob/ ineedalibrary job at gmail dot com

LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/naomihouse LinkedIn group: http://www.linkedin.com/groupItem?view=&gid=4112382&type=member&it em=73467388&qid=0891b058-1540-44bf-a2ad777c02ef5d28&trk=group_most_popular-mc-rr-ttl&goback=.gmp_4112382

About Naomi House and INALJ.com Naomi House, MLIS, is the founder and publisher of the popular webzine and jobs list INALJ.com (I Need a Library Job). Founded in October 2010 with the assistance of her fellow Rutgers classmate, Elizabeth Leonard, INALJ’s social media presence has grown to include Facebook, Twitter and a LinkedIn group, in addition to the interviews, articles and jobs found on INALJ.com. In just over a year and a half she's had over 2.7 Million page hits and helped over 1,100 librarians find employment! Through grassroots marketing, word of mouth and a real focus on exploring unconventional resources for job leads, INALJ grew from a subscription base of 20 friends to a website with over 350,000 visits in a month in July 2013. Naomi believes that well-sourced quantity is quality in this narrow job market and INALJ reflects this through the many new jobs published daily. She has also written for the 2011 and 2012 LexisNexis Government Info Pro. She presents whenever she can, most recently at the National Press Club, McGill University, the University of the Emirates, Dubai, MLIS program and the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Naomi is a former Reference, Marketing and Acquisitions Librarian for a contractor at a federal library outside Washington, DC, currently. She runs her husband’s moving labor website, KhanMoving.com, fixes and sells old 238

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houses and assists her husband cooking delicious Pakistani food as well. She has heard of spare time but hasn’t encountered it lately. She pronounces INALJ as eye-na-elle-jay.

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LexisNexis and Big Data

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Going Virtual!? : The Reality By Penelope Campbell, Department of Family and Community Services, Analysis and Research

In the late 1990s a library management system vendor was speaking about how they were developing a library system whereby the user could visit the library virtually. The user would be able to visualise walking along the shelves, selecting books, and opening the books and reading them. Well so far that has not eventuated. Today there are virtual special libraries in existence such as the Royal Society of Chemistry http://www.rsc.org/Library/LICMember/ which has a collection of full text ebooks, journals, and databases from various publishers and sources for its members to use. Most libraries will have delivery of information from databases and e-books to desktops, and some even to devices. The reality for most government “virtual” libraries is that there is still information in non-digitised formats held in their collections. These non-digitised formats can consist of conference proceedings, internal reports, photographs, videos, plans, brochures, etc. This paper will briefly cover making paper documentation virtual and will not be covering other types of media. Why go virtual? (If you have not already done so) In today's workplace people expect to be able to access documents electronically on whatever electronic device they have. We have all heard “All the information you need is on Google.” We as information professionals know differently. We know we have in our collections unique information that is not available electronically. The hard copy collections in the Library are like broken links, existing information can be identified but it cannot be accessed without delay. Library users, if they cannot access information instantly, often will go elsewhere to try to obtain the information, even if they know that information is held in the Library. This leads to the perception that the Library is not really useful. The Library is seen as becoming increasingly irrelevant in an information environment dominated by the digital delivery of information. The provision of information in a “timely manner” is no longer relevant in the “era of the tyranny of the immediate.” A way of becoming a part of an information provision pathway, relevant for users working under the “tyranny of the immediate”, is to make the collections electronically available. Opportunities may arise that may 242

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necessitate going “virtual.” These may include the loss of physical space or the collection being moved to a remote location. Failure to take up these opportunities or not taking a proactive approach may give cause for the Library to be seen as redundant to the information needs of the Department. What to digitise? The best way to determine what to digitise is to determine what the risks are if items are not digitised. The material held in the library that cannot be, or is highly unlikely to be sourced from elsewhere is most at risk because it is irreplaceable. The loss of this information would not stop the Department from operating, but could affect effective decision making, work processes, etc. Within most government libraries’ collections there are a number of paper documents held that have either been generated by their respective parent body or by organisations that have been commissioned to produce information for the Department (the copyright owner is the Department) and are unique to that Department. Most government department libraries do not have the objective to be the Departmental repository for information, but have often become a de facto repository; a copy of these documents would be on file as part of the corporate records. Why should these documents be digitised if they are already in the corporate records? 1. The documents were originally deposited into the Library as they were seen to hold information of current and future value that need to be easily accessed. 2. The documents can be individually identified. (Prior to electronic corporate records it is very difficult to identify individual documents held in files). Why should these documents not be treated as corporate records? 1. They already exist as a part of the corporate record and thus there is unnecessary duplication. 2. The records would need to be treated with the same business rules and archival/disposal schedules as corporate records. 3. They are not in the chronological or file sequence of existing records and cannot be used for e-discovery in legal situations. Digitising part of the paper collection The cheapest and easiest way is to scan internal documents on demand. That is when the item is requested for loan. Instead of loaning out a physical copy, it is scanned for future use. The hard copy physical document is not 243

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loaned out. A suitable scanner would need to be acquired within procurement guidelines. Thus scanning becomes part of Business-As-Usual not a project. Larger projects which may require employing extra staff or outsourcing the scanning will need to be managed as a project. Use PMBOK, Prince2 or other appropriate project management tools to help identify the scope of the project and the resources required. Business cases for the reasons to scan need to be developed, utilising internal Departmental Guidelines and asking other colleagues. For projects an easy way to estimate the quantity to be digitised is to identify all the catalogued internal paper items - not counting duplicates. Then estimate the average number of pages per item, to arrive at the number of pages to be scanned. (Cataloguing pagination data does not lend itself to be easily counted.) If all the Departmental paper documentation is held separately another way to estimate how much has to be digitised is to take 10 linear centimetres of documents shelved and count the number of pages of all the documents within that measurement. With that figure established, say @1800 pages per 10cm, then multiply the number of pages by the number of linear metres of the collection shelved. A number of factors including why the documents are to be scanned, time, budgetary constraints, staffing, the amount of items to be scanned, will affect the decision on whether to outsource scanning or do the scanning inhouse. If the Department has already a scanning project in place and it is outsourced, it may be possible for a variation in contract to be made to include the scanning of the documents/reports housed in the Library, instead of doing a separate tender. If the scanning is outsourced, ask the questions:  Does the physical document/report need to be kept in its original condition?  Can the spine be cut off to enable ease of scanning (and lower the cost)?  Can it be destroyed after scanning?  If the document/report is not destroyed after scanning how long should it be kept?  What happens if the size of the scanned document is over 10MB? (Slowness of opening documents)  What technical specifications are required?

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What unique identifier (barcode, accession number, etc.) can be used to easily identify each scanned document and can be used for the PDF file document name.

Investigate what other libraries are doing or have done to get ideas on what the project will involve. Yongli Zhou of the Colorado State University wrote a tutorial "Documents Web Friendly? Making Scanned Documents Web Accessible" http://www.ala.org/lita/ital/sites/ala.org.lita.ital/files/content/29/3/zhou.pdf. on how the Colorado State University Library was creating and optimising digitised PDF documents for easy access downloading and optimized printing. Though written in December 2010, this tutorial covers many of the issues that need to be dealt with when digitising documents. Some technical details The best format for digitised documents has changed in the last decade. Historically TIFF for a long time was the chosen format by many institutions for their electronic archives. That format guaranteed and still guarantees long-term reproducibility, and the image format TIFF is established and can easily and quickly be sent to other libraries. Freely searching for information in the TIFF format, however, remains problematic. Now the best format for scanned documents is the PDF format. The type of PDF is PDF/A which is designed primarily for long term preservation. It has been updated to PDF/A-2. For further technical details consult the relevant international ISO standard ISO 19005-2:2011 Document management -Electronic document file format for long-term preservation -- Part 2: Use of ISO 32000-1 (PDF/A-2). This type of PDF format:  preserves the original appearance of documents;  is well documented;  is vendor and operating system independent;  is self-contained: no additional data are needed to view the document;  can be searched. [sourced from “The PDF/A file format” http://www.prepressure.com/pdf/basics/pdfa] Other technical details specific to the library environment can be found at the Library of Congress “The Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library of Congress Collections” http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/fdd/fdd000319.shtml.

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There is a PDF/A-3 format available. The chief difference is that PDF/A-3 makes it possible to embed any document format such as Excel, Word, HTML, CAD or XML files. For the digitisation the paper documents the PDF/A3 format is not applicable. To OCR or not to OCR? The cost to OCR scan a document is only marginally more expensive than just an image copy. Will it make a difference? Yes. Whereas before people knew that the information could possibly be located in documents, now they can search within documents to find the information. OCR scanned documents are better than books held in the hand in that key terms can be found easily. The whole idea of OCR scanning documents is to assist in information discovery. Making the scanned documents accessible The next phase after the documents has been scanned and stored is how to make the digitised documents accessible to library users. If the documents have only been scanned as an image then it is easy to add the URL and update other relevant information to the original catalogue records. For OCR scanned documents it will depend on a number of factors. The question to ask is, is making searching for Library resources a one-stop-information search? Mark Dehmlow’s article in a recent issue (Volume 32 number 2, 2013) of Information Technology and Libraries “Editorial Board Thoughts: Services and User Context in the Era of Webscale Discovery” http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/ital/article/view/5106/pdf provides some insight on this issue. How the information will be made accessible will depend very much on the technology and in-house capabilities. Some suggested ways to make the scanned information accessible in a seamless manner are:  The catalogue records to have two links − one to the actual document and the other to a search page that enables searching all the documents. The second link could be something like “Click here to go to the full-text search for departmental reports.”  An easy to use (user-friendly) full-text search interface. Marti Hearst’s book “Search User Interfaces” http://searchuserinterfaces.com/book/ is one book to help in the design of the full-text search interface. Even looking at the features of the search interfaces of the commercial fulltext online databases, can be used to as a guide in the design of the search interface. Also in the full-text search interface parameters/filters should be designed that will assist users to find information, for example date, program, broad subject, etc.

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When the project has been completed promote the digitised resources. Take time to provide information and training on how to find information. Conclusion The reality of going virtual can only be done in stages. Avail yourself of any opportunity to digitise the Library collection to lessen the perception that the Library is a static repository of historical information. For a number of reasons, of which cost and copyright are two, most government libraries will not be able to go completely virtual, there will still be non-digitised items for some time to come.

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Resources for the Library Technician By Cheryl A. Harding, Library Technician, U.S. Department of Justice; Maria L. Walls, Library Technician, U.S. Department of Justice

At the DOJ Libraries, the library technicians strive to provide excellent customer service because they recognize that great customer service is a key component of library services. We also take pride in being a part of a well-trained, highly skilled workforce. Library technicians on the Justice Libraries staff are skilled in several areas that include interlibrary loan, digitization, cataloging, acquisitions, reference and research. The technicians work as a team in a variety of DOJ Library locations. We strive to keep up-to-date on new technologies that are rapidly expanding in today’s world. To address learning and information sharing, we not only have our own Library Technicians Working Group, but are also involved in a variety of committees and working groups that include marketing, outreach, customer service and professional development here at the Department of Justice which allows us to not only enhance our skills, but also gives us the opportunity to mentor other staff members and provide excellent customer service to our patrons. To contribute and learn from the broader library community, many of us are on the FEDLINK Federal Library Technician Working Group, which has members worldwide and from a variety of government agencies, such as academic and military libraries. The Federal Library Technician Working Group is open to all Federal Technicians. Our mission is to provide opportunities for professional development, training and recognition of the 1411 library field. We also subscribe to the FEDLIB listserv to keep up to date on broad library issues, services and trends. This Federal Librarians Discussion List is open to all federal library employees. Several of us have done presentations at library conferences, the Library of Congress, FEDLINK, and produced training DVD’s and television broadcast for Justice Television Network. As a Federal Library Technician, we are often asked if we would be a presenter at one of the programs that FEDLINK hosts. There are no special requirements to be a presenter. You just have to be willing to prepare and give your presentation. Some of the 248

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areas we have covered are Professional Development, Mentoring, Cross Training, Searching Interlibrary Loans Effectively, Internet Search, Tips & Tricks, What Can the Library Staff Do For You?, and A Needle in a Haystack, the Art of Finding Any Journal Article. Not only have we presented at the Library of Congress, and the DOJ Conference, some of our recordings were done at the National Advocacy Center (NAC) in South Carolina. If anyone is interested in joining the FLTWG please feel free to email Maria Walls, the chair of the group, at [email protected] We have several sub-groups that we are working with to prepare some upcoming brown bag sessions. The sub-groups are Human Resources, Technology, Professional Development and Education. Each of these groups will work on enhancing the professional skills of the 1411 Federal Technician Career. Fortunately for us, our Performance Work Plan includes training goals. To meet our training goals we are required to take classes such as the Legal Research Institute, the Federal Library Technician’s Institute, OCLC Webinars, the LexisNexis Librarian Certificate of Mastery, Soaring to Excellence. We also participate in and do in-house training, cross-training and mentoring. RESOURCES FEDERAL LIBRARY TECHNICIANS INSTITUTE http://www.loc.gov/flicc/edutraining.html Designed for both the newer and the seasoned library technician, this weeklong institute will provide a broad overview of federal library work. LEGAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE http://www.llsdc.org/education This is an educational program that is offered through LLSDC at the Georgetown University Law Library. It covers a variety of basic legal research such as case, administrative law, legislative history and secondary sources. The last one was held in 2010. OCLC WEBINARS http://www.oclc.org/support/home.en.html

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OCLC has various webinars to help with searching, borrowing, and lending as well as cataloging on OCLC /Worldcat. LEXIS NEXIS LIBRARY CERTIFICATE OF MASTERY http://law.lexisnexis.com/webcasting/default.aspx?multimedia_id=59389&c ampaign_id=2200 The Paralegal Certificate of Mastery Program on the LexisNexis services at lexis.com is designed to familiarize you with the tools paralegals use to streamline their everyday tasks. Five one-hour training sessions cover the topics of Case Analysis, Cite Checking, Drafting Legal Documents, Public Records & News investigation, and Company & Financial research. SOARING TO EXCELLENCE http://www.cod.edu/teleconf/soaring/teleconference2/teleconference2details .htm Soaring to Excellence is a series of teleconferences that provide information and training to support staff. The teleconferences are usually broadcast live from the College of DuPage throughout the U.S. and Canada. They have been available on DVD and FLICC/FEDLINK has broadcast them at the Library of Congress.

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Stephen Wolfram Is Brilliant. Three Reasons Librarians Should Do As He Does, And Not As He Says. By Hannah Sommers, NPR, Library Program Manager

If you've ever taken in a Stephen Wolfram presentation, you know to expect dazzling real time computational wizardry. Recently Dr. Wolfram presented the inaugural lecture in the Innovation Talks series at the Library of Congress. The auditorium was abuzz and, judging by the traffic on Twitter, the audience was eager to get an inspirational sneak peek at what Dr. Wolfram was working on. We were not disappointed. Stephen Wolfram is brilliant. He earned a PhD in physics at 20, and was among the first class of MacArthur Fellows recognized in 1981. Since then, he's been exploring the ideas and developing the technologies at the core of the Wolfram Research enterprise. Take for example, Wolfram|Alpha, the computational knowledge engine whose sophisticated algorithms suggest data sets in response to search queries. In 2012 the New York Times reported that roughly a quarter of the queries handled by Wolfram|Alpha originate from Siri, the personal assistant in your iPhone. Dr. Wolfram began his talk by tossing words and phrases at Wolfram|Alpha to demonstrate various aspects of the algorithmic and meta-algorithmic processes at the heart of making knowledge computational. We observed the behaviors of various types of data under different conditions. We compared Census findings to self-reported data points harvested from Facebook. Watching Dr. Wolfram embed a dynamic data set presented as an interactive graphic within a paragraph of text (all living in the cloud), I began to understand something about how my children are going to do their homework. Breathtakingly, as a camera turned toward the audience, we witnessed edge detection processing applied to a live video streamed image of ourselves. We waved to each other in the dimly lighted Coolidge Auditorium. And so it went. The lecture concluded. Questions were entertained, leading to discussion about open standards, data repositories and ontologies. About human intelligence, about the role of libraries now and in the future. Including a question that went something like this:

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Do you see a need for reference librarians in the future? Dr. Wolfram's answer in short: Yes -- there will always be a limit to what an algorithm can offer. This is the place humans must pick up a thread of inquiry. What we see are algorithms pushing the bar higher and higher. Follow up: It just seems like we're going to need to be getting smarter and smarter -- not that that's a bad thing. Dr. Wolfram took a moment to riff on this, and then circled back with his own version of the question, essentially: So the question becomes, in the future, will reference librarians need to be programmers? Considering that earlier Wolfram products were designed to take the programming burden off of research scientists, Dr. Wolfram concluded that the answer should be: No. From where I was sitting, the relief in the room was palpable. I wasn't sure which was more interesting -- Wolfram's response, or what seemed to me to be collective relief upon hearing it. I believe Dr. Wolfram offered his view with honesty and generosity. It's possible he believes that librarians have better things to do than code. Nonetheless I've been thinking about this moment in the lecture in the intervening days. The result is the following short list of reasons why I think librarians should do as Wolfram does, not as he says. 1. Let's not forget about our users. When we consider the future, let's put the needs of information seekers first. Let's allow their needs to direct our service offerings -- Dr. Wolfram surely must as an entrepreneur. Do our users need reference librarians with programming skill? I believe librarians who can code are a dream come true for our users. Put another way, can we claim to champion information literacy without a firm grasp of how algorithms mediate our searches? For me, these are questions worth considering. I have hope that the librarians in my future are open to the evolving needs of users as they build their own competencies. Alexis Ohanian, a co-founder of Reddit, called programming the "new literacy for this century" in an interview with NPR's Arun Rath. THATCamp Project Coordinator Amanda French reports that 15% of the digital humanities bar camp's participants to date have been librarians. I'm confident that librarians are worthy of a seat at the programming table if we continue demonstrating a commitment to information literacy and the needs of our users. 252

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2. Let's define our own professional boundaries -- expansively. Again, let's study Dr. Wolfram's playbook. Dr. Wolfram left the academy to focus on enterprise, perhaps not necessarily the common path for academics in his discipline. What might our profession deliver if we were to focus less on roles we've defined for ourselves historically ("reference", "cataloging") -and more on the outcomes of our activities: a better informed community, a more literate workforce, more efficient information seeking behaviors that net cost savings for our organizations? Let's prepare ourselves to test the boundaries of our profession. Let's commit to pursuing our ideals with an openness to where we may be led. 3. Let's not assume the next generation of information professionals is going to be just like us. Let's assume they're going to be better. I hope that in the future, we're all going to be smarter, and that includes the next generation of librarians! Let's assume that if we are open to the talent of this new generation, our profession and our society will reap rewards.I hope the next generation in our profession conceive of an informational landscape that none of us have dared to dream, and that they have the intelligence, human touch, and technical chops to make the dream come true. And when that moment arrives, won't it seem strange that we ever wondered whether reference librarians should be able to code? Hannah Sommers directs product development activities in the NPR Library. She loves meeting librarians who dare to dream up better systems and workflows in response to user needs. Originally posted on the Government Info Pro on October 09, 2013 | Permalink

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Community and Fundamentals: The Road Less Traveled By Chris Vestal, Government Consultant, LexisNexis

Not so long ago I was asked to write a blog post about why I picked Community and Fundamentals as the DC/SLA programming theme for the year. Since it was a blog post I tried to be as concise as possible, but looking back I realize in being so brief I’d lost the real reasoning behind our theme. The truth is that volunteering with DC/SLA over the years let me engage with the librarian community and develop skills that aren’t taught in library school. The network I built and the skills I mastered paved the way for me to transition into a nontraditional library position with LexisNexis. My first volunteer role with DC/SLA was as the chapter Dine Around Coordinator. I worked with volunteers to help organize a series of informal networking dinners at local restaurants for members. I made a point to attend as many of these as possible and I met quite a few people from them. I got to hear about all the different organizations people worked in and how varied all the work they did was. It was actually talking with some members who worked for a vendor that put the idea of working for a database company on my radar seriously for the first time. I also tried to attend as many programs as possible. Most programs included 20-30 minutes for people to arrive and network before the actual program itself started. Even though the programs were always really helpful and interesting I think it was that networking portion of the program that was my favorite. During that time I would meet new people and ask them about the work they did or reconnect with friends I’d made from previous events. It was actually during the networking portion of a program where I met Marie Kaddell, who became a mentor for me and later had a major impact on my career. After people in the DC/SLA and the larger SLA community got to know me they started recruiting me for projects and volunteer work. Not only did I work on DC/SLA level committees but I also sat on association level task forces and councils which drastically increased my network. But my volunteer work helped me in more ways than just meeting people; it also allowed me to develop skills that I didn’t learn in library school or at my first library job. To be fair, my first library job was dynamic and the real world experience it provided benefited me in a number of ways. But because my role was fairly established, I didn’t have many opportunities to develop skills that were outside my job description. DC/SLA provided that sandbox for me: I helped with website redesign, led business meetings, created marketing campaigns, drafted proposals and blog posts, developed strategic plans, built my first wikis, worked with budgets, interviewed movers and 254

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shakers in library land, and tackled the most dreaded beast – public speaking. DC/SLA provided me with a safe place where I could grow as a professional when I didn’t always have that opportunity at my day to day job. Notice I said “grow as a professional.” These skills I developed weren’t library skills per se, but rather fundamental skills that would be valuable for any professional to have. So these skills gave me a bit of a safety net where, if anything happened, I felt like I could be more versatile if I had to do a job search. Fortunately, I never had to. My position was secure and even in bad budget years our managers were extremely supportive of us. I should also say here that I enjoyed my job – there was no way I could have done it for several years if it wasn’t fun. But one day I realized that I’d fallen into a routine and I wanted to try something new. So I put together a comprehensive resume that listed my current position, all the volunteer work I’d done with SLA, and all the extra skills I thought would help me stand out. Then I reached out to about 30 people I’d met over the years in SLA and told them I was looking for a change of pace and sent them my resume. I just asked them to let me know if they heard of something that sounded like a good match based on knowing me and the resume I sent. Then I forgot about it for a few months. To be honest, this was when the unemployment rate was at its all-time high so I didn’t expect anything to come of it. Then a couple of months later Marie Kaddell asked me to be a panelist at her National Press Club event because of the work I’d done with DC/SLA creating a strategic communications plan emphasizing the role of social media. The day of the panel Marie pulled me aside and told me a Government Consultant position on her team at LexisNexis had just opened up and she thought it was the perfect fit and that her manager doing the hiring was in the audience. Marie was one of the people I’d sent my resume to and she told me the areas of it that really drew her attention and made her think it was a good fit. After the panel, Marie invited me to have lunch with her and her manager so we all got to know each other a bit more informally before I applied for any position. I still had to apply for it, customize my resume, and go through the interview process, but there’s no way I can discount the importance of having Marie connect me with the position and help me curate some essential skills the job would require by having me as a speaker on her panel. I’m normally nervous in interviews but I knew going into this one that I had some serious “street cred” because of the network, brand, and skills I’d developed from being involved in SLA. In fact, those skills were so important that in the interview process they overlooked me not being a power user of Lexis, saying I was a librarian; of course I could learn a 255

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database. So it really was those other fundamental skills that set me apart from other applicants. After being in this position for over a year now I couldn’t be happier. Every day is different and I get to visit libraries across the federal government. Thinking back to library school days I would have never pictured myself in this kind of role; so being involved with DC/SLA and exploring new skills was essential to broadening my horizons. I tell my friends my job now is my dream job and I’d never have gotten it if it weren’t for the community of my peers and the extra skills that I’d developed over time. So if I had just one piece of advice for any librarian, in any stage of their career, in any organization, I’d say remember your Community and Fundamentals; because they just might lead you down the road less traveled. Chris Vestal is a Government Consultant with LexisNexis and the 2014 President of DC/SLA. He’s an E-book, Patent, and CrossFit enthusiast, just not at the same time. Suggested Networking and Skill Building Resources: SLA – the largest global library association in the world, SLA has many smaller units organized by geographic regions or area of interest, providing numerous volunteer and networking opportunities www.sla.org ALA – the oldest library association in the world also provides many networking and volunteer opportunities – www.ala.org I Need a Library Job – a fantastic website with a wealth of articles about library job seeking, interviewing, and skill building. It also has a very robust list of nontraditional librarian job titles http://inalj.com/ The Librarian’s Skillbook – I read an advance copy of this book and I was really impressed. It’s a roadmap for acquiring some of the hottest fundamental skills in the job market today http://ow.ly/pjdU8 Network for Good – sometimes volunteering outside of the library community can be just as helpful in skill building. This website allows users to search local nonprofits seeking volunteers. http://www1.networkforgood.org/for-donors/volunteer

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Knowing Is Half the Battle By Christine Cerezo, MLIS Student and Anne Bahu, Recent MLIS Graduate Part of our jobs as students, especially as graduate students, is to reinvent ourselves as professionals. We are constantly learning new things, new trends and old practices. Where we lack experience, we have a fresh pair of eyes in which to see the profession. We strive to learn the techniques around us from those more experienced and open ourselves up to the various approaches, find what fits with us and come into our own as a professional in our own right. As students, we have had very different experiences, Christine goes to University of Hawaii at Manoa and physically attends class there; meanwhile, Anne goes to University of Alabama but attends class virtually. We met as first timer conference attendees at the Special Libraries Association Conference in San Diego because we both felt that it was important to our progression as students and young professionals. We think that these conferences play a vital role in exposing professionals, no matter what stage of their career, to the larger picture of evolving resources. Conferences give us a chance to step back and hear from the various perspectives outside our immediate day-to-day circle. The diversity of backgrounds from all the attendees added to the value of the conference because we all need exposure to various approaches. Classes, blogs and more information in this information-rich field can help, but there is nothing like information professionals from around the world coming together to share their insights and get each other excited about what they do. We can get burned out with so much to do, so little staff and so little budget, that we forget what sparked our interested in this field in the first place. Not only is the conference a wonderful place for us students to express our fresh and idealistic ideas and bounce them off real scenarios and professionals, but it is also a place we can refresh each other and bring out the creativity and excitement, wake ourselves up from the mundane, and listen to a different approach or solution. In managing our resources, it is important to balance the practical day-to-day with opportunities to develop ourselves and our colleagues. One of the key aspects to managing evolving resources is knowing what resources are evolving and changing. While there are so many ways to learn about and weigh in on these resources – through professional literature, blogs, discussion boards, course work, social media, and conferences – to name a few, we would agree that attending a professional conference is one of the best ways to learn about available and changing resources and engage in discussions about those resources.

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We both love our programs, but the sessions at conference provided a mix of broad overviews and close-up analysis of the resources that were available with the opportunity for feedback from a broad range of professionals. Listening to how a museum integrated Facebook to conduct outreach and having other professionals ask specific questions and share their experience is a stronger argument for social media presence than a theoretical discussion. The other aspect of attending a conference that has proven invaluable, is the opportunity to get involved with the professional organization on a much more personal level through specific chapters and divisions. Having a smaller group of professionals to engage with (instead of just the larger organization) as new members allows us to continue to grow and develop through mentorship and community engagement. There is a lot to be said for getting involved and engaged in the discussion on where librarianship is headed, but if we don’t have a way to plug in to the conversation, we miss out on the chance to continue to learn and grow. By attending the conference and actively participating in the professional organization we will be better able to not only keep up with how resources are changing, but have an active role in those changes. We feel that conference attendance is an important part of professional growth, and hope that as the conference structure itself evolves, planners do everything they can to maximize the ability of students and librarians ability to attend.

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Public Records Resources Online: How to Find Everything There Is to Know About "Mr./Ms. X" *Please see disclaimer at end of document*

Summary of public records on Mr./Ms. X ... • • •

Smartlinx Reports on Lexis.com or Accurint.com CLEAR (formerly Choicepoint/AutoTrackXP) Westlaw PUBRECS-XX (Where XX is the two-letter abbreviation) and PEOPLE-ALL.

His/her social security number is ... • •

SSN Validator http://www.ssnvalidator.com/. Selective Service Online Verification http://www.sss.gov/RegVer/wfVerification.aspx

He/she was born or died ... •

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Social Security Death Records at: Genealogy Bank http://www.genealogybank.com/gbnk/ssdi/ (free registration), Lexis, and Westlaw. See also, The SSDI research guide http://www.deathindexes.com/ssdi.html and SSDI Research Article http://blog.eogn.com/eastmans_online_genealogy/2013/09/the-easy-and-moreaccurate-method-of-searching-the-ssdi.html. Death Indexes Online http://www.deathindexes.com/, Find a Grave http://www.findagrave.com/, and BillionGraves http://billiongraves.com. Westlaw Death Records (DEATH-ALL) and Obituaries (OBITPAGE). Also state files for KY, MA, MI, MN, MT, and NC. (DECEASED-XX). Lexis Smartlinx and Death Records (state files for CT, FL, GA, KY, ME, MA, MN, NC, TX). VitalChek http://www.vitalchek.com/ and VitalRec http://www.vitalrec.com/ (some content $). National Obituary Archive http://www.nationalobituaryarchive.com/, ObitsArchive http://www.obitsarchive.com, Legacy.com http://www.legacy.com, Obituaries 101 http://www.big101.com/OBITUARIES101.htm and Obituary Daily Times http://obits.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/obit.cgi. Also, see News section, on p. 4. 259

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He/she was married or divorced ... • • •







Lexis Marriage & Divorce Records for selected states. Also try Courtlink Dockets Search. Westlaw Marriage Records for CO, CT, FL, IN, KS, ME, MN, NV, OH, OK, TX, WI (MARRIAGE-XX) Westlaw Divorce Records for AZ, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, IL, KS, LA, ME, MD, MI, MN, MO, NY, NV, NC, OH, OK, OR, , PA, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI. (DIVORCE-XX). Also try DOCK-ALL and ADVERSE-ALL. Marriage Records sites: GenWed http://www.genwed.com, Western States http://abish.byui.edu/specialCollections/westernStates/search.cfm, RootsWeb http://userdb.rootsweb.com/marriages/, SearchEngineZ http://searchenginez.com/marriage_records_usa.html, CA http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1144&cj=1&o_xid=0001126697&o _lid=0001126697 KY http://ukcc.uky.edu/%7Evitalrec/, ME http://www.maine.gov/sos/arc/research/vitalrec.html, TX http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/vs/marriagedivorce/default.shtm, WV http://www.wvculture.org/vrr/. Divorce Records sites: RootsWeb http://userdb.rootsweb.com/divorces/, SearchEngineZ http://searchenginez.com/divorce_records_usa.html, KY http://ukcc.uky.edu/%7Evitalrec/, TX http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/vs/marriagedivorce/default.shtm. VitalChek http://www.vitalchek.com/ and VitalRec http://www.vitalrec.com/ (some content $).

He/she lives or lived ... •



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Superpages http://www.superpages.com/global/, International White and Yellow Pages http://www.wayp.com, Infobel http://www.infobel.com/, Ultimates http://www.theultimates.com/, Switchboard http://www.switchboard.com/, Canada 411 http://www.canada411.com/, MelissaDATA http://www.melissadata.com/lookups/index.htm. NumberingPlans http://numberingplans.com/, FoneFinder http://www.fonefinder.net/, Intelius Cell Phone Directory http://www.intelius.com/reverse-phone-lookup.html, Area Code Decoder http://decoder.americom.com/. Westlaw Public Records tab - People Finder databases. Lexis People Finder and Military Personnel Finder (updated through 05/01). National Address Server http://www.cedar.buffalo.edu/adserv/, Mail Drops Database http://www.finaid.org/scholarships/maildropsearch.phtml, USPS Zip Code Lookup http://zip4.usps.com/zip4/citytown_zip.jsp, Geographic Names Information System http://geonames.usgs.gov/, Yahoo! Local http://local.yahoo.com, Google Maps http://maps.google.com and Ask.com Local http://www.ask.com/local.

He/she owns or is licensed to drive ... • • •

Westlaw Public Records tab - Asset databases. Lexis SmartLinx Location Summary Reports and individual asset databases. DMV Offices http://www.dmvnv.com/50_state_dmv_list.html, National Insurance Crime Bureau VINCheck 260

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http://www.nicb.org/theft_and_fraud_awareness/vincheck, National Motor Vehicle Title Information System http://www.vehiclehistory.gov. ISO ClaimSearch – Database of insurance claims. LE or industry use only. http://claimsearch.iso.com/. NETR Real Property Records Online http://publicrecords.netronline.com, Vision Government Solutions http://www.vgsi.com/vision/applications/ParcelData/Home.aspx for New England/VA, and Appraisal Resource http://www.equityadvisorygroup.com/property-search for parts of CT, FL, RI, MA. Courthouse Direct Real Property Documents http://www.courthousedirect.com/ $. Zillow http://www.zillow.com, Trulia http://www.trulia.com/, TerraFly Property & Neighborhood Information http://terrafly.com/ and Yahoo! - Real Estate Assessment http://realestate.yahoo.com/realestate/homevalues/. BLM Land Records http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/more/land_records.html. FAA Databases http://www.faa.gov/licenses_certificates/ and Aircraft Ownership Records http://www.landings.com/_landings/pages/search/search_nnrowners.html. BIN Searches (some $): BIN Database http://bindatabase.org/, BIN-IIN http://bin-iin.com/, BINDB http://www.bindb.com/. Bank Routing Numbers: Federal Reserve Directory: http://www.fedwiredirectory.frb.org/search.cfm, GT Bank Routing Numbers http://www.gregthatcher.com/financial/Default.aspx, RoutingNumbers.org http://www.routingnumbers.org, and Other Bank Account Resources http://www.blackbookonline.info/bboindexsearch.aspx?q=Banks. Public Records Directory http://publicrecords.onlinesearches.com/ Search Systems - http://www.searchsystems.net/ - has foreign public records sources

He/she is a licensed ... • •

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Professional License Verifier http://verifyprolicense.com/. Westlaw Professional Licenses (LICENSE-ALL), Medical (MEDLICENSE-ALL), Attorneys (ATTYLICENSE-ALL), Accountants (ACCTLICENSE-ALL), DEA Records (DEA), FAA Records (FAA), Hunting and Fishing Licenses (HUNTFISH-ALL), Concealed Weapons Licenses (selected states - CCW-ALL). Lexis Professional Licenses, Health Care Providers, Health Care Provider Sanctions, DEA Registrants, FCC Licenses, Tax Professionals and Hunting & Fishing Licenses. Doctors: DocInfo ($9.95) http://s1.fsmb.org/docinfo/, and DEA Office of Diversion Control http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/crim_admin_actions/. Also see Researching Expert Witnesses: http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usab5801.pdf Attorneys: State Lawyer Licensing Databases http://www.llrx.com/features/lawyerlicenses.htm, Thomson Legal Record http://www.thomsonlegalrecord.com/info/, Attorney Information links http://www.legaldockets.com/attorneys/, Disciplined Attorneys Search http://pibuzz.com/disciplined-attorneys, National Lawyer Regulatory Data Bank http://www.americanbar.org/groups/professional_responsibility/services/databank.ht ml $. Foreign Registered Agents Search http://www.fara.gov/

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His/her corporate affiliations ... • • • •

Westlaw Executive Affiliations (EA-ALL). Lexis Duns Market Identifiers, SEC Filings, NetProspex, and Executive Directories. ZoomInfo http://www.zoominfo.com/, LinkedIn http://www.linkedin.com, and BoardEx http://www.BoardEx.com $. Federal Salaries Database http://php.app.com/fed_employees12/search.php

Information about his/her companies or charities ... • • •





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Corporation Records by State http://www.coordinatedlegal.com/SecretaryOfState.html. Dun & Bradstreet Business or Federal Information Reports http://www.mydnb.com/ $. Lexis Smartlinx Business Reports, Company Analyzer, Experian Reports, SEC Filings, Bankruptcy Filings, UCC Filings, Judgments and Liens, Civil and Criminal Filings, Guidestar, and OSHA Inspection Reports. Westlaw Corporate Filings (CORP-ALL), Fictitious Names (FBN-ALL), Corporate Litigation Prep (LITPREP-ALL), Name Availability (NA-ALL), Business Finders (BUSFIND-ALL), SEC Filings (EDGAR), Adverse Filings (ADVERSE-ALL), Bankruptcy Filings (BKR-ALL), UCC Filings (UCC-ALL), and Lawsuits (LS-ALL). SEC Edgar http://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/companysearch.html, SEC Enforcement Documents Search http://www.sec.gov/litigation.shtml, SECInfo http://www.secinfo.com/, and CORI Contract Information Database http://cori.missouri.edu/. See: Thomson’s Guide to SEC Filings http://research.thomsonib.com/help/sec_guide04-03-02.htm ThomasNet http://www.thomasnet.com/ (for manufacturing companies). Customs Rulings Database http://rulings.cbp.gov/. Insurance Company Search http://eapps.naic.org/cis/. FCC Telecommunications Company Database http://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/cib/form499/499a.cfm. Contracts: System of Award Management http://www.sam.gov, Government Contracts Won (DOD only) http://www.governmentcontractswon.com/, USASpending.gov http://www.usaspending.gov/, POGO Federal Contractor Misconduct Database http://www.contractormisconduct.org/, OMB Watch http://fedspending.org/, and HHS OIG Excluded Individuals / Entities http://exclusions.oig.hhs.gov/. National Association of State Procurement Officials http://www.naspo.org/ OFAC List of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/sdn/, BIS Denied Persons http://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/policy-guidance/lists-of-parties-ofconcern/denied-persons-list, World Bank Listing of Ineligible Firms http://www.worldbank.org/debarr, UK Financial Sanctions http://www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/financialsanctions. Commodity Futures - Background Affiliation Status Information http://www.nfa.futures.org/basicnet/ and Case Status Reports http://www.cftc.gov/ConsumerProtection/CaseStatusReports/index.htm (CFTC fraud investigations). FINRA BrokerCheck http://www.finra.org/Investors/ToolsCalculators/BrokerCheck/index.htm FDIC Failed Banks List http://www.fdic.gov/bank/individual/failed/banklist.html Stock Transfer Agent Database http://www.stocktransfer.com/. Pension and Benefit Data http://www.freeerisa.com/ (free registration required). Patents & Trademarks http://patents.uspto.gov/. 262

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Non-Profits: Foundation Center 990 Finder http://foundationcenter.org/findfunders/990finder/, Guidestar Charity Search http://www.guidestar.org/, IRS Exempt Charities Check http://apps.irs.gov/app/eos/, NCCS Organizations Search http://nccsdataweb.urban.org/PubApps/search.php, America's Charities http://www.charities.org/, Charity Navigator http://www.charitynavigator.org/, and BBB Wise Giving Alliance http://www.give.org/. NASCO State Charity Agencies List http://www.nasconet.org/category/info-charities/.

His/her court records and filings ... • •





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Guide to Court Resources http://www.justice.gov/jmd/ls/state.htm Dockets: Lexis Courtlink http://www.lexisnexis.com/courtlink/online/, WestDockets http://courtexpress.westlaw.com, Pacer Case Locator http://pcl.uscourts.gov/ $. Westlaw: All Cases, Adverse Filings (ADVERSE-ALL), Bankruptcies (BKR-ALL), UCCs (UCC-ALL), Lawsuits (LS-ALL), Criminal Records (CRIM-ALL), Arrest Records (ARREST-ALL), Liens and Judgments (LJ-ALL), Jury Verdicts (JV-ALL), Federal & State Civil & Criminal Trial Filings, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). Lexis: Federal/ State Cases, Bankruptcy Filings, Judgments/ Liens, UCC Filings, Civil/ Criminal Filings, Criminal Records, Jury Verdicts, Verdict & Settlement Analyzer, Federal/ State Agency Decisions, OFAC. Justia.com http://www.justia.com/ Web criminal records sites: BOP Inmate Locator http://www.bop.gov/iloc2/LocateInmate.jsp, National Sex Offender Registry http://www.nsopw.gov/, USA.gov Inmate Locator FAQ http://1.usa.gov/xjgHYb, Inmate Locators on the Web http://www.corrections.com/links/show/20, and Vinelink http://www.vinelink.com/. Article on Criminal Background checks http://www.virtualchase.com/articles/criminal_checks_national.html States’ Public Notice Websites http://watchnotice.wordpress.com/helpfulsources/ Public Records Search Directory http://publicrecords.onlinesearches.com/

His/her Web site or E-mail address ... • •

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Fagan Finder URLinfo http://www.faganfinder.com/urlinfo/ and CentralOps.net http://centralops.net/co/ ARIN WHOIS Database Search http://whois.arin.net/ui, DomainTools.com http://www.domaintools.com/, Checkdomain.com http://www.checkdomain.com/, IP Address Guide http://www.ipaddressguide.com/, and WhoIs Company Web Site Lookup http://www.networksolutions.com/en_US/whois/index.jhtml. DNS Stuff http://dnsstuff.com/, Trace Route http://www.traceroute.org/, SpamID.net http://spamid.net/. Fingering Email Accounts http://www.emailman.com/finger/ My Email Address Is http://my.email.address.is/ and Ultimate E-mail Directory http://www.theultimates.com/email/. Use Google http://www.google.com and search for: "email * @companydomain.com" or "email ** companydomain.com" to find someone's e-mail address. (Try e-mail also). WayBack Machine http://www.archive.org.

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He/she went to college ... • • • •

Web U.S. Universities, by State http://www.utexas.edu/world/univ/state/. Classmates.com (registration required) http://www.classmates.com. DegreeVerify - National Student Clearinghouse $ http://www.studentclearinghouse.org/. Dissertation/Theses searches: WorldCat http://firstsearch.oclc.org/fsip $, Proquest Digital Dissertations http://proquest.umi.com/login $, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations http://www.ndltd.org/resources/findetds, and Foreign Doctoral Dissertations Database http://www.crl.edu/collections.

Information about him/her in the News ... • • • • • • •

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Lexis All News, All Languages and English Language News Archive Databases Westlaw AllNewsPlus Database Newsbank http://infoweb.newsbank.com/ $ Proquest Historical Newspapers http://proquest.umi.com/login $ Google News Archive http://news.google.com/ (Enter a search and then click on “Archives”) NewspaperArchive.com http://www.newspaperarchive.com/ $ Historical Newspapers Online http://gethelp.library.upenn.edu/guides/hist/onlinenewspapers.html and LOC Historic American Newspapers http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/ Newspaper Digitization Projects http://www.crl.edu/collections/digital Other Web Sites - NewsLink http://www.newslink.org, OnlineNewspapers.com http://www.onlinenewspapers.com, Topix http://www.topix.net, U.S. Local News http://www.lib.utexas.edu/news/us.html, ABYZ News Links http://www.abyznewslinks.com/, KIDON Media Link http://www.kidon.com/medialink/index.php

His/her voter registration and campaign contributions ... Westlaw Voter Registrations (VOTERS-ALL) and Political Donors (POLITICALDONORS) • Lexis Voter Registrations • Campaign Finance Information Center http://www.campaignfinance.org/states/index.html. • FEC Databases http://www.fec.gov/finance/disclosure/disclosure_data_search.shtml OpenSecrets http://www.opensecrets.org/, Influence Explorer http://influenceexplorer.com/, Follow the Money http://www.followthemoney.org/, Project Vote Smart http://www.vote-smart.org/, and PoliticalMoneyLine http://www.tray.com/. • IRS Political Organization Filing & Disclosure http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&Non-Profits/Political-Organizations/Political-Organization-Filing-and-Disclosure. • State Voter Registration Verification Web Sites http://www.fvap.gov/links • Senate Lobbying Disclosure Act Database http://soprweb.senate.gov/index.cfm?event=selectfields, House Database http://disclosures.house.gov/ld/ldsearch.aspx, Lobbying Database •

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http://www.opensecrets.org/lobbyists/index.asp, Lobbyist Directory http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/kfountain/. Information about him/her on the Web ... •

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Google http://www.google.com/, Google Books http://books.google.com, Yahoo! http://search.yahoo.com/, Ask.com http://www.ask.com, and Bing http://www.bing.com/ ZoomInfo http://www.zoominfo.com, PeekYou http://www.peekyou.com, Pipl http://www.pipl.com, LinkedIn http://www.linkedin.com Facebook http://www.facebook.com, Twitter http://twitter.com/search-advanced, Pinterest http://www.pinterest.com, Google+ http://plus.google.com, MySpace http://www.myspace.com, and other Social Networking Sites http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites. Also CLEAR Web Analytics and Accurint Virtual Identity Report. Google Groups http://groups.google.com/, Omgili Discussions Search http://omgili.com, Search IRC http://searchirc.com/, Zuula Blog Search http://www.zuula.com/, Technorati http://technorati.com/blogs/, IceRocket http://www.icerocket.com/, and Boardreader http://www.boardreader.com. Google Video http://video.google.com/, Yahoo! Video http://video.search.yahoo.com/, YouTube http://www.youtube.com/, Bing Video Search http://www.bing.com/videos/, and C-SPAN http://www.cspanvideo.org/videoLibrary/.

General Sources Access to Archival Databases System http://www.archives.gov/aad/ Asset Search Blog http://www.assetsearchblog.com/ Black Book Online http://www.blackbookonline.info/ Craig D. Ball http://www.craigball.com/hotlinks.html Digital Journalist’s Legal Guide http://www.rcfp.org/browse-media-lawresources/digital-journalists-legal-guide EInvestigator.com http://www.einvestigator.com/links/index.html Genealogy sites: Ancestry.com, Archives.com, Archives.gov, Cyndi’s List (Including links to all U.S. Census records online - http://www.cyndislist.com/us/census/), FamilySearch.org, FamilyTreeSearcher.com, Genealogy.com, GenealogyBank.com, Genealogy Search Engine www.genealogyintime.com/GenealogyResources/Tools/free_genealogy_search_engine.html, Mocavo.com, MyHeritage.com, USGenWeb.org. Global Locate http://www.global-locate.com/v4.1/page.asp Journalists' Toolbox - Public Records http://www.journaliststoolbox.org/ 265

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Portico http://indorgs.virginia.edu/portico/ Public Record Research Library http://www.brbpublications.com/freeresources/pubrecsites.aspx Public Records Directory http://publicrecords.onlinesearches.com/ Public Records USA http://www.factfind.com/public.htm Reverse Lookup Directories http://dir.yahoo.com/Reference/Phone_Numbers_and_Addresses/Reverse_Lookup_Directori es/ Search Systems http://www.searchsystems.net/ TLO.com http://www.tlo.com/ $ Virtual Gumshoe http://www.virtualgumshoe.com/

Last Updated January 24, 2014 by Jennifer L. McMahan *Note: Lexis/Westlaw links require a subscription, as do a few other sites, noted in the text with $. * Disclaimer of Endorsement: Reference in this publication to any specific commercial products, processes, or services, or the use of any trade, firm or corporation name does not constitute endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the Department of Justice. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice, and agreement with those views may not be implied in advertising. The Department of Justice makes no claims, promises or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the contents of this publication and expressly disclaims liability for errors and omissions in this publication.

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Background Reference Philosophy and Readers’ Expectations Prepared for AFSCME 2910 The Library of Congress Professional Guild Representing 1,350 professional employees www.guild2910.org Thomas Mann April 16, 2013 No copyright is claimed for these papers. They are open source, and may be freely reproduced, reprinted, and republished. Paper #1 Background Reference Philosophy and Readers’ Expectations Are assertions of “researchers’ expectations” of one-stop shopping, federated searching, and elimination of “silos” an adequate grounding for best practices in reference service at the Library of Congress? Library Services has been sponsoring a series of speakers under the new rubric of “Silos to Synergy” as an overall philosophy of service—i.e., that the walls of separate “silos” of information must be broken down in order to form merged resources for unified, consolidated, one-stop transdisciplinary service. We are told, further, that a major goal of the I-900 reconfiguration is that of “foster[ing] transdisciplinary knowledge sharing and best practices.”1 There is indeed a strong “one-stop shopping” implication to the I-900 proposal specifically. This philosophy, admittedly prevalent in much of the library profession, nevertheless needs very serious reality checks if it is now going to be applied uncritically to LC operations. These reality checks must be considered on two levels: 1) on the issue of eliminating silos for cross-disciplinary online searching of either websites or subscription databases (a prevalent assumption in the library profession as a whole); and

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2) on the issue of eliminating the silos of separate reading rooms and their separate reference collections at LC in particular as a way of promoting transdisciplinary service. It is only the second issue that is the present concern of AFSCME 2910, and it will be discussed in detail in the subsequent papers; but since the philosophy behind #2 is grounded in the prevalent philosophy of #1, we must first examine whether elimination of silos on issue #1 is in fact as desirable as it is apparently assumed to be within Library Services. Eliminating “silos” in the online environment: searching open websites in contrast to searching restricted subscription databases Regarding the domain of freely-available Internet resources it is taken for granted that search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo) should search “everything” simultaneously, with results relevance-ranked by various algorithmic weightings of one’s specified search-term keywords. In a sense, no one can object to this—AFSCME 2910 included—for the simple reason that there is literally no alternative method available or even conceivable for searching and sorting billions of websites. Swept under the rug, however, in readers’ (and many librarians’) expectations for “one stop” transdisciplinary searches across the entire Internet are two very different problems that inevitably show up in the actual results of such searches. The first problem is the retrieval of tens of thousands of “junk” hits that happen to have the right searchterm keywords in the wrong contexts; the second is the lack of retrieval of thousands of other sources that are indeed conceptually relevant, but which get overlooked because they use different keywords for the same subject. The difficulties of seeing “the shape of the elephant” of relevant literature via one stop Internet searching It is impossible to see “the shape of the elephant” of the literature on one’s topic when the only search technique employed is that of guessing which keywords might work best, no matter how extensive the contentcoverage of the websites or databases may be. Researchers will always get something, but they never know what they are missing—just like the Six Blind Men of India in the fable who were asked to describe an elephant. None could see how many other parts of the animal lay beyond the “something” that they each grasped initially, nor could any grasp how the many diverse parts fit together. While it is entirely admirable that Internet search engines effectively break through the walls of so many subject-specific silos in the extent of 275

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their coverage, it is simultaneously not admirable that their silo-busting reach simultaneously causes researcher to miss as many relevant sites as they retrieve—and also that relevance ranking algorithms are not adequate to set conceptual boundaries to any topic, resulting in too many retrievals of irrelevant hits in irrelevant contexts. In many cases the boundaries created by subject or disciplinary silos would be much more of help than a hindrance. The inadequacies of keyword searching within the open Internet Keyword searching achieved by silo-busting or transdisciplinary Internet searching—even when that is what “readers expect”—is not the best way to provide good service.2 Let me offer and example of a Google search. This example is by no means intended as an overall criticism of Google because that service does so many things amazingly well—for both readers and reference librarians. We use it ourselves routinely for the things that it is good at providing. But no Internet search engine can be “expected” to provide “everything” in all situations. Using the Net for scholarly purposes frequently entails substantial trade-offs that students, in particularly, are dangerously unaware of. For example, a Google search of open Internet sites produces these results:     

“Huron Indians” (in quotation marks): 50,300 hits “Wyandot Indians” (in quotation marks, the designation preferred by the tribe itself): 24,200 hits “Huron Indians” minus (-) “Wyandot Indians”: 48,000 “Wyandot Indians” minus (-) “Huron Indians”: 21,900 “Huron Indians” “Wyandot Indians”: 24,6003

The fact that the overlap between sets varies under different search specifications is due to the mysteries of Google’s black box algorithm software; we cannot know from the outside what the software is doing because Google will not release that proprietary information. The bottom line, however, is this: In transcending disciplinary silos in Internet searching you can never see “the shape of the elephant” of relevant sources. (The problem obtains in all Internet search engines.) You never know what you are not getting, that would have appeared if you had searched via even slightly different or unanticipated keywords. Relevance-ranking software is of no use in solving this problem. It can only rank the terms that are typed in; it cannot find other relevant words that have not been typed in. (Library search mechanisms, in contrast to those of the Internet, can find those missing terms much more efficiently. [Examples below]) 276

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Again, however, in the context of the open Internet there is literally no alternative to relevance-ranked keyword searching. The other methods of searching more systematically cannot be scaled up to cover billions of records. Students who are accustomed to Internet searching, then, come to “expect” similar access mechanisms in libraries—in large part because they have never been shown any alternatives. The inadequacies of keyword inquiries in federated searches of library-supplied subscription databases When we move to online resources within a research library context, however, there are indeed powerful alternatives to searching via relevanceranked keywords; and these alternatives are much more effective in showing researchers “the shape of the elephant” of the literature relevant to their topics. “Online resources in a research library context,” here, refers to the hundreds of subscription databases that libraries can offer (ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Gale, Thomson Reuters, etc.) that are not freely available on the open Internet. An exception is our own online public access catalog (OPAC), which, being confined in its coverage to manageable onsite holdings (with no need to “scale up” to billions of websites) can indeed provide access via vocabulary-controlled search terms—which are much more efficient in showing “what the library has” within the collections that receive cataloging treatment. (Our controlled LC subject heading Capital punishment, for example, rounds up titles such as Philosophy of Punishment, Death Penalty, Legal Homicide. Legal Executions in the Western Territories 1847-1911, Death Sentences in Missouri 1803-2005, Lethal Injection, Dokumentation über die Todesstrafe. and Contre ou pour le peine du mort—i.e., it creates a conceptual category rounding up all the relevant works no matter what keywords their authors have used, and also no matter what languages their authors have used.) Federated searching of all of a library’s databases—i.e., searching both its OPAC and its subscription databases all at once—is not the same thing as federated searches of all free Internet websites at the same time. This distinction remains important even though it is frequently swept under the rug by many university libraries that are now promoting federated, transdisciplinary keyword searching of “all” of their databases as the best solution to their clients’ research needs. (EBSCO Discovery Service, Primo Central, and Summon Article Finder are three of the commercially available services that enable federated “one stop” searching of all of a library’s databases simultaneously.)

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The serious problems with consolidated “one-stop” searches of “everything” In fact, this kind of “one stop”/consolidated/federated searching is often highly misleading to researchers and detrimental to quality scholarship because it leaves researchers with a false impression that they have indeed found “everything” that is available. What they do not perceive is that a federated search that covers a wide swathe of databases does not automatically find everything relevant within them because of widespread terminology variations. Holding up such a misleading prospect (“covering = finding”) is not a goal that should be advocated or modeled by the Library of Congress. Even if reference librarians elsewhere in the profession are failing to note this distinction, the reference staff at LC itself is sufficiently aware of it to the point of having rejected the EBSCO, Primo Central, and Summon services—in spite of extravagant claims by their salespeople that the “one stop” shopping covering “everything” that they provide is indeed what readers “expect.” At the Library of Congress our reference staff wishes to provide better service—service that will actually show “what the library has” rather than merely provide “something” that is relevant regardless of how much other relevant material is being overlooked. We believe that “best practices” entail showing researchers “the shape of the elephant” rather than just a disconnected and incomplete array of separate and unintegrated parts. A specific example: Indians of North America, Native Americans, Indians of North America Here is a concrete example of the problem with the “one stop shopping” mindset, specifically at LC. These are the results of federated, transdisciplinary searches of all 67 disparate databases in our subscription to EBSCOhost research databases:   

A search of Indians of North America as a Subject Term produces 676,285 hits. A search of Native Americans as a Subject Term produces 26,023 hits. A search of American Indians as a Subject Term produces 13,420 hits.

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The noteworthy point is that the three different sets have only 26 hits in common. The results are even more misleading and confusing when the same terms are searched in the default keyword mode (rather than as Subject Terms):   

Indians of North America [in “Select a Field (optional)”]: 83,031 hits Native Americans [in “Select a Field (optional)”]: 141,098 hits American Indians [in “Select a Field (optional)”]: 159,657 hits

The overlap of these three sets is only 27,527. In other words, “one stop” transdisciplinary searching of all of our EBSCOhost databases under any one of these terms will cause researchers to unknowingly miss tens of thousands of relevant articles because the different databases use very different terms for the same subject. The variant keywords—no matter whether they are searched in controlled or uncontrolled fields—produce vastly different retrievals. This fact is not at all apparent to researchers, who are seriously misled into thinking they have indeed found “everything” on their topic through any “one stop”/transdisciplinary/consolidated search, especially if that single federated search is misrepresented to them by librarians as covering “everything” that needs to be searched.4 Simple aggregation of databases for “unified” searching does nothing to standardize their vocabulary terms. All of the computerized relevance-ranking of the keywords “Native Americans”—no matter how many databases are searched across disciplines—will not round up the disparate terms above, “Indians of North America” or “American Indians” that are simultaneously being ignored in the same databases. An additional problem with one-stop searching: loss of initial focus on core Literature The problems with “one stop” searching across multiple “silos” are not confined to the choice of search terms. An additional, equally serious problem arises in distinguishing the core literature within any discipline from the tangential literature that surrounds it. Whether it is noticed in current library literature or not, readers do in fact usually prefer to have the most important sources brought to their attention first, before being led into outlying areas. This is something that we see in practice, in actually working with them, that gets overlooked by theorists (and salespeople) who assert that readers “expect” everything all at once from a consolidated transdisciplinary search—even though federated searching fails to deliver any such result even under the best of conditions, 279

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and also frequently buries the core literature of any subject area within mountains of chaff having the right keywords in only tangential contexts. The importance of silos It thus does not to occur to many theorists in the profession who call for “transdisciplinary” service that “silos” were created in the first place in order to solve the serious problem of identifying, indexing, and abstracting the most important sources within their disciplines, so that retrieval results would not be clogged by thousand of irrelevant sources, outside the “core” silo subject area, that happen to have the right keywords in irrelevant or merely tangential contexts. This is a persistent and serious problem with Internet searching in general, but equally a problem with federated searches of library subscription databases. What this means, again, is that the Internet model of “breaking through the walls of silos” does not apply to the many searches that are required—and that are far superior—within a library context. Separating the most relevant sources into disciplinary silos to begin with is in fact a highly desirable thing to do; naïve calls to “eliminate silos” and merge all sources together in one search across all disciplines produce very misleading results. The federated “solution” to covering a range of databases also entails the creation of severe problems in two other areas: 1) the even more serious problem of choice of search terms, and 2) the retrieval of too many irrelevant or tangential hits outside the core literature of any subject. And these problems remain even when readers “expect” a unified search mechanism to provide them with “everything.” An additional problem with one-stop federated searching: its elimination of search mechanisms more powerful than keyword searching A third and equally serious problem with federated searching of subscription databases is that it routinely eliminates the best mechanisms for solving the persistent problem of which search terms to use. For example, Thomson Reuters, EBSCOhost, and ProQuest now offer many databases that allow researchers to do not just vocabulary-controlled searching but also citation searching and related record searching. Citation searches tell the researcher which articles cite any good source that has already been identified—and very often the citing sources, while being very much “in the same ballpark,” nonetheless use entirely different and unanticipated keywords. 280

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Related record searches enable the inquirer to find articles having shared footnotes with any good starting-point article—and articles having shared references, too, while being “in the same intellectual ballpark,” may also use entirely different keywords. For example: Starting point article: “Economics of Antiquities Looting” [1995]

     

Citation Search Results [subsequent articles that cite starting point article]

“Protecting newly discovered antiquities” “Cultural security: the evolving role of art in international security” “Heritage for sale? A case study from Israel” “Intellectual property crimes” “Occupiers’ title to cultural property: Nineteenth-century removal of Egyptian artifacts” “Spoil of war? A solution to the Hermitage trove debate”

Related Record Search Results [articles having shared footnotes with starting point article]    

“Evaluating the effectiveness of foreign laws on national ownership of cultural property in United States courts” “Reaffirming McClain: The National Stolen Property Act and the abiding trade in looted cultural objects” Who owns the past in US museums? An economic analysis of cultural patrimony ownership” “A Tale of 2 innocents – Creating equitable balance between the rights of former owners and good faith purchasers of stolen art

In other words, subscription databases frequently offer search mechanisms other than controlled vocabularies (descriptors or subject headings) that directly address the problem that is both created and exacerbated by federated searching of keywords: these extra search methods show readers directly-relevant articles whose keywords they could never specify in advance. But—and this is the crucial point—such citation search and related record search capabilities disappear entirely in federated/consolidated/“one stop”/transdisciplinary searches of multiple databases at the same time. The reason is that “one stop” federated searching eliminates all search features that are not shared across all of the databases being searched. In other words, federated searching radically dumbs down retrieval to only keyword searching because that is the only search technique that can 281

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be used across all different databases. Even controlled subject headings lose their “control” in federated searches because the subject descriptors from one database do not cross-search the others (e.g., Indians of North America, above). Controlled subject terms themselves become only uncontrolled keywords when they are searched outside the unique silo databases they are intended for.5 The serious problem with naïve understanding and promotion of transdisciplinarity The bottom line is this: fostering transdisciplinarity by eliminating database “silos” through “one stop” federated searching usually results in a serious diminution of the quality of the scholarship that results. Any unquestioned assumption that such “transdisciplinary” searching is an unqualified good, or that it should be promoted at the Library of Congress at the expense of subject expertise within individual disciplines—subject “silos”—will only result in our diminishing the quality of research that gets done here. Of course there is an important place for transdisciplinarity, but not to start with: it gets in the way of seeing the shape of the core literature. Psychology students, for example, are quite happy to be able to do their initial searches in PsycINFO—or History students in Historical Abstracts or America: History & Life—without being burdened by identical keywords that may pop up in African Newspapers, American Film Institute Catalog, CQ Historic Documents, Making of Modern Law, Early English Books Online, GeoRef, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management, Nursing and Allied Health, Philosopher’s Index, Oxford Music Online, North American Women’s Letters and Diaries, and Zoological Index.6 In terms of a reference philosophy of “best practices,” then, the reality of high quality reference work demands that we do not assume “readers’ expectations” of federation or consolidation or “one-stop shopping,” in whatever guise, to be a desirable goal—even if surveys indicate that readers “expect” it. If we do not know any more than readers do about the serious problems created by these naïve expectations then we have no business setting ourselves up as their professional guides. It is our job to educate rather than to reinforce ignorance. We cannot “exceed the expectations of our users” if we ourselves cater to those very expectations by jumping uncritically on the federated/consolidated/one-stopshopping/ transdisciplinary bandwagon that 282

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is so prevalent in the library profession at large. (See Paper #6 regarding the FRD’s bibliography on this.) While such “one stop” transdisciplinary panaceas do indeed sound wonderful in theory, the realities met with in practice are substantially different. And librarians of the Library of Congress must deal with the realities that are actually experienced when “one stop” shopping produces such miserable results. (The surveys that say readers “expect” “one stop” searches of everything don’t have to deal with those readers when their searches so often produce unsatisfactory results; the reference librarians here do have to show them, routinely, how to get beyond what they initially “expect.”) Best practices at LC It is not at all adequate, then, to specify “best practices” as a need to “transition from passive referral to active engagement in regard to our reference transactions,” “foster transdisciplinary knowledge sharing,” and “foster new ways of problem-solving, innovation, and creativity,” all with a view to providing the “types of services our readers will expect”7—especially if these practices and expectations are uncritically assumed to entail an overall transition “from silos to synergy.” We need both, not one at the expense of the other--which is unfortunately what is entailed in the philosophy of the I-900 proposal. We need to do better than readers’ expectations rather than dumb down service to cater to those expectations. When readers who search only keywords in any of the Internet search engines or federated subscription databases8 are routinely inundated with tens of thousands of hits— most being quite irrelevant to their interests in spite of “relevance ranking” of the results—they also then expect little more than Wikipedia to be available to provide some overall orientation to their topic. This is the source they most often turn to in the hope that it will give them some initial perspective on “the shape of the elephant” of their subjects. They “expect” little or nothing better because they have never been introduced to anything better. At this very point, however, when they are most confused about how to see “the shape of the elephant” of either the basic facts about their topic or the most relevant literature on it, the peculiar strengths of LC’s reference collections—not our websites or online databases—can provide the very solutions they most need. And our reference collections can do it efficiently in ways that none of the readers expect. (See Paper #2.) ------283

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1 Minding Matters, December 20, 2012. 2 It is not the best way if the researcher’s desire is to see “the shape of the elephant” of all relevant literature; it is always very good for finding “something”—if that is all that is desired. Scholars at LC desire much more. 3 These searches were done on 3/18/13. Google results can change by the minute. 4 Comparable non-overlapping results appear when doing federated searches of Death penalty, Capital punishment, and Execution; or UFOs, Flying saucers, and Unidentified flying objects. 5 Still other crucial features that are needed to cut down huge keyword retrievals vanish entirely in federated searches, e.g., limiting features such as document types (obituaries, literature review articles, editorials) or dates of subject coverage (as in Historical Abstracts and America: History & Life). 6 One of LC’s Kluge Scholars is now writing on “how the self-image of academics is affected when they become parents.” Federated searching produces overwhelming lists of irrelevant hits; much better results come from the use of focused “silos” such as PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts. 7 Roberta Shaffer, Minding Matters, ibid. 8 Researchers at LC can do limited federated searching of multiple subscription databases at present—but only within limited groups of databases offered by the same vendor, not across all databases provided by all vendors.

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Best Practices in Reference Service at the Library of Congress Prepared for AFSCME 2910 The Library of Congress Professional Guild Representing 1,350 professional employees www.guild2910.org Thomas Mann April 16, 2013 No copyright is claimed for these papers. They are open source, and may be freely reproduced, reprinted, and republished. Paper #2 Best Practices in Reference Service at the Library of Congress If not “one stop” transdisciplinary shopping, what are actual “best practices” in providing reference service specifically at the Library of Congress? Since transdisciplinary elimination of subject “silos” is frequently assumed, mistakenly, to constitute “best practices” in reference service (see Papers #1 and #6), let us consider carefully three examples of what is actually involved—practices that may not be apparent to those who do not actually do reference work, or who have no actual contact with real researchers. (This includes many academics in the library field who are nonetheless prolific authors.) Example of best practices at LC: Humor in the New Testament First example: I recently helped a Ph.D. researcher who came to the reference desk to ask about “humor in the New Testament.” She said she’d already done “a lot of keyword searching” but she wanted to make sure she wasn’t “missing something important”—her exact words on both points. (She said she was turning her dissertation into a book.) I understood her reference to “keyword searching” to mean, in all probability, “nothing but computer searching”—whether on the Internet alone or (I hoped) also in some of the relevant subscription databases available through her university library. (It turns out, however, that no librarian at her home university had

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introduced her to the best of the relevant “silo” databases, the ATLA Religion Index. She had never heard of it.) I showed her six English-language specialized encyclopedias right in the Main Reading Room that had articles on humor in either the New Testament specifically or in the Bible or Religion more generally—she had previously seen only one of them—and a French set that had an additional article, and a German set that didn’t. (She could read multiple languages.) One of the sources, the 15-volume Encyclopedia of Religion, has a 30-page article on “Humor and Religion” in multiple parts including “An Overview”— with each part having a bibliography that is annotated and evaluative. From each set I pulled the relevant volume myself and put it on the alcove table in front of her; and I indicated the specific Alcove class-number areas for further browsing (which have French and Italian sets beyond what I touched myself). I saw her later making two trips to the photocopiers, carrying every volume I pulled—maybe even a few more. These were important in answering her question not just because they contained relevant overview articles—precisely the kind that would tell her quickly if she were indeed overlooking some important ideas—but also because every one of them offered a concise bibliography identifying exactly the literature sources that the authors of the articles believed to be the most important ones. My point is that this was not simply a matter of “exceeding” the researcher’s expectations; rather, I was changing her expectations of research methods to begin with by pointing out something she had not previously used: a good reference collection with multiple relevant printed sources, all immediately available and physically nearby each other in subject clusters to facilitate easy recognition—recognition, that is, once the reference librarian (me) had introduced her to the clusters. None of the multiple relevant sources on the shelves were digitized for the “keyword searching” she had been doing. The very function of a good reference collection is to provide easy access to the tertiary literature that identifies, digests, summarizes, abstracts, annotates, and evaluates the overwhelming mass of primary and secondary literature in the stacks. (It must also point the way efficiently to good resources elsewhere, too.) A good reference collection gives us intellectual control over the rest of the collection in ways that none of our other resources do—including our 630 subscription databases.

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Example of best practices at LC: Islam and Human Rights A second example: one of our recent Kluge Fellows was working on “Human Rights in Islam.” In the Main Reading Room (MRR) reference collection alone I could quickly bring to bear multiple relevant sources:     

The 5-volume 2009 Encyclopedia of Human Rights (with a 13-page article on “Islam”) The 6-volume Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World (2009; 9-page article on “Human Rights”) The 2-volume Encyclopedia of Islam in the United States (4-page article on “Human Rights) The 2-volume 2004 Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2-page article on “Human Rights”), and The 3-volume 2001 Human Rights Encyclopedia (2-page article on “Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam”)

Further:        

The bibliographies of all five of these articles overlap in recommending one particular book, A. E. Myer’s Islam and Human Rights [2006]). The bibliographies of three of them overlap in recommending a second book (An-Na‘im, Toward an Islamic Reformation) The bibliographies of three of them overlap in recommending a third book (Baderin, International Human Rights and Islamic Law) The bibliographies of two of them overlap in recommending a fourth book (Abou El Fadl, Islam and the Challenge of Democracy) The bibliographies of two of them overlap in recommending a fifth book (Abou El Fadl, Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority, and Women) The bibliographies of two of them overlap in recommending a sixth book (Ebadi, Iran Awakening: A Memoir of Revolution and Hope) The bibliographies of two of them overlap in recommending a seventh book (Mernissi, The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women’s Rights in Islam) The bibliographies of two of them overlap in recommending an eighth source (Waltz, “Universal Human Rights: The Contribution of Muslim States,” Human Rights Quarterly, 26, 4 [2004], 799-844).1

Why is this overlap of recommendations so important? Here’s why: a search of LC’s OPAC combining Islam? AND Human rights as LCSH subject terms produces over 450 hits. Even a Kluge scholar with a full-year residency could not read so many hundreds of sources. It is therefore extremely helpful to researchers not only to get multiple “takes” on “the facts” of same subject—the “something important” ideas that

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should not be overlooked—but also to be able to determine which few “best” sources to start with in moving to the next level of research. Our capacity to digest and filter huge numbers of information sources is particularly important at LC because of the sheer size of our collections. In other words, the definition of “best practices” here will have to take into account how different we are from all other libraries; smaller facilities will not have comparable problems of initial sorting and filtering, and so what they regard as “best practices” may be very different from what we need to do here (Paper #6). Example of best practices at LC: Montague grammar A third example: A reader said he needed to research “Montague grammar.”2 I had never even heard of this, and the reader himself knew little more than the name and the fact that it has something to do with linguistics. Through Reference Universe—a subscription database that indexes the individual articles in ca. 50,000 specialized reference sources (with particularly strong coverage of subject encyclopedias) I could immediately identify a two-page article on the topic in the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (4 vols., Oxford U. Press, 2003), which was readily available in the MRR reference collection. More to the point, the 14-volume Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (2nd ed., Elsevier, 2006), not covered by Reference Universe, was shelved right nearby; and this set provided a 12-page article on the topic, plus a 3-page article on Richard Montague himself. A third source shelved in the same area—also not covered by Reference Universe—the 2-volume Encyclopedia of Linguistics (Fitzroy-Dearborn, 2005), provided another 2page article. (Wikipedia’s very short articles on the grammar and the grammarian are embarrassingly superficial in comparison.) LC has more than two dozen books in multiple languages under the subject heading Montague grammar; but referring him to the OPAC would have done him a disservice. He wanted only an overview perspective on the basic facts of this particular subject, not either in-depth knowledge from 300-page books or transdisciplinary connections to anything else. In other words, high quality service is best provided by leading researchers through stages in a research process. It is accomplished by first showing them overview sources relevant to their topic, and giving them mechanisms for discerning the best sources on the subject of interest if they then wish to proceed to the next stage.

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Best practices: proceeding initially in stages and within disciplines rather than trying to get everything and make all possible connections at once “Transdisciplinary” considerations are not appropriate at this preliminary and necessary early stage. We provide the best service precisely by not catering to “readers’ expectations” of finding “everything” via any “one stop” mechanism, computer or other. It was the confusing computer searches themselves that left the first reader with the gutfeeling—and quite justified—suspicion that she might be “missing something important.” A philosophy of “best practices” that provides service in stages and within disciplines works much better in practice, with real questions at ground level, than an ethereal philosophy of “one stop shopping” that provides transdisciplinary access to “the full portfolio of the Library’s resources.” Small libraries might be able to get away with that because their “full portfolios” don’t contain much to begin with. The first stage at LC, however, very often requires excellent reference collections because they alone provide ready access to the initial overviews and filters that are needed to provide overviews of otherwise overwhelming sources—and the contents of our reference collections are almost entirely not available in online counterparts. (Nor are the sources that are online as perceptible online as when their print counterparts are arranged on our reference shelves for easy recognition, without prior specification, in subjectclassed “silos.”) The next level of searching often involves identifying the best LCSH subject headings in the OPAC—a procedure that is greatly facilitated by examining the subject tracings on the best books identified at the previous stage, in the overlapping encyclopedia’s bibliographies. The first level, then, provides feedback on what to look for at next level—and, equally important, on what not to bother with that might otherwise seem attractive or simply crowd out, by sheer volume, the better sources (e.g., 450+ books on Islam and human rights). This is a very important consideration in “ground level” reference work that is routinely overlooked in library literature flying at “the 30,000 foot level” that conspicuously fails to provide any concrete examples of best practices with real reference questions in a very large library. This next level also entails identifying the best discipline-specific databases relevant to the topic, for more extensive and deeper levels of searching—especially through referral to the subject-specific “silo” databases (such as ATLA Religion Index) that minimize the problem of retrieving 289

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thousands of irrelevancies outside the core subject area, irrelevancies that contain the same keywords in unwanted contexts. But these levels are beyond the scope of this paper.3 Here my concern is with the necessity of having good reference collections to provide the first level of service: overview provision and filtering. Actual “best practices” being overlooked by I-900 My point regarding best practices in reference work is that there are technicalities to providing good service, especially at a library of the size of LC, and that the I-900 proposal shows no awareness of them at all. Moreover, its facile emphasis on making “transdisciplinary” connections minimizes precisely the greatest strength of our reference collections—i.e., the first thing to be done in the best reference service is, in most cases, to give readers an overview of the range of resources relevant to their inquiry, on two levels: a) in identifying the most important concepts relevant to the subject— i.e., “the basic facts”—or the “what’s important” ideas whose absence might be fatal to a paper that overlooks them; and b) in filtering the huge mass of available material to identify core literature on the subject, segregated from indiscriminate printouts or computer retrievals of hundreds or thousands of hits.4 In order to provide such overviews, and to do so in ways that far exceed what Wikipedia is capable of doing, we need specialized reference collections having multiple sources that overlap in their coverage of the same subjects—as in the above examples. What LC can offer researchers is a range of overview perspectives on the same subject that can be quickly compared to each other at this initial level of service, and a range of concise bibliographies composed selectively of “most recommended” sources that can also be compared for overlaps, as above. Wikipedia—the main source that students “expect” to provide them with an overview—cannot do either.5 Dumbing down LC’s greatest reference-service strengths No other library on earth can match LC’s ability to provide such an immense range of initial overview perspectives and filtering capabilities in all subject areas in its specialized reference collections. But this range of necessary initial and overlapping reference sources cannot provide the quick comparative perspectives that are needed to “exceed readers’ expectations” if they are not readily available to begin with in our open reference collections. (They are printed, copyrighted sources 290

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that are very seldom online; and even if available online cannot readily be found through federated searches.) This is one of the greatest dangers of the I-900 proposal, at least as it has been currently put forward: it seems to be based on a very naïve assumption that “one stop shopping” that provides something in all subject areas at a single “Center of Knowledge”—no matter how superficially—is more important than having specialized reference collections with multiple overlapping sources within each discipline, all of which reference sources are:  

immediately available (without having to be requested from the stacks) and subject-clustered on the shelves (in the “silos” created by the LC classification system) for ready recognition of whole groups of sources when individual titles cannot be specified in advance (as with the foreign language encyclopedias covering humor in religion).

I-900 is an exercise in putting a third- or fourth-stage level of reference service (transdisciplinary connections) ahead of the necessary initial stages—and doing so at the cost of undercutting the first stage. That stage itself is dependent on subject expertise that is effectively embodied by the very overlap of multiple sources within each subject “silo” in our specialized reference collections (See Paper #3). (I-900 would also undercut the ready availability of subject experts to begin with; see Paper #6.) Our first fear is this 6: that consolidation of multiple reading rooms will force them to occupy essentially the same linear footage of shelf space currently available in the Main Reading Room (MRR). If we do not have all of the shelf space provided by deck areas adjacent to MRR (Decks 33 [behind a consolidated card catalog], 16, and 46) in order to accommodate the full reference collections from the several affected reading rooms, then the quality of our reference service will be greatly diminished rather than improved. It is likely that there will be a significant dumbing down of the MRR reference collection in any event under I-900: specifically, what will happen to the existing transdisciplinary coverage of MRR regarding the several subject areas of Law, Music, and Geography? Will our large reference sets in these subjects be weeded to make room for sources in Science, Business, et al.? We are likely to lose much of the multidisciplinarity we already have (Paper #5).

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The extreme danger of regarding the very muscle of our reference collections as fat to be trimmed More to the specific point of this paper: without significant additional shelf space in MRR any consolidation of multiple different disciplinary reference collections will necessarily regard multiple specialized encyclopedias (or other reference formats) on the same subject as fat to be trimmed in order to squeeze more subjects (Science, Business, Genealogy, Heraldry, Government Documents, Newspapers) into a much smaller “unified” reference collection. From having been at LC for three decades I can easily predict the guidelines that will come down from higher up: “MRR doesn’t need three multi-volume linguistics encyclopedias when space is at a premium.” Nor does it need two on human rights or three on Islam—or the ten on terrorism that I haven’t mentioned. Surely this will be regarded as “fat to be trimmed,” especially when shelf space has to be created for the 32-volume Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, the 25-volume Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, the 16-volume Encyclopedia of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, and the13-volume Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management—among more than a thousand other encyclopedias now in Science RR. But it is precisely the overlap of reference sources on the same subject that gives us the muscle that we need to provide service that extends way beyond what Wikipedia can offer in giving initial overview and filtering perspectives of both the ideas and the literature of all subjects. We cannot do this with online federated searching (See also Paper #1). LC offers more muscle, in this regard, than any other library in the world. Our specialized reference collections because of their extensive coverage within each discipline in fact provide our reference service with some of our very greatest strengths. But the optimum use of those collections themselves depends not on their being in the same room but rather in having subject-specialist librarians both to assemble the collections initially and then to use them maximally (Papers #3, #6). I’m wondering, for instance, how much more on “Humor in the New Testament” our Religion specialist would have found had she been present while the reader was there. The relationships of extensive reference collections and staff subject expertise are highly intertwined in ways that I-900 is simply overlooking.

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I-900’s lack of understanding, and disregard, of how reference work is actually done The philosophy of the I-900 proposal is focused entirely on providing something on all subjects in one place—one-stop shopping at a single “Center of Knowledge”—because transdisciplinary connections are naïvely expected to result more from a unified reference collection of printed sources whose primary functioning and even capability has little to do with transdisciplinarity. The very arrangement of any reference collection is such that crossdisciplinary connections cannot be perceived in it to begin with because the sources are arranged by LC classification (LCC) numbers—e.g., anyone in the “B” class areas will not be able to simultaneously take in the “H”, “L”, “R”, or “T” areas—regardless of whether the latter are in the same room or across the street. The LCC system by its very nature segregates different subjects into different “silo” classes that cannot be readily seen as physically next to each other simply because no classification scheme can show transdisciplinary connections. The “silo-ness” of the reference sources’ classified arrangement will not be overcome by putting more of them into one room. Indeed, the strengths of the silos themselves will be undercut when their own boundaries are no longer recognizable—e.g., consolidation of MRR and LH&G would greatly dilute the “E” substantive American history reference sources with thousands of “E” volumes from Genealogy covering much-too-particular rosters of casualties, pensions, and payrolls. Consolidation of our separate MRR Biography collection into a ‘unified’ A through Z shelving sequence with all other reference sources would similarly ruin its effectiveness (Paper #4). Transdisciplinarity is primarily and necessarily brought about by databases that are already immediately available in all of our existing reading rooms (Paper #6), not by consolidated reference collections which have very different purposes of their own. This is yet another technicality of providing reference service that is being utterly overlooked by the I-900 proposal. One thing that will be “accomplished”—if that’s the word—by the I-900 consolidation, however, is a marked decline in overall delivery service due to the closure of the Adams Building reading room. Since two-thirds of the Library’s onsite general collections are shelved in Adams, this would mean that delivery time (to MRR) will be doubled from 40 minutes to an hour and a half for most of our books! For the sake of providing more facile access to, possibly, 50,000 extra reference books in one room—assuming decks adjacent to MRR can be used for reference—the I-900 plan would double the 293

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delivery time for 12 million! By no stretch of the imagination can this be regarded as anything other than disastrous.7 Note that in the above examples it would have been a waste of time to start out by looking for any transdisciplinary connections to “Humor in the New Testament” or “Human rights in Islam” or “Montague grammar” in Business, Science, Genealogy, or Government Documents reference sources. That’s not what reference collections are for; again, the goal of promoting transdisciplinary is much better achieved by use of online sources whose ready availability requires no consolidation of reading rooms (Paper #6). The naïveté of thinking transdisciplinarity is promoted by simply having specialists sit next to each other—and fewer specialists at that Nor will transdisciplinarity be achieved simply by having subject specialists from all areas work from the same reference desk, because at no time will there be room for specialists from all areas to simultaneously fit at either the Central Desk or in the current Reference Assistance Room (RAR). The latter will likely have to accommodate a secure area of tables for readers using the SpecMat (special materials) items, the folio volumes from N (Art) classes, and those from the Newspaper collections. Appointments will have to be made to see the specialists on business statistics, technical reports, technical standards, heraldry, philosophy, and art history, most of whom will no longer be immediately present, in violation of best practices required by the Least Effort principle (Paper #6). This very practical reality of “ground level” service is being entirely ignored by I-900: no specialist from Business or Science or Government Documents or Genealogy can “jump in” to an overheard Humanities question, and suggest a transdisciplinary connection to their own area, if specialists from all of the disciplines are not simultaneously present to begin with. Nor do actual (rather than naïvely theorized) reference librarians have the luxury of handling even most questions “as a team”—we are frequently at work simultaneously with entirely different readers. The transdisciplinary connections envisioned by I-900’s seating arrangement does not promote specialists “working together” if they are not all simultaneously present and each specialist hears every question addressed to every other librarian to begin with; and most service has to be provided immediately at the point of contact. (Is it expected that everyone should pay attention to questions on “Humor in the New Testament,” “Human right in Islam,” or “Montague grammar”? On the other side of the coin, how would Science or Government Documents librarians ever hear about the range of unexpected biographical sources available in Genealogy if a genealogist is not present with them every moment at the points that they receive such questions?—especially if 294

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most specialist have to be “on call” at their separate desks because they cannot fit simultaneously at either the Central Desk or the RAR room?) We are already creating cross-disciplinary connections for readers much more effectively simply by our longstanding practice of calling each other up on the phone, letting readers talk directly to experts who are always at their specialized desks no matter when we call, and by referring readers to experts who have immediate access to the specialized reference collections on which they rely for much of their own expertise (see the “acid rain” example in Paper #3). Nor will transdisciplinary be achieved if the ready-reference collections required by the subject specialists themselves are severely truncated (Paper #4). In short, excellent reference service to LC’s researchers would be much better accomplished by maintaining our existing, separate, specialized reading rooms. We are not “resistant to change” in saying this; we are resistant to bad planning that will only undercut the quality of service we can now provide. The planning behind I-900 shows no awareness of what actual best practices at LC are—and the superficial bibliography offered in support of its vague theorizing is simply not adequate to justify either a consolidation of reference collections or the inevitable loss of real subject expertise in the staff (Papers #3 and #6). Appendix Ways to Improve Reference Collections There is a way to dramatically improve reference service without the unnecessary and counterproductive expense and upheaval of I-900. MRR currently has 2,349 encyclopedias8; Science has 1,030; Business has 238; Genealogy has 86; Newspaper & Current Periodical has 25. (These figures ignore the thousands of histories, dictionaries, almanacs, chronologies, atlases, catalogs, directories, handbooks, yearbooks, and other reference-source types that are also in these separate collections.) Weeding each existing reference collection would indeed be desirable. Even more desirable, however, would be to then increase the specialized muscle of each separate room by adding to its peculiar research capabilities. Since the year 2000 LC has received over 8,100 specialized encyclopedias. All of our 20+ reading rooms combined have only 4,683 encyclopedias (all dates) on open shelves; MRR has 1,416 [published since 2000]; Science has 742 [since 2000]; Business has 151 [since 2000]; Local History, only 13; Serials, only 20. 295

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The recommendation is to weed each collection and then add to it more of the thousands of subject-specialized reference sources that are now buried in the stacks. There is much more involved here, however, than just thousands of specialized encyclopedias. Business Ref may well want to add more directories and statistical sources; Local History may want to beef up its biographical sources and heraldries. Newspapers may wish to increase its journalism history collection. All of the reference collections would probably be improved by having more subject bibliographies brought out of the closed stacks—these, too, provide a great way to get an initial, selective overview of the important literature on an amazing variety of subjects. In other words: let’s play to our strengths and increase them—rather than undercut the best capabilities we have for providing high quality service in order to “exceed readers’ [mistaken] expectations” that “the full portfolio” of LC’s resources can be found via “one stop shopping” from either a single reference desk or a single reference collection—or a single federated computer search.

1 Needless to say, it takes much longer to write up such reference work than to simply do it. All of these sources could be assembled from MRR within only a few minutes. 2 Actually I’ve had this question from two different readers; I refer here to the first time. 3 The current 3rd edition of my Oxford Guide to Library Research (Oxford U. Press, 2005), covering these further complexities, is 293 pages long. The manuscript of the 4th edition is considerably longer. A shorter demonstration of what are really “best practices” in reference work can be found in the open-source paper “The Peloponnesian War and the Future or Reference, Cataloging, and Scholarship in Research Libraries.” 4 Published subject bibliographies, especially if annotated, are also excellent sources in reference collections that serve this purpose. 5 There are still other technicalities to overview-provision that are solved by specialized reference collections that cannot be matched by Wikipedia, and that will also be effectively lost if those collections are not rich in sources providing overlapping coverage of the same subjects. Hundreds of specialized encyclopedias now include entire separate volumes of primary sources on their topics—a type of material very frequently requested by students at the start of their projects. A specialized encyclopedia also provides a readily-browsable list of entries—i.e., a roster of the encyclopedia’s article titles, either alphabetically or in subject clusters; these lists can readily alert users to scores of search terms, or aspects of their subject, that would not otherwise occur to them, and which can then be of further use in searching our 630 subscription databases. 296

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6 There are other fears: Paper #3 and #6. 7 If it is asserted that more CALM staff will be hired to bring the books from Adams to Jefferson, the obvious question arises: in a time of extraordinary fiscal cutbacks, why should LC hire more staff in this area when it can—and already does—make do very well with existing staff servicing the two reading rooms in both buildings, each having short delivery time? (The same point applies for delivery of newspapers, current periodicals, and government documents from the Madison Building—why not keep existing staff levels and existing reading rooms to maintain an arrangement that already works very well?) 8 Expert Search of “ksub encyclopedias or ktil encyclopedia” limited to Main Reading Room. Note that this does not include the subject term Dictionaries that often includes encyclopedia-length works such as the 10volume Dictionary of American History or the 61-volume Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

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SLA 2013: Different Hats - Librarians in the Federal Government By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis Here is the list of resources I referenced during my panel presentation today in the SLA program - Different Hats: LIbrarians in the Federal Government. For government mobile apps take a look at the government mobile app gallery that USA.gov provides: http://apps.usa.gov/ Check out LexisNexis Mobile apps here: http://www.lexisnexis.com/enus/products/mobile.page Some examples of government digital library efforts are Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP), which makes available electronic versions of American historical material from the library’s special collections and the work Library of Congress is doing to preserve State Government Info - http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/partners/states.html. Check ou the LexisNexis Digital Library at the LexisNexis Booth #1106 or learn more here: http://www.lexisnexis.com/en-us/products/digitallibrary.page. For some BYOD info See the White House Bring Your Own Device Toolkit released in 2012. For some good information on social media in government take a look at Howto.gov’s Using Social Media in Government page. Visit INALJ has some great information on job titles that will take you outside the librarian box. For some great perspectives and case studies showcasing alternate career paths for librarians I refer you to Deb Hunt’s Reach Your Career Potential presentation. Nancy Faget and Blane Dessy are experts in the area of government librarianship. They did a Careers in Federal Libraries and Agencies presentation hosted by the San Jose State University School of Library and Information Science that is a good, comprehensive look at government librarianship. For more on digital government take a look at: Digital Government: Building a 21st Century Platform to Better Serve the American People. 298

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Find the Library Benchmarking Toolkit: A Practical Guide article by Karen Krugman, Commerce Research Library; Kris Vajs, Federal Reserve Board, and Karen White, U.S. Agency for International Development, starting on page 225 of the 2012 Best Practices in Government Libraries. Here's the link to David Shumaker's book -The Embedded Librarian: Innovative Strategies for Taking Knowledge Where It's Needed. Originally posted by Marie Kaddell on the Government Info Pro on June 09, 2013 | Permalink

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Follow-Up to the 2013 National Press Club Event for Government Librarians Hosted by LexisNexis By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis

On Thursday, May 16th, LexisNexis hosted a special breakfast event at the National Press Club especially for government librarians. The program theme was: Professional Versatility, Leadership, and Organizational Effectiveness in Challenging Times. The guest speakers were:    

Eve Emerson, LexisNexis VP Global Talent, Learning, and Development Naomi House, INALJ (I Need a Library Job) Founder, 2013 ALA Mover and Shaker Karen Krugman, Chief, Research Library & Archives, Export-Import Bank of the United States Karen White, Senior Librarian & Team Lead, USAID Knowledge Services Center, LAC Group on assignment at USAID

Marie Kaddell Opens the Program. Image by Chris Vestal 300

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Here are the speakers' slides:    

Take Charge of Your Career! - Eve Emerson Balancing Act and Actions - Naomi House Think Strategically To Make Your Library Thrive - Karen Krugman and Karen White Best Practices for Government Libraries Sneak Peek - Marie Kaddell The audio from the event will be available soon.

Originally posted by Marie Kaddell on the Government Info Pro on May 17, 2013 | Permalink

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Managing Evolving Resources: Strategies, Capabilities, and Alternatives By David McBee, M.L.S. Today I attended a workshop at the National Press Club and sponsored by Lexis/Nexis. The topic was Managing Evolving Resources: Strategies, Capabilities, and Alternatives. Panel of Speakers: Eve Emerson, LexisNexis VP Global Talent, Learning, and Development Naomi House, INALJ (I Need a Library Job) Founder, 2013 ALA Mover and Shaker Karen Krugman, Chief, Research Library & Archives, Export-Import Bank of the United States Karen White, Senior Librarian & Team Lead, LAC Group Eve Emerson: Take a look at yourself and ask these questions:   

What are my mission and my purpose? What is my passion? What am I good at?

Skills: Strengths & Gaps    

Look at the top 5 skills that I have, that I enjoy doing and I do well. Look at the top 2-3 skills that I need to learn in order to grow in my job/career. What are my key transferable skills – that could translate to nontraditional jobs for librarians? What would others say are my strengths?

Next Step:    

Long term career goals – given the fast-paced environment, look at the next 6-12 months. What development opportunities are open to me? Details, new tasks, volunteer opportunities, etc. What would I like to learn how to do? What are some new work activities or skills that I can acquire?

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How we learn:   

70% of what we learn is through experience – leading, added responsibilities volunteering, etc. 20% of what we learn is through feedback – mentoring, coaching, evaluations, etc. 10% of what we learn is through structured classes or e-learning.

So – if we want to learn something – it isn’t so much as taking a class – but tackling the project or leading the committee or event. Mentoring – if you are mentor:     

Carries on your legacy Keeps you sharp Forces you to set an example thus enhancing your performance Enhances your value to the organization Encourages creativity

Networking:   

Expands relationships Helps to connect to other professionals Key benefit is getting advice – particularly on career

Karen Krugman: Export-Import Bank Tie-in services to business processes. At Export-Import Bank the library took on a due diligence search from multiple offices. It was an annual search of 25,000 names to check against international watchlists. It is tedious and repetitive, and the library put conditions on it. The requested and got a new FTE to handle the increased workload – not tied specifically to this task. They required a form so that the requests had standard information. This has given the library additional customers and raised their profile within the organization. The Export-Import Bank has an Archivist position. The re-worked the duties to expand from just collecting and adding archival material to include contributing information to the Country briefings that the agency prepares. The Archivist also writes on historical background for the head of the agency.

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Karen White: Think Strategically: Seize new opportunities – look outside the traditional scope of your library. Tie services to key business processes; processes that are mission critical; common needs across many offices. Meet your customers at their point of need – and learn to anticipate their future needs. Become part of your agency orientation for new employees. Use staff strategically – don’t stick to standard job descriptions. Enhance staff skills and match them to your needs. Use technology strategically: At her agency the library would prepare country briefings for their staff and put all the reports and articles into 3-ring binders. The staff loved the info even though it was an extra 10 lbs. to carry. They migrated to putting the documents on a flash drive and that was great until IT Security determined that flash drives are not secure. For the past year they have put the documents into restricted folders on Google Docs and provided the staff with a link to their folder. Now they are moving to Google Sites which has some improved capabilities that will benefit the users. Naomi House: Balancing your job with volunteer (outside) activities: The Less Trap: We are often told to do more with less. We usually end up trying to do the same with less. That is, maintain the same level of service despite less funds, resources and staff. What happens to staff? Usually it means frustration and stagnation. Staff retention is vital. Volunteering can fill the satisfaction gap for you.   

Pick up new skills by volunteering. Fight boredom and frustration Revisit your core mission. (Take a look at yourself – what is your passion?)

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If everyone is thinking alike, then someone isn’t thinking – Gen. George S. Patton Craft a Balancing Act      

Strategize – What do I need and want? Planning – Who can use me? Executing – When can I do this? Stabilizing – What works? New – Address efficiencies often. Perform – Hit your marks!

Originally posted by David McBee on http://librarybuzz.blogspot.com/

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The Powerful Question By Dr. Nancy Dixon, nancydixonblog.com and www.commonknowledge.org

There is a Powerful Question you can ask that will turn almost any conversation you’re having into a knowledge producing exchange. Surprisingly, the Powerful Question is not the one you ask at the start of a conversation. Rather, the Powerful Question is always asked in response to a conclusion or opinion that a colleague provides. The Powerful Question is, “Help me understand your thinking, how did you reach that conclusion?” Each time the questioner frames the question, the wording is slightly different in order to fit the context. But what stays the same is asking the other person to let you in on the connections that exist in his/her own mind – the reasoning. What is so powerful is being able to access the thinking behind other’s conclusions - gaining an in-depth understanding of their perspective. Let’s try it out on some typical conversations. Here is a conversation between two people who have been implementing a change effort in an agency. The two people have very different ideas about what needs to be done to sustain the change effort after the external funding ends. 1. Melissa: I’m concerned about the agency being able to sustain this change effort. For that to happen agency employees will need to understand the principles behind what we are asking them to do. Otherwise they have to keep coming to us for answers. 2. Jerry: I understand the concern about sustaining, but I think it all goes back to ROI. If we want to sustain the project past the funding, we have to prove to the agency that they can afford it – that there will be some return on their investment. 3. Melissa: Smith and Jorgensen have shown that it’s futile to try to prove ROI on issues like this. Where we need to put our efforts is in helping the agency keep it going after we have stepped out of the picture. Ultimately that is what those at the top are going to consider – was it sustained after we quit funding it. And for that, agency employees need a much more thorough grounding in the content itself – the underlying principles. 4. Jerry: It takes time to do the steps of this process, that is, the investigation, the analysis, and the reports. Accountants know exactly how much a person’s time costs and can figure how much time each step takes. Time is money and the agency is not going to invest that time unless they can see that it will pay off. The form of this exchange is a familiar one to most of us: 1. Melissa - conclusion 2. Jerry - differing conclusion 306

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3. Melissa - you are wrong for this reason and restatement of previous conclusion 4. Jerry - you are wrong for this reason and restatement of previous conclusion Most of us would probably agree that this conversation does not seem much like an exchange of knowledge. We get the sense that even if Jerry and Melissa were to continue for another ten minutes, neither would learn much from the other. So how would a Powerful Question work in this situation? There are several places in this brief dialogue that a Powerful Question could be used – but let’s use the first opportunity, which is after Melissa’s first statement. If Jerry used a Powerful Question there, the conversation might look like this: 1. Melissa: I’m concerned about the agency sustaining this effort. For that to happen agency employees will need to understand the principles behind what we are asking them to do. Otherwise they have to keep coming to us for answers. 2. Jerry: Hmm, that’s a different idea than I have about what would be useful for sustaining, help me with your thinking about what it is about principles that make them important in this situation? 3. Melissa: For me it is the old saying about teaching someone to fish versus giving them a fish. I think we’ve been giving them fish and we need to teach them to fish. I noticed the employees can repeat a process they have already dealt with, but when they’re faced with a new situation they seem not to know how to proceed. That leads me to think that they’ve not grasped the principles that would allow them to address a wide variety of situations. 4. Jerry: I hadn’t really hadn’t thought about it in terms of generalizability, but I see your point – that they are unable to generalize beyond a specific instance they have experienced. I think there is an equally serious issue related to sustaining and that is whether management sees there is a return on investment. I’m now wondering if the ability to generate ideas for new situations would be seen as a ROI. The form of this exchange is: 1. Melissa - conclusion 2. Jerry - probe of her reasoning (the Powerful Question) 3. Melissa – reasoning and data on which her conclusion was based 4. Jerry – acknowledgement of new knowledge and connection to an additional conclusion of his own In this conversation, Jerry has discovered something he did not know about how the agency employees are acting. He gained this knowledge because rather than responding immediately with his differing opinion, he asked a Powerful Question to see what he could learn from Melissa about her view. 307

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The conversation does not have to be a disagreement in order for a Powerful Question to be of use. Here is a conversation in which both parties agree – but again little learning occurs in the absence of a Powerful Question. 1. Melissa: I’m concerned about the agency sustaining this effort. For that to happen agency employees will need to understand the principles behind what we are asking them to do. Otherwise they have to keep coming to us for answers. 2. Frank: Yes, the principles are very important. Maybe we ought to have a module on the theory behind what we are doing. I think we short change people when they don’t know the major thinkers in this field. 3. Melissa: That might be a good idea, but for me the issue is sustainability – I think they need the principles so they don’t have to be so dependent upon us for answers. 4. Frank: Why don’t we put together a reading list of the important articles and books and send that out. I think people would really appreciate having the original source rather than us translating it for them, as you say, they probably don’t like to have to keep coming to us. The form of this exchange is: 1. Melissa - conclusion 2. Jerry - agreement with conclusion (for his own reasons) 3. Melissa – restatement of conclusion (thinking he didn’t “get it”) 4. Jerry – agreement with conclusion (for his own reasons) So how could a Powerful Question improve this conversation? Jerry could ask nearly the same Powerful Question that Frank asked after Melissa’s first conclusion in the conversation above. But for variety, let’s have Melissa ask a Powerful Question after Frank’s statement. 1. Melissa: I’m concerned about the agency sustaining this effort. For that to happen agency employees will need to understand the principles behind what we are asking them to do. Otherwise they have to keep coming to us for answers. 2. Frank: yes, the principles are very important. Maybe we ought to have a module on the theory behind what we are doing. I think we short change people when they don’t know the major thinkers in this field. 3. Melissa: I’m not sure I see the connection you are making between “major thinkers” and “sustainability” – it would be helpful if you could clarify your thinking for me there. 4. Frank: Oh, I don’t know that there is a connection with “sustainability.” For me it just a matter of not wanting people to be embarrassed if they are talking about this project to others. They need to be able to reference those people who created the principles so they don’t look like dummies.

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The form of this conversation is: 1. Melissa - conclusion 2. Frank- agreement with conclusion (for his own reasons) 3. Melissa – asking Frank for his reasoning (Powerful Question) 4. Frank – recognition that he was misunderstood Melissa So in this situation both Frank and Melissa gained some knowledge because of a Powerful Question. They learned they were actually not talking about the same thing. That is very important knowledge to gain – how else to correct the misunderstanding? Let’s do one more, this time one that is initiated by Margaret seeking Melissa’s knowledge. 1. Margaret: We are three quarters of the way through this project and I have been thinking about what more we need to cover with the agency. You have more experience with this kind of project than I do, so in your experience, what we should we be considering at this point? 2. Melissa: I’m concerned about the agency sustaining this effort. For that to happen agency employees will need to understand the principles behind what we are asking them to do. Otherwise they have to keep coming to us for answers. 3. Margaret: Help me understand the connection you’re making between sustaining and principles? I don’t disagree with it at all; I just don’t quite see how you are putting the two together. 4. Melissa: Well, I’m not sure I have thought it through completely. I’m aware that with many projects like ours, agencies are able to stay focused on it while we are involved and then their enthusiasm seems to wane and they go on to something new. I’ve seen data that shows that only 10% of our projects continue after we leave. So I’m struggling with how to keep that from happening here. I think one of the issues might be that they don’t really know enough to continue. For example, maybe they run into a situation they have not faced before and they use the process they used last time, but now it doesn’t work because the situation is different. And they don’t know how to modify the process to use it in a different situation. So when it doesn’t work, they get discouraged and give up trying. If that’s right, then it seems to me what might make them capable of modifying the process would be to understand not only the “what to do” but the “why it works.” And the “why it works” is what I’m calling a principle. But, now that I lay it out like that, I see that I’m making an assumption that the issue is modifying the process – maybe we could find a way to test if that’s an accurate assumption before we go too far down that path. The form of this exchange is: 1. Margaret – question to get an answer 2. Melissa - conclusion/answer 309

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3. Margaret – inquiry (the Powerful Question) 4. Melissa – the reasoning that lead to her conclusion – in part newly constructed during the response The remarkable thing about Powerful Questions is that they produce knowledge not only for the asker, but also for the teller, as we saw in Melissa’s final response. Melissa has come out of this conversation with more understanding both about the problem and the answer, than she had before the conversation. And certainly Margaret is better off than if she had just accepted Melissa’s conclusion as truth offered by a knowledgeable expert. When experts know a subject really well, as Melissa does, they often develop rules of thumb and short cuts that they know to be correct, and that they have employed so often, that they have become automatic. Whitehead says, “Civilization advances by extending the number of operations we can perform without thinking about them.” Much of what experts know, they know without having to think about it. As Whitehead notes, that is a very good thing. But the world keeps changing and some of those things they “know,” if left unexamined, become outdated an get them into trouble. When you ask an expert or colleague for their reasoning, you cause them to make visible thinking that may have been left unexamined for some time. Frequently, the expert’s response to a Powerful Question is, “You know, now that I think about it…..” If Powerful Questions are so useful, why don’t we ask them all the time? The answer lies in a funny quirk of our minds - the tendency to evaluate. Any time we hear a conclusion offered by another, our first reaction is to judge whether or not we agree with it. If we disagree with it, we assume the other is misinformed or ignorant and our tendency is to provide the correct position, as we saw in the Melissa/Jerry dialogue. Thus, we have no need to ask a Powerful Question because if the other is wrong, why bother to probe their reasoning? If we agree with it (as in Frank’s example) we have no need to ask for the other’s reasoning because we assume it is similar to our own. But, as in Frank’s case, that assumption may be incorrect. This evaluation tendency is so inherent in our thinking that it is tacit – we do it without even thinking about it. But, unfortunately, it prevents our asking Powerful Questions –and thus it prevents the exchange of knowledge. To get past the evaluation tendency we have to unlearn our response – and unlearning is much more difficult that learning. We can’t unlearn our evaluation tendency itself, which is a very necessary and useful part of out thinking process. What we need to unlearn is our response mechanism. Instead of giving voice to our agreement or our disagreement immediately, we need to respond with a Powerful Question. 310

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But an important caveat! Powerful Questions have to be asked, not as a trick question intended to uncover the flaw in the other’s thinking in order to use it to our own advantage – but out of a real sense of curiosity. When we hear a view we disagree with, rather than viewing the other as misguided or ignorant we need to assume they have a reasonable explanation for the conclusion they have drawn – an explanation we are unaware of. If we hold that view, it would be natural to ask a Powerful Question. (The Powerful Question is based on Argyris' (1996) Model II skills)

Originally posted on Conversation Matters on AM | Permalink

July 01, 2013 at 11:19

-----Dr. Dixon has been instrumental in developing and delivering KM strategies, implementation plans, and training in a wide range of government and non-profit organizations (e.g. US Army, Defense Intelligence Agency, USAID, Save the Children, NASA) as well as corporate clients (Huawai, Bose, ConocoPhillips, Ecopetrol, Netherlands Railroad). Dr. Dixon has a passionate interest in creating conversations that exploit the collective knowledge of an organization in order to address difficult organizational issues and to spur innovation. Her research has focused on how to create psychologically safe environments for both large and small group conversations. In her consulting practice she facilitates small and large scale learning events that involve cross-boundary stakeholders who are facing complex issues. She helps organizations move beyond a series of presentations to engage people in active learning processes. Her facilitation skills and processes are able to bring together disparate groups and individuals so that they can find common ground and achieve breakthroughs in performance. Dr. Dixon’s writing includes over 50 articles and eight books including a seminal book on knowledge management, Common Knowledge, How Companies Thrive By Sharing What They Know. Her latest thinking on collective sensemaking can be found in her blog at www.nancydixonblog.com.

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Notes from SLA - 2013 - Leadership: A Commander's Viewpoint By David McBee, M.L.S. Presented by Captain Winston Smith, USN, Commander Naval Base San Diego SLA Conference, San Diego Convention Center June 10, 2013, 10:00 AM (PDT) Slides Capt. Smith provided an overview of his assignments and deployments and said that Resiliency is his middle name. Training manuals are the research tool used in the military It is important to reflect and know who you are. What is your psychological driver? What makes you tick? What is important to you? Is it career? Is it family? Is it something else? Millennial Myth – Capt. Smith finds that many of his younger sailors approach life by thinking; If I have (this car, this job, a million dollars), I could do what I want and be happy. Have – do – be Capt. Smith says turn the equation around to Be – do – have Be the person you want to be. Do the things that align with who you are. And, you will have the life you want. Keys to understanding: Identity – sense of self – ID your strengths and weaknesses. What is your psychological driver? The Meyers-Briggs exam is a good tool for understanding how we interact with others. It is from this personal vision that we develop our command vision. Purpose – why do I exist? Values – what motivates me?

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Capt. Smith spends 1/3 of his time visiting the ships at the navy base, 1/3 of his time meeting with the tenants and other commands on the base, and 1/3 of his time outside the fence – engaging with the local communities. Capt. Smith recommended two books that are good for leaders: When Generations Collide What Got You Here Won’t Get You There Lead by example: Listen aggressively – Don’t jump to solving the problem. Let the person finish talking. Learn to under-react to bad news. Be decisive & consistent – People like predictability. Be active, don’t wait to react. Take a deterministic approach. Never shy away from your core competencies. Take calculated risks – If there is a problem, enlarge it by bringing in more people to work on the solution. Invite the usual suspects, but bring in someone different who may have a different perspective. Think ahead. Someone in your organization needs to be looking 6-12 months down the road. Do your best – Set high standards. Sprout where you are planted. Honesty, Integrity, Trust – Honor above self. Only I can surrender my integrity. No one can take it from me. Build a Team: A leader must make employees… Feel respected and useful – make the rounds, visit out-of-sight areas. Connect what people do to the mission. Take care of the staff. How do my decisions impact the team? Don’t confuse motion with action. Find what people do well and help them succeed. Then build on that success by helping them in areas that are not their strengths. Exercise ownership – don’t walk past a problem. Be responsible for your space and people. Visit the staff. Value “Team Wins” – accomplishing the mission is what is important. Think the ship first, then shipmates, and then self. Establish a process whereby the leader can leave and the organization will continue. Promote and encourage those who support the team.

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Create a Climate of Trust – read The Speed of Trust. Build up people in public. Give people rubber balls and as they learn to handle more, give them a glass ball to work with. Improve Quality of life for your staff. This isn’t always about greater pay or leave. Give staff flexibility. Let them telework or adjust their commute so they can get home and spend time with their families. Problems happen – just don’t keep secrets. Build a Game Plan: Look for efficiencies. Plan with key players… teach everyone else Communicate Purpose & Meaning – Have standards. Teach it, train it, enforce it! Manage expectations. Put out the full calendar – let everyone see what is coming down the pike. Organize before you try to accelerate…if not, you lose field position. Keep people informed. Staff will respect a tough call if it is well planned. They can see through a bad plan. Execute, execute, execute Sustainment: Ask questions, stay informed – engaged leaders know what is going on. By mentoring you can support what the staff is doing. Be observant of key indicators –create the trend lines, don’t just react to poor ones. Notice when things don’t go wrong. Notice when the glass is half full. Indications that things are working as expected. Self-assessment – have a department assessment plan too. Teach the next generation – put good people on the watch bill training reliefs. Are people getting the right training? Challenges: Looking Down -- Shortfalls in how leaders interact with subordinates Looking Up -- Shortfalls in how leaders interact with superiors Looking Across -- Shortfalls in how leaders interact across the organization Looking Within -- Shortfalls in personal moral and ethical behaviors This talk was co-sponsored by the SLA Leadership and Managemet Division and the Military Libraries Division. Originally posted by David McBee on http://librarybuzz.blogspot.com/ 314

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Notes from SLA 2013 - Ninja Skills for Librarians By David McBee, M.L.S. SLA Conference 2013 – San Diego Tuesday, June 11, 2013 Presenters: Jennifer Doyle, Law Library Manager, Robins, Kaplan, Miller, & Ciresi, LLP Jill Strand, Director, Knowledge Resources, Maslon Edleman Borman Brand LLP Note: This presentation was a good overview of librarian skills framed within the Martial Arts discipline. White belt – Discipline      

Self-Discipline will help you reach your goals. Self-discipline is better than imposed discipline. Use down time to plan and explore. Respect will help you reach your goals in a way you can be proud of. Respect your client. Respect your teacher. Martial Arts – bow to your opponent to show you respect her/him as a worthy opponent. Reach your goals in a way you can be proud!

Yellow belt – The Team - We can do more together than we can accomplish alone! Be candid. Share insights and strengths. Be a coach and mentor to others. Empower others in their positions. Support the team. Orange belt – Be confident. Or pretend to be. Act like you know you can win in a situation. Be prepared for meetings and presentation and remind yourself that you are ready to face the audience. Learn to be an extrovert. Be engaged. Green belt – Listen Listen with your eyes, your ears, your heart, and give your undivided attention. Listening shows respect and helps us gain information. Empathic listening is listening with the heart.    

Minimize distractions Concentrate Use supporting comments Ask questions 315

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    

Let the person finish her/his comments Take notes Keep an open mind Use positive body language Put your own needs on hold

Book recommendation: Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking by Susan Cain Blue belt – Balance 1.

Keep Calm and Carry On.

2.

Identify & Make Connections

3. Get to know your client. – Who is your customer? What do they need/want? Chi is where the martial artist finds balance, peace and power. Ask others how you can help them. Don’t let others upset your chi. Blue belt is also about stealth. Who can you work with behind the scenes? Purple belt – Adaptability 1.

A good ninja blends in with her/his environment.

2.

A ninja always has a plan.

Don’t be so wedded to your plan that you cannot adapt. Know the tools you have at your disposal. Red belt – Negotiation Practice hard – Play fair Work with decision-makers and represent the needs of your people and your customers. Don’t let your emotions get the better of you. Be transparent. Don’t be afraid. Is it more important to be right or to maintain the dialogue? (Sometimes yes.) Brown belt – Failure - Failure can help us to improve if we chose to learn from it. What is defeat? Nothing but education; nothing but the first step to something better. – Bruce Lee.

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Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts. - Winston Churchill Black belt – Pay it forward. A black belt is a white belt who didn’t quit. Become a teacher and mentor. Pay it forward. Engage others. Develop others and help them achieve. Originally posted by David McBee on http://librarybuzz.blogspot.com/

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MLW 2013: Deb Hunt “Career Agility: Transforming Knowledge and Expertise into Strategic Value” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Deb Hunt, Mechanics’ Institute and 2013 SLA President, “Career Agility: Transforming Knowledge and Expertise into Strategic Value” Presentation Slides. The Military Libraries Workshop kicked off its first day with a presentation by Deb Hunt, the 2013 SLA President. Her speech focused on the importance of information professionals in society, ways to improve our information-related skills, and how to best demonstrate the value of the work we do in a variety of information settings. 1. As information professionals, we need to be proactive, take risks, learn new skills, and invest in ourselves. We can’t wait for others (our employers, schools, or organizations) to support our professional development. Your career is in your own hands, and just because you’re working for your employer today doesn’t mean you’ll still be tomorrow. You must take responsibility for your professional future, and through a commitment to improving your skills, you’ll be able to better demonstrate your value to others. Attending professional development events and conferences, volunteering outside of your primary place of work, and getting involved in professional organizations are some of the many opportunities available to improve your skills and abilities. 2. Information professionals need to continuously assess their work. We need to focus on what’s important to those we serve, and shut out things that are important to us but not others. At times it’s can be hard give up facets of our job that we care about, but if our users don’t view a particular work task as important, it has to go. Ask yourself some questions about the work you do: Am I an investment or an expense? Do I have a brand? Am I communicating and demonstrating value? What skills can I learn? What skills do I already have that I can improve or expand upon to further my career? The answers to these questions can provide focus on how best to improve yourself and the work you do. 3. Don’t define yourself by the word “Librarian.” There are so many career opportunities available that don’t involve the “L” word: Brand 318

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Archivist, Digital Assessment Manager, Document Manager, Enterprise Content Manager, Human Factors Engineer, Information Architect, Knowledge Manager, Records and Information Manager, Taxonomist, User Experience Researcher, the list goes on. There is a great big world beyond Libraryland just waiting for your skills and expertise and you need to be ready to look outside of traditional library settings. These types of adjacent careers are perfect for library and information professionals, if you know to look for them. 4. How do you get to where you want to go? Advocate for yourself and get involved in your organization. You have to step up to the plate, because no one else is going to it for you. Be innovative, face risks head on, stay ahead of the competition, and make yourself indispensable. Take on new opportunities and be prepared to make your case as to how your skills can best support new projects. We can change the world with our skills as information professionals, as long as we seize the opportunity. Deb’s speech was an inspiring call to arms and set a great tone for the workshop. I consider myself lucky to hear her speak so early in my career. While Deb’s term as SLA President ended shortly after the workshop (December 31, 2013), I hope I have another chance to hear her wisdom and share in her enthusiasm with the LIS community. Visit Deb at the Mechanics’ Institute‘s website, connect with her on LinkedIn, and follow her on [email protected] Buy her book “The Librarian’s Skillbook: 51 Essential Career Skills for Information Professionals,” co-authored by David Grossman. Deb was kind enough to add an inscription to the copy of her book that I purchased as a birthday present to myself: “Happy Birthday Liz! May your next 29 years in Libraryland (and beyond) be as awesome as your first 29 years!” I take great comfort in knowing that I’ll be able to read her book many years from now, recall how exciting this chapter in my new career is, and reflect on how far I’ve come. -----Originally published on January 13, 2014, http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/13/mlw-2013-deb-hunt-careeragility-transforming-knowledge-and-expertise-into-strategic-value/

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MLW 2013: Jane Killian “Creating a Virtual Library in the Age of Closings” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Jane Killian, Defense Forensic Science Center, “Creating a Virtual Library in the Age of Closings” Presentation Slides. Jane’s speech focused on her experience building a virtual library for the Defense Forensic Science Center (DFSC), a forensic laboratory that provides services to Department of Defense military criminal investigative organizations. Prior to Jane’s arrival, the DFSC did not have any centralized information resources available to its employees. Jane’s work as a solo librarian consisted of building a virtual library from the ground-up, a task that she continues to this day. Jane’s users at the DFSC have a unique set of information needs, ranging from general chemistry and DNA resources to specialized information related to digital forensics and trace evidence analysis. She was tasked with organizing the various information resources used by DFSC into a virtual library. After sampling numerous library page designs, a Sirsi-hosted version was chosen due to its presentation and formatting options. In sum, it took almost a year from the library webpage selection stage to the official launch stage. The updated library interface resulted in an increase in use of library resources. The library currently uses resources from many large information vendors, and the site requires daily maintenance and updates to ensure its users have the best information available. As a solo librarian, Jane does a bit of everything: “Library staff, manager, network, web content/upload, budget, supervision, product selector/purchaser, reference/lit searcher, copyright police, cataloger, instructor, database manager, customer service, advertising, writer, and “other responsibilities as needed” by the bosses.” Since she doesn’t have a physical library for users to visit, it’s crucial for her to be proactive and make her presence felt throughout DFSC. In every conversation she has, Jane reminds the library’s users of her role as a virtual librarian and what she has to offer. Questions as simple as “Did you see the new link I added to the website?” and “Did you get the article I sent you?” go a long way in ensuring the library is being used and her work in running it is valued. 320

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Jane summed it up best by telling the audience “You can’t be modest. You have to brag about what you’re doing.” This mindset is critical for all library and information professionals to have. Too often, users may believe that they can access the same type of quality resources librarians can in the same amount of time and with the same amount of effort. We as information professionals know that’s not the case, so it’s important that we remind others of the value of our skills and how we contribute to the success of our respective organizations. While Jane’s work at DFSC is with a very specialized user population, her tips on marketing are important for any information professional in any organizational setting to follow. -----Originally published on January 15, 2014, http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/15/mlw-2013-jane-killian-creatinga-virtual-library-in-the-age-of-closings/

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MLW 2013: Dr Virginia “Suzy” Young’s Presentation Embodied Resiliency and Adaptability By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Dr Virginia “Suzy” Young, University of Alabama in Huntsville. Dr Young was never supposed to speak at the Military Libraries Workshop. John Digilio of Reed Smith, LLP, and the 2013-2015 SLA Treasurer, was scheduled to give a presentation: “In the Balance: Tools to Increase Your Personal and Professional Creativity”. Unfortunately, John fell ill and was unable to make it to the workshop, but Suzy came to the rescue with little time to spare. She only had four hours to prepare her speech, PowerPoint slides included. Suzy’s presentation preparation truly embodied the theme of MLW2013: “Resiliency and Adaptability.” As the Director of Proposal Development, Dr Young works to support the research of the University of Alabama community. Although she is intricately involved in fostering the research process at UA, she has never been a librarian, or even worked in a library. However, her deep love and respect for the work library and information professionals do in and out of libraries resonated throughout her speech. By applying a keen business-minded eye to the standard operations of a typical library, Dr Young presented a bold action-plan for library and information professionals to use now and into the future. Libraries are undergoing radical changes. What has been an evolution of libraries has become a revolution. We need to know where we are going and how we will get there. This will be difficult process, both for library professionals and library users. Most users don’t know how difficult it will be to get to where we want to go, and most of them don’t care. We must educate our users, tell them how we’re changing, and manage their expectations. The balancing of preserving traditional values and managing customer expectations is critical to our success. Adapting to the changing information landscape requires that we go above and beyond what is expected of us by our users. We must be active intellectual partners in the knowledge generation cycle within our communities. Working with others, collaborating with nontraditional 322

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partners, accessing global information resources, forming consortia, and utilizing virtual services are all opportunities for library professionals to increase the value of our services. The entrance-way to a library is no longer confined to the front door; it’s through any internet connected computer or smartphone. Libraries are transforming from Centers of Information to Centers of Culture by adopting a third place model for community engagement. Librarians need to recognize that we are in the information business. Granted, most libraries are non-profits, and even those that reside in forprofit corporations aren’t often tasked with generating revenue. But make no mistake, libraries are a business. Our users are our customers and they pay for our services indirectly in the form of taxes, tuition, line-item expenditures, or grant allocations. Even though we don’t require membership fees, users are still funding our operations. As a result, we need to provide our customers and funders with metrics that prove our value. If your funding institution expects justification for your library’s monetary expenditures, you need to be prepared to supply them with that information. Many library budgets have remained static over the recent years. By neglecting to provide hard data in support of a request for increased funding, you probably won’t see it in the near term. One of the best ways to advocate for your library is to educate your users. Users are often blind to the challenges librarians face in preserving the integrity of our collections. Keeping pace with technology development may become prohibitively expensive for libraries. Users must understand that they’re paying for quality resources. This goes far beyond traditional “item” resources like monographs and journals. Programming, communal space, technological tools, all of these have tremendous value too, but none more so than a librarian’s expertise. When providing performance metrics, don’t focus on the cost of the library, focus on cost of not having a librarian. That can be an expensive endeavor indeed. -----Originally published on January 16, 2014, http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/16/mlw-2013-dr-virginia-suzyyoungs-presentation-embodied-resiliency-and-adaptability/

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MLW 2013: Marcy Phelps “Top Tips for Turning Information into Insights” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Marcy Phelps, Phelps Research, “Top Tips for Turning Information into Insights” Presentation Slides. The second day of the Military Libraries Workshop began with a presentation by Marcy Phelps, an independent information professional specialized in business research and analysis. Marcy’s presentation focused on how to incorporate information analysis into your work as an information professional, along with tips and tools for delivering information in creative ways for a variety of clients. By providing information analysis to your users you’ve made a step up the DIKW pyramid, from providing information for users to discern themselves to providing knowledge that will guide your users towards making informed decisions. One of the key elements to providing information analysis is having a solid understanding of who your client is and what they are looking to accomplish with the analysis you provide them. Marcy commented that one of the best courses she took in library school was “User Services.” The theoretical knowledge she gained in that course continues to help her to this day in getting to know her users, identifying what they want, and how they want their information delivered. Information analyses can be delivered in a variety of methods, depending on a user’s preferences. Whether a short slide show or 10 page report, there are certain key elements that should accompany an information analysis report, including a cover letter, table of content, and executive summary, which succinctly explains your answers and observation. When completing an executive summary, it’s helpful to follow Linda Cooper’s Information Broker Rule: If you can’t justify in one or two sentences why you’re including something in your report, take it out. When presenting information, use visual formats. We’re becoming an increasingly visual world, and a picture is worth a lot more than a thousand words. There are a variety of tools that one can use to visualize data, including: statistical charts and graphs, diagrams that illustrate key 324

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concepts, word clouds, data maps, timelines, and images. In her presentation, Marcy listed a few resources available that you can use to incorporate more visual information into your presentations, including free software and online tools. Finally, everything that comes out of your library should be branded. Consistently branding your deliverables reminds your users of the work that you do and, by extension, the value of your work. A user should be able to look at a report or presentation and know “this came from that awesome librarian.” Visit Marcy at Phelps Research, connect with her on LinkedIn, and follow her on Twitter @marcyphelps. Buy her book “Research on Main Street: Using the Web to Find Local Business and Market Information.” -----Originally published on January 20, 2014; http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/20/mlw-2013-marcy-phelps-toptips-for-turning-information-into-insights/

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MLW 2013: Dr Steven MacCall, University of Alabama School of Library and Information Studies, “Social Media: Just the Next Technical Agility Challenge!” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Dr Steven MacCall, University of Alabama School of Library & Information Studies, “Social Media: Just the Next Technical Agility Challenge!” Presentation Slides. Dr McCall’s presentation focused on his use of social media as an instructional tool in his work as a library and information science educator. I found his presentation fascinating for many personal reasons: I’m an LIS student, I’m an active user of Twitter, and I blog publicly. It was interesting to hear what his thoughts were on his students’ social media activity, and made me wonder what my own professors think of my social media presence. I of course, live-tweeted his session, along with the rest of the conference. Dr McCall began his presentation by explaining the need for library and information professionals to be technically agile with social media. Technical agility is the ability to change your use of technology tools rapidly in response to customer needs and market forces. In the past twenty years, librarians have undergone radical changes in their technology use. We focused on being Masters of Search through the mid 1990s, Masters of Interpretation in the late 1990s, and Teachers in the early 2000s. Today, we are Connectors of People and Information, fulfilling the needs of users wherever they may be. As a result, it’s important for librarians to engage in social media. There are various elements that can hold individuals and institutions back from incorporating social media tools into their work. Some people may feel uncomfortable sharing their views with the public, others may be restrained by the type of institution they work for, and some might not see the value in creating a social media presence. Social media engagement activities such as live-tweeting aren’t for everyone, and that’s OK. Not everyone needs to do it, but everyone can follow the conversation. Live-tweeters help those who can’t attend conferences follow the conversation. In essence, live326

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tweeters are informal educators, facilitating the transmission of ideas beyond the four walls of a conference room. Dr McCall then shifted his focus to the use of Web 2.0 tools in library and information science education. He identified the value in having his students create class blogs where they can post their views on readings and share relevant information with their classmates. By requiring students to use technology for a course, it encourages them to continue to use it after the course is over. Although Dr McCall gives his students the choice of blogging publicly or privately, he made quite the case against students making their blogs public. He stated that student blogs reflect poorly on a student as they are new to the idea of conceptual writing, and as a result, they’re not ready to engage in professional discourse. He also cautioned that a student blog might be read by hiring managers or other library and information professionals, which could result in a student not being hired upon graduation. I’ll let the fact that this post is being written on a public blog speak for my feelings on this topic. Finally, Dr McCall shared some tips for those who want to start using social media for the first time. You can use Twitter as a content aggregator, much like an RSS feed. Instead of having to check individual websites for content, one can follow a number of Twitter accounts and have content delivered all in one place, saving time and energy. Once you feel comfortable, you can begin interacting with other LIS professionals and contributing to professional conversations that take place on social media platforms. Social media adoption is merely the next technical agility challenge, and as library and information professionals, our field should not have any problems clearing that hurdle. If I, an LIS student, can successfully engage with others in our field through social media platforms, you can do it too! Visit Steven at the University of Alabama, connect with him on LinkedIn, and follow him on [email protected] -----Originally published on January 21, 2014, http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/21/mlw-2013-dr-steven-maccalluniversity-of-alabama-school-of-library-and-information-studies-socialmedia-just-the-next-technical-agility-challenge/

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MLW 2013: Margie Hlava “Big Data Content Organization, Discovery, and Management” By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Margie Hlava, Access Innovations, Inc., “Big Data Content Organization, Discovery, and Management”Presentation Slides. Margie Hlava’s presentation on Big Data was appropriately BIG. At 93 slides, her hour and half long presentation served as crash-course on big data, information organization and retrieval, and skills library and information professionals can use when working with big data. This recap will only scratch the surface of Margie’s presentation, and I highly recommend reading through her entire set of slides to get a true picture of what she covered. The term “Big Data” refers to data sets that are so large, complex, and/or rapidly generated that they are overwhelming and can’t be processed by traditional information technologies. Big data plays an important role in our economy, and many of the most influential Internet corporations, including Google, Facebook, and eBay, were created to store, organize, analyze, and process big data. Big data is in many ways the new “Special Collection,” and library and information professionals must be prepared to work with big data. While all data have, at the very least, a minimum level of structure and number of known elements, big data sets require extensive infrastructure in order make sense of their value. The aim of collecting big data is to make these disparate data sets more homogenous and transform them into usable information. Even if there seems to be no use for big data sets, many organizations keep their data just in case they might need it in the future. The federal government has taken an interest in big data, and formed the Big Data Senior Steering Group and the National Big Data R&D Initiative. In addition, many federal organizations, including the National Archives and Records Administration, the Department of Homeland Security, the National Security Agency, and the Department of Energy, along with many others, have formed their own inter-agency working groups and steering groups. Since individuals cannot manually sift through big data sets and organize each piece of data individually, there is a critical need for software that can 328

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organize data. Without knowledge organization systems, it’s impossible to effectively retrieve information. Margie reviewed the many possible information organization systems one can use, ranging from uncontrolled lists and name authority files, all the way to topic maps and semantic networks. The more complex an information organization system is, the more human and economic capital is required to ensure its effective functioning. Library and information professionals have many of the skills required to successfully manage big data sets, including curation, preservation, archiving and storage. Even if you don’t have any experience working with big data sets, your skills in searching for information, reference, metadata creation, collection development, vocabulary development, and even weeding are all transferable to managing big data. The more informationrelated services you can offer, the more competitive you are, and in this big world of big data, managing information is what makes library and information professionals stand out. Visit Margie at Access Innovation‘s website and connect with her on LinkedIn. -----Originally published on January 22, 2014, http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/22/mlw-2013-margie-hlava-bigdata-content-organization-discovery-and-management/

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MLW 2013: Dr. Gail Nicula (Moderator) “Approaching Challenges through Adaptation and Innovation” Panel By Elizabeth Lieutenant, MLIS Candidate, The Catholic University of America This post is part of a larger series on the 2013 Military Libraries Workshop, organized by the Military Libraries Division of the Special Libraries Association. The workshop took place on December 10-11, 2013 in Huntsville, Alabama. Dr. Gail Nicula (moderator), College of Business and Public Administration at Old Dominion University, “Approaching Challenges through Adaptation and Innovation”  Carla Pomager, Army General Libraries Program, “Innovations and Adaptation: Joint programs and purchases in support of MWR libraries” Presentation Slides.  Greta Marlatt, Naval Postgraduate School, “Improvise, Adapt and Overcome” Presentation Slides.  Mangala Krishnamurthy, University of Alabama University Libraries, “Embedded Librarianship.”  Jeff Luzius, Air University Library, “MiFis in the Library” Presentation Slides.  Tim Edwards, Army Materiel Command Library Program, “AMC Library Program: Technical Library Transition” Presentation Slides. Carla Pomager (Army General Libraries Program) Carla’s presentation focused on a decision by the Department of Defense and the Army Morale, Welfare, and Recreation to enter into a collaborative purchasing agreement. By using money from overseas contingency operations, the DOD & MWR libraries were able to enter into an enterprise purchasing agreement with vendors. This decision resulted in cost savings of $8 million in fiscal year 2013, and an increase in database use from 10 thousand to 90 thousand. In measuring their return on investment, the Army General Libraries Program reported a return of $58 for every $1 spent. Consortia agreements, while sometimes difficult to implement, can have a significant positive impact on library budgets and library material use. Greta Marlatt (Naval Postgraduate School) The Naval Postgraduate School has recently undergone a crisis. Their Provost and Vice-President were fired, the school’s budget was depleted, and a hiring freeze was instituted. In addition, the library was facing its own set of challenges. Reference desk transactions had dropped significantly in recent years, and both in-person and virtual visits were static. Facing these challenges head on, the library staff formed a planning committee to implement the changes required in order to best serve their users. The 330

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library instituted a one-desk model, cross-trained staff, reduced building hours, reassigned staff to other libraries, and began using compact shelving. The library also implemented a number of services, and created a makerspace and writing center, leased library space to Starbucks, offered public access computers, and made library tours mandatory for new students, faculty, and staff. Instead of seeing challenges as obstacles, the library saw them as opportunities to improve services. Mangala Krishnamurthy (University of Alabama Library) The embedded librarian program at the University of Alabama, while young, is strong. Faculty and librarians collaborate to provide information literacy instruction to students in face-to-face classes, on-site in the library, and online. In blended and online courses, librarians act both as information literacy instructors and information technology assistants, allowing faculty to spend more time instructing students as opposed to troubleshooting course management system issues. Embedded librarians are available to students through email, chat, skype, and an online tutorial portal that includes pertinent LibGuides. In addition, embedded librarians co-lead at least one synchronous online session with the instructor. While it was initially difficult for librarians to make connections with faculty, faculty are now demanding even more embedded librarians within their courses. By going where their users are and adopting embedded librarian practices, the University of Alabama is leading the way in providing co-educational environments that support student success. Jeff Luzius (Air University Library) The Air University Library had the unusual challenge of depressed Internet use by users. While the library is geographically centered amongst the different schools on campus, students weren’t coming to the library to use the Internet due to the need for personal network accounts. The paperwork required to sign-up for wireless internet access was onerous, and those that did sign up were required to use long encoded passwords that changed daily. As a result, many users just gave up on using wireless. In response to this challenge, the library began providing users with MiFis, devices that allow 10-20 users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. MiFis allow all partons, even those who aren’t affiliated with Air University, to connect, without any need for accounts, passwords or filters. By investing in what your users want to use, the library is providing user services that are worth the money. Tim Edwards (Army Materiel Command Library Program) While the Army Materiel Command Libraries have an international footprint and a lot of library users, there are few librarians. Over the past 4 years, the budget and number of service transactions have increased, while the number of personnel and library assets have decreased. In response to 331

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proposed budget cuts from senior funding administrators, Tim issued the Google Challenge: Find the full-text of a cited scholarly article in less than 20 minutes for less than $20 without using library resources. Unsurprisingly, none of his superiors could successfully complete the challenge. By pricing every library transaction at $30 (the average amount of many of the articles found during the Google Challenge), the libraries calculated their value at $84 million dollars over 5 years. By speaking the fiscal language of his superiors, Tim was able to convince those who control the money that the libraries are worth continued investment. Connect with Dr. Nicula on LinkedIn. Connect with Carla on LinkedIn. Visit Greta at the Naval Postgraduate School‘s website, connect with her on LinkedIn, and follow her on [email protected] Visit Mangala at the University of Alabama University Libraries‘s website and connect with her on LinkedIn. Visit Jeff at the Air University Library‘s website (now Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center). Connect with Tim on LinkedIn. -----Originally published on January 30, 2014, http://elizabethlieutenant.com/2014/01/30/mlw-2013-dr-gail-niculamoderator-approaching-challenges-through-adaptation-and-innovationpanel/

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Creating Your Total Life List for 2013 By Bruce Rosenstein, Author, Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset As we begin 2013, many of us will be looking for new ways to organize and improve our life. One reason that taking advantage of a new beginning can be so difficult is that most of us have more than one dimension to our life. This is especially true for knowledge workers with work, friends, family and possibly obligations such as volunteering for a nonprofit or religious organization, or for a professional association such as SLA or ALA. How do you know what aspects you’d like to improve if you’re not really sure how many activities and people actually comprise your life? My suggestion is to create and use a Total Life List. I created this device as a running theme in my book Living in More Than One World: How Peter Drucker’s Wisdom Can Inspire and Transform Your Life. It’s designed for people who lead busy lives, and who want to make sure they are getting the most out of their time, and making a positive difference in the world. The list is simple to set up and use. It can be done on computer, or with pen and paper. The idea is to have a framework for a visual representation of where your life stands now, including identifying the people in your various activities and responsibilities; and what you envision for the future. The sections of your Total Life List: 1. Immediate family 2. Extended family 3. Work colleagues you interact with most frequently and closely 4. Friends 5. Members of your professional networks 6. Where you work now and a brief statement of your responsibilities 7. Memberships in professional associations 8. Various learning activities; formal and informal 9. Teaching activities; formal and informal 10.Volunteering 11.Involvement with nonprofits or social entrepreneurship 12.Mentoring 13.All outside activity (e.g. sports, religion/spirituality, book groups, writing, music and other artistic endeavors, amateur interest societies, hobbies, etc.) 14.Mind-body and exercise

Give an honest accounting of where you are now in these areas, and what you’d like to aim for in the future, including the people you’d like to add to 333

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your life. If you are on Facebook and LinkedIn, or other social networks, some of this information will be ready-made. Your list can be as allencompassing and elaborate as you’d like it to be. No matter how you approach it at first, think of it as an ongoing activity for the rest of 2012 2013 and beyond. As the year progresses, you’ll have a snapshot of life that you can use as a basis for starting worthwhile changes at any time. You can keep it private, or show it to others, or compare it with the lists of your friends and colleagues. I believe that the self-examination and focused thought that goes into drawing up your list will be among the most valuable things you do this year. Bruce Rosenstein is the author of Living in More Than One World: How Peter Drucker's Wisdom Can Inspire and Transform Your Life (BerrettKoehler, 2009). He is Managing Editor of Leader to Leader, the quarterly journal of the Leader to Leader Institute (formerly the Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management). He worked for USA TODAY for 21 years, until late 2008. He was the embedded librarian in the News section -- the first embedded librarian at the newspaper -- and for the final 12 years, also wrote about business and management books for the Money section. Besides USA TODAY, he has written for such publications as Leader to Leader, Leadership Excellence, GAMA International Journal, American Executive, Information Outlook, Library Journal and ONLINE. Since 1996, he has also taught as a lecturer at The Catholic University of America's School of Library and Information Science in Washington, D.C. Originally posted on the Government Info Pro on January 01, 2013 | Permalink

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Creating a Forward-Focused Approach to Your Library's Future By Bruce Rosenstein, Author, Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset The future is not guaranteed for individual librarians, libraries or the organizations they serve. Special librarians in particular have learned this lesson better than most in recent years. That is why it is critical to develop a systematic, organized approach to how you view the future, and how you will create a better tomorrow for you, your library and your organization. I have been immersed in these ideas during the past couple of years, in researching and writing my second book, Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a ForwardFocused Mindset. Drucker’s approach to the future, and the way he wrote about it, can be a powerful framework for how you can view your professional future and that of your library, and its role in the larger future of your organization. Drucker had a major following in the library world during his career of 70 plus years, as a writer, management consultant and professor. This following was particularly expressed in his delivering the keynote address to the 2002 Annual Conference of the Special Libraries Association in Los Angeles. His views on the future helped guide him to great achievements, including writing more than 40 books (many of them future-oriented), and being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, by President George W. Bush, shortly after the keynote at SLA. Drucker remained active until late in life, when he died at 95 in 2005. Drucker believed that while you can’t predict the future, you can plan, work and make decisions in the present moment that will create the future. Here are five crucial areas to consider in creating a forward-focused approach to the future success of your library: Mindset: As you work, plan, study and research, keep the future in mind, even if it is in the back of your mind. How will seemingly small decisions affect the future for you personally, your library and your organization? Creation: Being aware that the future is unpredictable, and carries inevitable risk, what can you do to create an improved tomorrow? Present Moment: The accumulation of your plans, activities, thinking, planning and working alone or with others, carried out in the present, has significant potential effects for the near-term and long-term future. Change: People and organizations should be organized for ongoing change, as difficult as that may be. 335

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Remove and Improve: As an approach to creating mental and physical space so the future can properly unfold, Drucker advocated the paired use of systematic abandonment and kaizen. The former asks you to end activities that are no longer useful; and the latter requires continuous, ongoing improvement of the activities worthy of keeping. In considering the above areas of the future, you have great opportunities for professional self-development, improving your library, and helping to create a better future for your organization. For instance, one of Drucker’s long-held ideas was “the future that has already happened.” This can be interpreted a number of ways, but one interpretation is that you consider the coming, perhaps inevitable, effects of trends or events that have already happened. What are these events or trends, how can you find out about them and what do they mean for your organization’s future? Position yourself as an expert on the future. Librarians and other information professionals can provide a valuable service to their organization by uncovering these trends and events, and helping to determine their meaning. Fortunately, this plays to the strengths of the profession: intellectual curiosity and the ability to find and communicate relevant, valuable information. This can be accomplished in many ways, and no doubt some libraries are already engaged in activities of this nature. Along with regular, focused literature searching and perhaps competitive intelligence programs, taking advantage of human intelligence can provide a powerful way to determine the future that has already happened. Drucker regularly talked with, and met in groups with members of his high-level professional network. Librarians and information professionals can do something similar, by engaging in areas that many may be already doing: meeting at work, on a lunch hour or another time frame, in configurations such as book groups, discussion groups, roundtables, brown bag events or journal clubs. The idea is that these meetings should be future-focused. Discussions can center around books, articles or related areas that are in some way futurethemed, or could have an effect on the future. You might also tap into the insights and resources of such organizations as the World Future Society and the Institute for the Future. Even if the highest-ranking people in your organization do not attend these meetings, brief and focused reports could be supplied to them, and perhaps eventually they will start attending. This not only demonstrates that you are concerned with doing something about the future of your organization, but it is a great opportunity for personal learning and networking. A key differentiating factor for you over other professionals is your access to and deep knowledge about databases that others are clueless about. How

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can you use these sources to greatest advantage in determining ways you and your organization can create the future? It is also important, personally and professionally, to keep track of your study of the future. Begin using a Creating the Future notebook and/or computer file to better organize your thoughts, questions and accumulated articles, book titles, quotations, and so on that can have an effect on the future. It would be a good idea to keep separate sections within these files for areas specific to your library and organization. Organizing these groups, and developing these print/online files about the future, will enhance your leadership roles within your organization. If you are perceived as a leader, it will help give you credibility, especially with the top leaders. It’s important to remember that responsibility for the future is an important part of a leader’s work. This was articulated in a powerful way by two of the biggest names in the leadership field, Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner, in their 2010 book The Truth about Leadership: The No-fads, Heartof-the-Matter Facts You Need to Know: “The capacity to imagine and articulate exciting future possibilities is the defining competence of leaders. Leaders are custodians of the future. They are concerned about tomorrow’s world and those who will inherit it.” What is your role in creating the future of your library and your organization? Now is the perfect time to understand that role, and how it will change, evolve and improve.

Bruce Rosenstein is Managing Editor of Leader to Leader, a publication of The Frances Hesselbein Leadership Institute (formerly the Leader to Leader Institute and earlier the Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management), and Jossey-Bass. He is the author of Living in More Than One World: How Peter Drucker's Wisdom Can Inspire and Transform Your Life (Berrett-Koehler, 2009) and Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset (McGraw-Hill, November, 2013). He worked as a librarian and writer for USA TODAY from 1987-2008, and since 1996 he has been an adjunct professor in library and information science at The Catholic University of America. Learn more about Bruce, and contact him at www.brucerosenstein.com

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A Quick Guide to Bruce Rosenstein and the forthcoming book Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset Who: Bruce Rosenstein www.brucerosenstein.com What: Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset (McGraw-Hill) When: In stores November 22, 2013 Advance Amazon link: http://www.amazon.com/Create-Your-FuturePeter-Drucker/dp/0071820809 Link for my blog, Living in More Than One World: http://brucerosenstein.com/blog/ About Bruce I am the managing editor of Leader to Leader, a publication of The Frances Hesselbein Leadership Institute (formerly the Leader to Leader Institute and earlier the Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management), and Jossey-Bass. I have written two books: Living in More Than One World: How Peter Drucker's Wisdom Can Inspire and Transform Your Life (BerrettKoehler, 2009), and Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset (McGraw-Hill; in stores Nov. 22, 2013). For 21 years, until late 2008, I worked for the newspaper USA TODAY; as a librarian/researcher and, during the final 12 years, also as a writer about business and management books for the Money section. Since 1996, I have been an adjunct professor in library and information science at The Catholic University of America. In addition to USA TODAY and Leader to Leader, I have also written for such publications as Leadership Excellence, GAMA International Journal, American Executive, Information Outlook, Library Journal, and ONLINE. Earlier this year, I was honored to write a page, “A Total Life List,” in Matthew E. May’s latest book, The Laws of Subtraction: 6 Simple Rules for Winning in the Age of Excess Everything. About Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way: Developing and Applying a Forward-Focused Mindset My second book develops a systematic way of thinking about and acting on the future, based on the life and work of Peter Drucker, the “father of modern management,” who died at 95 in 2005. As in my first book, I have 338

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included quotes from my interviews with Drucker, but this time I have also included interviews with such thought leaders as John Baldoni, Jason Womack, Jesse Lyn Stoner, Tom Butler-Bowdon and Sally Helgesen. I’ve also conducted extensive research in the Drucker Archives, at the Drucker Institute, in Claremont, California. I’ve identified ten elements of Drucker’s considerable writing and teaching on the future, building on his core belief about the need to manage your present reality and take daily steps toward building a better tomorrow. There are also a number of quotes from Drucker’s books and articles. I help readers discover “the future that has already happened,” based on his prescient insight that parts of the future can be glimpsed by the effects of things that are, in a sense, history. Drucker’s work has led me to create and develop a new concept that I call “Become Your Own Successor,” in which I outline ways to stay in demand, and take control of your future by developing a strong body of work, diversifying your output and building a Drucker-like personal brand. The book also discusses the future of organizations (business and otherwise), showing how to profit from such Drucker insights as “innovating organizations spend neither time nor resources on defending yesterday," and “planning is not an event.” The final chapter focuses on how the future can unfold beyond your main workplace, in such areas as meaningful retirements, “encore careers,” learning new skills, volunteering, and non-work activities that provide not only fun and diversion, but a sense of meaning and accomplishment. It also looks at the potential role spirituality and religion can play in your future. There is an extensive resources section of websites, a selected reader’s guide to Drucker’s writing on the future, and a bibliography of articles and books by Drucker and other authors referred to in the text. One of my main goals with Create Your Future the Peter Drucker Way is help readers organize their thoughts, plans, and actions about the future. I have tried to make the concept of creating the future as concrete as possible! Contact Bruce at [email protected] Cell: 240-535-5805

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Making Time for Gratitude By Marie Kaddell, Senior Information Professional Consultant, LexisNexis I wanted to share an excerpt from my November 2013 DC/SLA President’s Message: Appreciation In Action. It's got some helpful information and resources to help you step back and do some thinking about gratitude. Read on... This is the time of year my decorating efforts get a real workout. I just packed up my array of light-up Halloween pumpkins and assorted scary decorations and switched everything up for Thanksgiving. One of the reasons I like doing all this is that it reminds me to stop and give some thought to the significance of each season, each holiday. In November, it’s kind of a no-brainer to consider those things for which we are appreciative. Still, we’re all busy. It’s hard to stop and take the time for active gratefulness. We have to find a way to do it though because it’s probably one of the most important things we can do for ourselves. It can change our perspective, state of mind, and attitude. Here’s a few interesting resources to help you ponder gratitude and appreciation: 

60 Things to Be Grateful For In Life by Celestine Chua – http://tinybuddha.com/blog/60-things-to-be-grateful-forin-life/



8 Things You Forgot to Be Grateful For by Marc Chernoff – http://www.marcandangel.com/2013/08/15/8-things-youforgot-to-be-grateful-for/



A Practical Guide to a Gratitude (so you can see and think differently) –http://www.unstuck.com/gratitude.html



Some people recommend writing down something you’re grateful for every day. Scott Brown, Owner, Social Information Group, does a twist on this with his daily Awesome Thing. Scott was on awesome thing #314 today! http://www.socialinformationgroup.com/ andhttp:// scottbrown.typepad.com/



There’s even an app for that: Gratitude 365 – http://gratitude365app.com/

Read full column: DC/SLA November 2013 Pesident’s Message: Appreciation In Action. Learn more about DC/SLA (DC Chapter of the Special Library Association): http://dc.sla.org/ 340

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Originally posted by Marie Kaddell on the Government Info Pro on November 18, 2013 | Permalink

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Patent Research 101

Today, I hosted the first in a new webinar series for government librarians: the Government Info Pro Smart Learning Series. My featured guest speaker was Chris Vestal, LexisNexis Government Consultant. Chris presented an information-packed session on patent research: Patent Research 101. In the session attendees: 

Gained insight into the patent prosecution process from the USPTO perspective



Learned about metadata that facilitates faster document retrieval and research



Explored advanced research strategies for conducting patentability searches



Surveyed LexisNexis IP content

Here are the slides from the session: Government Info Pro Smart Learning Series - Patent Research 101 Slides - PDF.

Originally on the Government Info Pro on August 29, 2013 | Permalink

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2012 Best Practices for Government Libraries

To view the 2012 Best Practices for Government Libraries, visit http://www.lexisnexis.com/tsg/gov/best_practices_2012-small.pdf or download it in e-book format from the LexisNexis e-book site.

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2011 Best Practices for Government Libraries

To view the 2011 Best Practices for Government Libraries, visit http://www.lexisnexis.com/tsg/gov/Best_Practices/Best_Practices _2011.pdf or download it in e-book format from the LexisNexis ebook site.

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2013 Best Practices for Government Libraries - LexisNexis

BEST PRACTICES 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS Like LexisNexis for Government on Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/LexisNexisforGovernment) Library Metrics: ...

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